[Scipy-svn] r3462 - trunk/scipy/weave/doc

scipy-svn@scip... scipy-svn@scip...
Thu Oct 25 12:09:57 CDT 2007


Author: cookedm
Date: 2007-10-25 12:09:53 -0500 (Thu, 25 Oct 2007)
New Revision: 3462

Added:
   trunk/scipy/weave/doc/tutorial.txt
   trunk/scipy/weave/doc/tutorial_original.html
Removed:
   trunk/scipy/weave/doc/tutorial.html
Log:
Convert weave/doc/tutorial.html to ReST syntax.
 - Move original to tutorial_original.html. Should be removed at a later date.
 - Add tutorial.txt
 - Some minor updates (sorry, lost track of them). However, it's still
   out-of-date.


Deleted: trunk/scipy/weave/doc/tutorial.html
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/weave/doc/tutorial.html	2007-10-24 22:55:18 UTC (rev 3461)
+++ trunk/scipy/weave/doc/tutorial.html	2007-10-25 17:09:53 UTC (rev 3462)
@@ -1,2753 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
-<html>
-<head>
-</head>
-<body>
-<h1>Weave Documentation</h1>
-<p>
-By Eric Jones eric@enthought.com
-</p>
-<p></p>
-<h2>Outline</h2>
-<dl>
-  <dd> <a href="#Introduction">Introduction</a> </dd>
-  <dd> <a href="#Requirements">Requirements</a> </dd>
-  <dd> <a href="#Installation">Installation</a> </dd>
-  <dd> <a href="#Testing">Testing</a> </dd>
-  <dd> <a href="#Benchmarks">Benchmarks</a> </dd>
-  <dd> <a href="#Inline">Inline</a>
-    <dl>
-      <dd><a href="#More%20with%20printf">More with printf</a> </dd>
-      <dd> <a href="#More%20examples">More examples</a>
-        <dl>
-          <dd><a href="#Binary%20search">Binary search</a> </dd>
-          <dd><a href="#Dictionary%20sort">Dictionary sort</a> </dd>
-          <dd><a href="#Numeric%20--%20cast/copy/transpose">NumPy --
-cast/copy/transpose</a> </dd>
-          <dd><a href="#wxPython">wxPython</a></dd>
-        </dl>
-      </dd>
-      <dd><a href="#Keyword%20options">Keyword options</a> </dd>
-      <dd><a href="#Returning%20values">Returning values</a>
-        <dl>
-          <dd><a href="#The%20issue%20with%20locals%28%29"> The issue
-with <code>locals()</code></a></dd>
-        </dl>
-      </dd>
-      <dd><a href="#inline_quick_look_at_code">A quick look at the code</a>
-      </dd>
-      <dd> <a href="#inline_technical_details">Technical Details</a>
-        <dl>
-          <dd><a href="#Converting%20Types">Converting Types</a>
-            <dl>
-              <dd><a href="#inline_numeric_argument_conversion"> NumPy
-Argument Conversion</a> </dd>
-              <dd><a href="#inline_python_argument_conversion"> String,
-List, Tuple, and Dictionary Conversion</a> </dd>
-              <dd><a href="#inline_callable_argument_conversion">File
-Conversion</a> </dd>
-              <dd><a href="#inline_callable_argument_conversion">Callable,
-Instance, and Module Conversion</a> </dd>
-              <dd><a href="#Customizing%20Conversions">Customizing
-Conversions</a> </dd>
-            </dl>
-          </dd>
-          <dd><a href="#Compiling%20Code">Compiling Code</a> </dd>
-          <dd><a href="#The%20Catalog">"Cataloging" functions</a>
-            <dl>
-              <dd><a href="#function%20storage">Function Storage</a> </dd>
-              <dd><a href="#PYTHONCOMPILED">The PYTHONCOMPILED
-evnironment variable</a></dd>
-            </dl>
-          </dd>
-        </dl>
-      </dd>
-    </dl>
-  </dd>
-  <dd><a href="#Blitz">Blitz</a>
-    <dl>
-      <dd><a href="#blitz_requirements">Requirements</a> </dd>
-      <dd><a href="#blitz_limitations">Limitations</a> </dd>
-      <dd><a href="#Numeric%20Efficiency">NumPy Efficiency Issues</a> </dd>
-      <dd><a href="#blitz_tools">The Tools</a>
-        <dl>
-          <dd><a href="#blitz_parser">Parser</a> </dd>
-          <dd><a href="#blitz_blitz">Blitz and NumPy</a> </dd>
-        </dl>
-      </dd>
-      <dd><a href="#blitz_type_conversions">Type defintions and coersion</a>
-      </dd>
-      <dd><a href="#blitz_catalog">Cataloging Compiled Functions</a> </dd>
-      <dd><a href="#blitz_array_sizes">Checking Array Sizes</a> </dd>
-      <dd><a href="#blitz_extension_module">Creating the Extension
-Module</a> </dd>
-    </dl>
-  </dd>
-  <dd> <a href="#Extension%20Modules"> Extension Modules</a>
-    <dl>
-      <dd><a href="#A%20Simple%20Example">A Simple Example</a> </dd>
