[Numpy-discussion] Why is the shape of a singleton array the empty tuple?
Friedrich Romstedt
friedrichromstedt@gmail....
Sun Mar 7 06:30:30 CST 2010
First, to David's routine:
2010/3/7 David Goldsmith <d.l.goldsmith@gmail.com>:
> def convert_close(arg):
> arg = N.array(arg)
> if not arg.shape:
> arg = N.array((arg,))
> if arg.size:
> t = N.array([0 if N.allclose(temp, 0) else temp for temp in arg])
> if len(t.shape) - 1:
> return N.squeeze(t)
> else:
> return t
> else:
> return N.array()
Ok, chaps, let's code:
import numpy
def convert_close(ndarray, atol = 1e-5, rtol = 1e-8):
ndarray_abs = abs(ndarray)
mask = (ndarray_abs > atol + rtol * ndarray_abs)
return ndarray * mask
> python -i close.py
>>> a = numpy.asarray([1e-6])
>>> convert_close(a)
array([ 0.])
>>> a = numpy.asarray([1e-6, 1])
>>> convert_close(a)
array([ 0., 1.])
>>> a = numpy.asarray(1e-6)
>>> convert_close(a)
0.0
>>> a = numpy.asarray([-1e-6, 1])
>>> convert_close(a)
array([ 0., 1.])
It's not as good as Robert's (so far virtual) solution, but :-)
> On Sat, Mar 6, 2010 at 10:26 PM, Ian Mallett <geometrian@gmail.com> wrote:
>> On Sat, Mar 6, 2010 at 9:46 PM, David Goldsmith <d.l.goldsmith@gmail.com>
>> wrote:
>>> Thanks, Ian. I already figured out how to make it not so, but I still
>>> want to understand the design reasoning behind it being so in the first
>>> place (thus the use of the question "why (is it so)," not "how (to make it
>>> different)").
1. First from a mathematical point of view (don't be frightened):
When an array has shape ndarray.shape, then the number of elements contained is:
numpy.asarray(ndarray.shape).mul()
When I type now:
>>> numpy.asarray([]).prod()
1.0
This is the .shape of an scalar ndarray (without any strides), and
therefore such a scalar ndarray holds exactly one item.
Or, for hard-core friends (-:
>>> numpy.asarray([[]])
array([], shape=(1, 0), dtype=float64)
>>> numpy.asarray([[]]).prod()
1.0
So, ndarrays without elements yield .prod() == 1.0. This is sensible,
because the product shall be algorithmically defined as:
def prod(ndarray):
product = 1.0
for item in ndarray.flatten():
product *= item
return product
Thus, the product of nothing is defined to be one to be consistent.
One would end up with the same using a recursive definition of prod()
instead of this iterative one.
2. From programmer's point of view.
You can always write:
ndarray[()].
This means, to give no index at all. Indeed, writing:
ndarray[1, 2]
is equivalent to writing:
ndarray[(1, 2)] ,
as keys are always passed as a tuple or a scalar. Scalar in case of:
ndarray[42] .
Now, the call:
ndarray[()]
shall return 'something', which is the complete ndarray, because we
didn't indice anything. For multidimensional arrays:
a = numpy.ndarray([[1, 2], [3, 4]])
the call:
a[0]
shall return:
array([1, 2]).
This is clear. But now, what to return, if we consume all the indices
available, e.g. when writing:
a[0, 0] ?
This means, we return the scalar array
array(1) .
That's another meaning of scalar arrays. When indicing an ndarray a
with a tuple of length N_key, without slices, the return shape will be
always:
a.shape[N_key:]
This means, using all indices available returns a shape:
a.shape[a.ndim:] == [] ,
i.e., a scalar "without" shape.
To conclude, everything is consistent when allowing scalar arrays, and
everything breaks down if we don't. They are some kind of 0, like the
0 in the whole numbers, which the Roman's didn't know of. It makes
things simpler (and more consistent). Also it unifies scalars and
arrays to only on kind of type, which is a great deal.
Friedrich
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