[IPython-dev] pysh is in CVS
Fernando.Perez at colorado.edu
Sat Jun 26 03:29:01 CDT 2004
I've put all of pysh's functionality (including @rehashx for Windows, based on
the $pathext environment variable) into CVS. Testers and feedback would be
most welcome. In a few days if all looks OK I'll make tarballs for those
unwilling to play with raw CVS.
Rather than retype stuff, I'll paste below the pysh help docstring so you can
get a feel for the functionality available. Other than bugfixing, I don't
plan on adding any significant features.
Don't even ask for job control, builting piping, etc.
To start pysh, simply type 'ipython -p pysh' (you may need to update your
The ipythonrc-pysh profile is very compact, and the associated pysh.py file is
also now very lightweight to speedup loading. The bulk of the code has been
put into InterpreterExec, an internal IPython extension (in IPython/Extensions).
"""Pysh is a set of modules and extensions to IPython which make shell-like
usage with Python syntax more convenient. Keep in mind that pysh is NOT a
full-blown shell, so don't try to make it your /etc/passwd entry!
In particular, it has no job control, so if you type Ctrl-Z (under Unix),
you'll suspend pysh itself, not the process you just started.
Since pysh is really nothing but a customized IPython, you should
familiarize yourself with IPython's features. This brief help mainly
documents areas in which pysh differs from the normal IPython.
All of your $PATH has been loaded as IPython aliases, so you should be
able to type any normal system command and have it executed. See @alias?
and @unalias? for details on the alias facilities.
Any lines which begin with '~', '/' and '.' will be executed as shell
commands instead of as Python code. The special escapes below are also
recognized. !cmd is valid in single or multi-line input, all others are
only valid in single-line input:
!cmd - pass 'cmd' directly to the shell
!!cmd - execute 'cmd' and return output as a list (split on '\\n')
$var=cmd - capture output of cmd into var, as a string
$$var=cmd - capture output of cmd into var, as a list (split on '\\n')
The $/$$ syntaxes make Python variables from system output, which you can
later use for further scripting. The converse is also possible: when
executing an alias or calling to the system via !/!!, you can expand any
python variable or expression by prepending it with $. Full details of
the allowed syntax can be found in Python's PEP 215.
A few brief examples will illustrate these:
fperez[~/test]|3> !ls *s.py
ls is an internal alias, so there's no need to use !:
fperez[~/test]|4> ls *s.py
!!ls will return the output into a Python variable:
fperez[~/test]|5> !!ls *s.py
<5> ['scopes.py', 'strings.py']
fperez[~/test]|6> print _5
$ and $$ allow direct capture to named variables:
fperez[~/test]|7> $astr = ls *s.py
fperez[~/test]|9> $$alist = ls *s.py
<10> ['scopes.py', 'strings.py']
alist is now a normal python list you can loop over. Using $ will expand
back the python values when alias calls are made:
fperez[~/test]|11> for f in alist:
|..> print 'file',f,
|..> wc -l $f
file scopes.py 13 scopes.py
file strings.py 4 strings.py
IPython's input history handling is still active, which allows you to
rerun a single block of multi-line input by simply using exec:
fperez[~/test]|12> $$alist = ls *.eps
fperez[~/test]|13> exec _i11
file image2.eps 921 image2.eps
file image.eps 921 image.eps
While these are new special-case syntaxes, they are designed to allow very
efficient use of the shell with minimal typing. At an interactive shell
prompt, conciseness of expression wins over readability.
USEFUL FUNCTIONS AND MODULES
The os, sys and shutil modules from the Python standard library are
automatically loaded. Some additional functions, useful for shell usage,
are listed below. You can request more help about them with '?'.
shell - execute a command in the underlying system shell
system - like shell(), but return the exit status of the command
sout - capture the output of a command as a string
lout - capture the output of a command as a list (split on '\\n')
getoutputerror - capture (output,error) of a shell command
sout/lout are the functional equivalents of $/$$. They are provided to
allow you to capture system output in the middle of true python code,
function definitions, etc (where $ and $$ are invalid).
Since each command passed by pysh to the underlying system is executed in
a shell which exits immediately, you can NOT use !cd to navigate the
Pysh provides its own builtin '@cd' magic command to move in the
filesystem (the @ is not required with automagic on). It also maintains a
list of visited directories (use @dhist to see it) and allows direct
switching to any of them. Type 'cd?' for more details.
@pushd, @popd and @dirs are provided for directory stack handling.
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