# [Numpy-discussion] distance_matrix: how to speed up?

Rob Hetland hetland@tamu....
Wed May 21 08:17:13 CDT 2008

```I think you want something like this:

x1 = x1 * weights[np.newaxis,:]
x2 = x2 * weights[np.newaxis,:]

x1 = x1[np.newaxis, :, :]
x2 = x2[:, np.newaxis, :]
distance = np.sqrt( ((x1 - x2)**2).sum(axis=-1) )

x1 and x2 are arrays with size of (npoints, ndimensions), and npoints
can be different for each array.  I'm not sure I did your weights
right, but that part shouldn't be so difficult.

On May 21, 2008, at 2:39 PM, Emanuele Olivetti wrote:

> Dear all,
>
> I need to speed up this function (a little example follows):
> ------
> import numpy as N
> def distance_matrix(data1,data2,weights):
>    rows = data1.shape[0]
>    columns = data2.shape[0]
>    dm = N.zeros((rows,columns))
>    for i in range(rows):
>        for j in range(columns):
>            dm[i,j] = ((data1[i,:]-data2[j,:])**2*weights).sum()
>            pass
>        pass
>    return dm
>
> size1 = 4
> size2 = 3
> dimensions = 2
> data1 = N.random.rand(size1,dimensions)
> data2 = N.random.rand(size2,dimensions)
> weights = N.random.rand(dimensions)
> dm = distance_matrix(data1,data2,weights)
> print dm
> ------------------
> The distance_matrix function computes the weighted (squared) euclidean
> distances between each pair of vectors from two sets (data1, data2).
> The previous naive algorithm is extremely slow for my standard use,
> i.e., when size1 and size2 are in the order of 1000 or more. It can be
> improved using N.subtract.outer:
>
> def distance_matrix_faster(data1,data2,weights):
>    rows = data1.shape[0]
>    columns = data2.shape[0]
>    dm = N.zeros((rows,columns))
>    for i in range(data1.shape[1]):
>        dm += N.subtract.outer(data1[:,i],data2[:,i])**2*weights[i]
>        pass
>    return dm
>
> This algorithm becomes slow when dimensions (i.e., data1.shape[1]) is
> big (i.e., >1000), due to the Python loop. In order to speed it up,
> I guess
> that N.subtract.outer could be used on the full matrices instead of
> one
> column at a time. But then there is a memory issue: 'outer' allocates
> too much memory since it stores all possible combinations along all
> dimensions. This is clearly unnecessary.
>
> Is there a NumPy way to avoid all Python loops and without wasting
> too much memory? As a comparison I coded the same algorithm in
> C through weave (inline): it is _much_ faster and requires just
> the memory to store the result. But I'd prefer not using C or weave
> if possible.
>
> Thanks in advance for any help,
>
>
> Emanuele
>
> _______________________________________________
> Numpy-discussion mailing list
> Numpy-discussion@scipy.org
> http://projects.scipy.org/mailman/listinfo/numpy-discussion

----
Rob Hetland, Associate Professor
Dept. of Oceanography, Texas A&M University
http://pong.tamu.edu/~rob
phone: 979-458-0096, fax: 979-845-6331

```