-      <dd><a href="#Fibonacci%20Example">Fibonacci Example</a> </dd>
-    </dl>
-  </dd>
-  <dd> <a href="#Type%20Factories"> Customizing Type Conversions --
-Type Factories (not written)</a>
-    <dl>
-      <dd>Type Specifications </dd>
-      <dd>Type Information </dd>
-      <dd>The Conversion Process </dd>
-    </dl>
-  </dd>
-</dl>
-<a name="Introduction"></a>
-<h1>Introduction</h1>
-<p>
-The <code>weave</code> package provides tools for including C/C++ code
-within
-in Python code. This offers both another level of optimization to those
-who need it, and an easy way to modify and extend any supported
-extension libraries such as wxPython and hopefully VTK soon. Inlining
-C/C++ code within Python generally
-results in speed ups of 1.5x to 30x speed-up over algorithms written in
-pure
-Python (However, it is also possible to slow things down...). Generally
-algorithms that require a large number of calls to the Python API don't
-benefit
-as much from the conversion to C/C++ as algorithms that have inner
-loops completely convertable to C.
-</p>
-<p> There are three basic ways to use <code>weave</code>. The <code>weave.inline()</code>
-function executes C code directly within Python, and <code>weave.blitz()</code>
-translates Python NumPy expressions to C++ for fast execution. <code>blitz()</code>
-was the original reason <code>weave</code> was built. For those
-interested in building extension
-libraries, the <code>ext_tools</code> module provides classes for
-building extension modules within Python. </p>
-<p>Most of <code>weave's</code> functionality should work on Windows
-and Unix, although some of its functionality requires <code>gcc</code>
-or a similarly modern C++ compiler that handles templates well. Up to
-now, most testing has been done on Windows 2000 with Microsoft's C++
-compiler (MSVC) and with gcc (mingw32 2.95.2 and 2.95.3-6). All tests
-also pass on Linux (RH 7.1 with gcc 2.96), and I've had reports that it
-works on Debian also (thanks Pearu).
-</p>
-<p>The <code>inline</code> and <code>blitz</code> provide new
-functionality to Python (although I've recently learned about the <a
- href="http://pyinline.sourceforge.net/">PyInline</a> project which may
-offer similar functionality to <code>inline</code>). On the other
-hand, tools for building Python extension modules already exists (SWIG,
-SIP, pycpp, CXX, and others). As of yet, I'm not sure where <code>weave</code>
-fits in this spectrum. It is closest in flavor to CXX in that it makes
-creating new C/C++ extension modules pretty easy. However, if you're
-wrapping a gaggle of legacy functions or classes, SWIG and friends are
-definitely the better choice. <code>weave</code> is set up so that you
-can customize how Python types are converted to C types in <code>weave</code>.
-This is great for <code>inline()</code>, but, for wrapping legacy
-code, it is more flexible to specify things the other way around --
-that is how C types map to Python types. This <code>weave</code> does
-not do. I guess it would be possible to build such a tool on top of <code>weave</code>,
-but with good tools like SWIG around, I'm not sure the effort produces
-any new capabilities. Things like function overloading are probably
-easily implemented in <code>weave</code> and it might be easier to mix
-Python/C code in function calls, but nothing beyond this comes to mind.
-So, if you're developing new extension modules or optimizing Python
-functions in C, <code>weave.ext_tools()</code> might be the tool for
-you. If you're wrapping legacy code, stick with SWIG.
-</p>
-<p>The next several sections give the basics of how to use <code>weave</code>.
-We'll discuss what's happening under the covers in more detail later
-on. Serious users will need to at least look at the type conversion
-section to understand how Python variables map to C/C++ types and how
-to customize this behavior. One other note. If you don't know C or C++
-then these docs are probably of very little help to you. Further, it'd
-be helpful if you know something about writing Python extensions. <code>weave</code>
-does quite a bit for you, but for anything complex, you'll need to do
-some conversions, reference counting, etc.
-</p>
-<p><em>
-Note: </em><code>weave</code><em> is actually part of the <a
- href="http://www.scipy.org">SciPy</a> package. However, it also works
-fine as a standalone package (you can check out the sources using svn
-co http://svn.scipy.org/svn/scipy/trunk/Lib/weave weave and install as
-python setup.py install). The examples here are given as if it is used
-as a stand alone package. If you are using from within scipy, you can
-use <code> from scipy import weave</code> and the examples will work
-identically.</em>
-<a name="Requirements"></a></p>
-<h1>Requirements</h1>
-<ul>
-  <li> Python
-    <p> I use 2.1.1. Probably 2.0 or higher should work. </p>
-    <p> </p>
-  </li>
-  <li> C++ compiler
-    <p> <code>weave</code> uses <code>distutils</code> to actually
-build extension modules, so it uses whatever compiler was originally
-used to build Python. <code>weave</code> itself requires a C++
-compiler. If you used a C++ compiler to build Python, your probably
-fine. </p>
-    <p> On Unix gcc is the preferred choice because I've done a little
-testing with it. All testing has been done with gcc, but I expect the
-majority of compilers should work for <code>inline</code> and <code>ext_tools</code>.
-The one issue I'm not sure about is that I've hard coded things so that
-compilations are linked with the <code>stdc++</code> library. <em>Is
-this standard across Unix compilers, or is this a gcc-ism?</em> </p>
-    <p> For <code>blitz()</code>, you'll need a reasonably recent
-version of gcc. 2.95.2 works on windows and 2.96 looks fine on Linux.
-Other versions are likely to work. Its likely that KAI's C++ compiler
-and maybe some others will work, but I haven't tried. My advice is to
-use gcc for now unless your willing to tinker with the code some. </p>
-    <p> On Windows, either MSVC or gcc (<a
- href="http://www.mingw.org%3Ewww.mingw.org"> mingw32</a>) should work.
-Again, you'll need gcc for <code>blitz()</code> as the MSVC compiler
-doesn't handle templates well. </p>
-    <p> I have not tried Cygwin, so please report success if it works
-for you. </p>
-    <p> </p>
-  </li>
-  <li> NumPy
-    <p>The python NumPy module from <a href="http://numeric.scipy.org/">here</a>.
-is required for <code>blitz()</code> to work and for numpy.distutils
-which is used by weave. </p>
-    <p> </p>
-  </li>
-</ul>
-<p>
-<a name="Installation"></a></p>
-<h1>Installation</h1>
-<p>
-There are currently two ways to get <code>weave</code>. Fist, <code>weave</code>
-is part of SciPy and installed automatically (as a sub-
-package) whenever SciPy is installed. Second, since <code>weave</code>
-is useful outside of the scientific community, it has been setup so
-that it can be
-used as a stand-alone module. </p>
-<p>The stand-alone version can be downloaded from <a
- href="http://www.scipy.org/Weave">here</a>.&nbsp; Instructions for
-installing should be found there as well.&nbsp; setup.py file to
-simplify
-installation. </p>
-<p><a name="Testing"></a></p>
-<h1>Testing</h1>
-Once <code>weave</code> is installed, fire up python and run its unit
-tests.
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; import weave
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; weave.test()
-    runs long time... spews tons of output and a few warnings
-    .
-    .
-    .
-    ..............................................................
-    ................................................................
-    ..................................................
-    ----------------------------------------------------------------------
-    Ran 184 tests in 158.418s
-
-    OK
-    <unittest.texttestrunner
- instance="" at="" 01562934="">
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; 
-    </unittest.texttestrunner></code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-This takes a while, usually several minutes.
-On Unix with remote file systems, I've had it take 15 or so minutes. In
-the end, it should run about 180 tests and spew some speed results
-along the way. If you get errors, they'll be reported at the end of the
-output. Please report erros that you find.&nbsp;&nbsp; Some tests are
-known to fail at this point. <br>
-<p>If you only want to test a single module of the package, you can do
-this by
-running test() for that specific module. </p>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; import weave.scalar_spec
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; weave.scalar_spec.test()
-    .......
-    ----------------------------------------------------------------------
-    Ran 7 tests in 23.284s
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<em>Testing Notes:
-</em>
-<ul>
-  <em> </em>
-  <li><em> Windows 1
-    <p> I've had some test fail on windows machines where I have msvc,
-gcc-2.95.2 (in c:\gcc-2.95.2), and gcc-2.95.3-6 (in c:\gcc) all
-installed. My environment has c:\gcc in the path and does not have
-c:\gcc-2.95.2 in the path. The test process runs very smoothly until
-the end where several test using gcc fail with cpp0 not found by g++.
-If I check os.system('gcc -v') before running tests, I get
-gcc-2.95.3-6. If I check after running tests (and after failure), I get
-gcc-2.95.2. ??huh??. The os.environ['PATH'] still has c:\gcc first in
-it and is not corrupted (msvc/distutils messes with the environment
-variables, so we have to undo its work in some places). If anyone else
-sees this, let me know - - it may just be an quirk on my machine
-(unlikely). Testing with the gcc- 2.95.2 installation always works. </p>
-    <p> </p>
-    </em></li>
-  <em> </em>
-  <li><em> Windows 2
-    <p> If you run the tests from PythonWin or some other GUI tool,
-you'll get a ton of DOS windows popping up periodically as <code>weave</code>
-spawns the compiler multiple times. Very annoying. Anyone know how to
-fix this? </p>
-    <p> </p>
-    </em></li>
-  <em> </em>
-  <li><em> wxPython
-    <p> wxPython tests are not enabled by default because importing
-wxPython on a Unix machine without access to a X-term will cause the
-program to exit. Anyone know of a safe way to detect whether wxPython
-can be imported and whether a display exists on a machine? </p>
-    <p> </p>
-    <p></p>
-    </em></li>
-  <em> </em>
-</ul>
-<a name="Benchmarks"></a>
-<h1>Benchmarks</h1>
-This section has not been updated from old scipy weave and Numeric....<br>
-<br>
-This section has a few benchmarks&nbsp; -- thats all people want to see
-anyway right? These are mostly taken from running files in the <code>weave/example</code>
-directory and also from the test scripts. Without more information
-about what the test actually do, their value is limited. Still, their
-here for the curious. Look at the example scripts for more specifics
-about what problem was actually solved by each run. These examples are
-run under windows 2000 using Microsoft Visual C++ and python2.1 on a
-850 MHz PIII laptop with 320 MB of RAM.
-Speed up is the improvement (degredation) factor of <code>weave</code>
-compared to conventional Python functions. <code>The blitz()</code>
-comparisons are shown
-compared to NumPy.
-<p></p>
-<center>
-<table border="1" width="100%">
-  <tbody>
-    <tr>
-      <td colspan="2" width="100%">
-      <p align="center">inline and ext_tools</p>
-      </td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>
-      <p align="center">Algorithm</p>
-      </td>
-      <td>
-      <p align="center">Speed up </p>
-      </td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>binary search</td>
-      <td> &nbsp;&nbsp;1.50 </td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>fibonacci (recursive)</td>
-      <td> &nbsp;82.10 </td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>fibonacci (loop)</td>
-      <td> &nbsp;&nbsp;9.17 </td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>return None</td>
-      <td> &nbsp;&nbsp;0.14 </td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>map</td>
-      <td> &nbsp;&nbsp;1.20 </td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>dictionary sort</td>
-      <td> &nbsp;&nbsp;2.54 </td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>vector quantization</td>
-      <td> &nbsp;37.40 </td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td colspan="2" width="100%">
-      <p align="center">blitz -- double precision</p>
-      </td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>
-      <p align="center">Algorithm</p>
-      </td>
-      <td>
-      <p align="center">Speed up </p>
-      </td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>a = b + c 512x512</td>
-      <td> &nbsp;&nbsp;3.05 </td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>a = b + c + d 512x512</td>
-      <td> &nbsp;&nbsp;4.59 </td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>5 pt avg. filter, 2D Image 512x512</td>
-      <td> &nbsp;&nbsp;9.01 </td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>Electromagnetics (FDTD) 100x100x100</td>
-      <td> &nbsp;&nbsp;8.61 </td>
-    </tr>
-  </tbody>
-</table>
-</center>
-<p>
-The benchmarks shown <code>blitz</code> in the best possible light.
-NumPy (at least on my machine) is significantly worse for double
-precision than it is for single precision calculations. If your
-interested in single precision results, you can pretty much divide the
-double precision speed up by 3 and you'll
-be close.
-<a name="Inline"></a></p>
-<h1>Inline</h1>
-<p>
-<code>inline()</code> compiles and executes C/C++ code on the fly.
-Variables in the local and global Python scope are also available in
-the C/C++ code. Values are passed to the C/C++ code by assignment much
-like variables are passed into a standard Python function. Values are
-returned from the C/C++ code through a special argument called
-return_val. Also, the contents of mutable objects can be changed within
-the C/C++ code and the changes remain after the C code exits and
-returns to Python. (more on this later)
-</p>
-<p> Here's a trivial <code>printf</code> example using <code>inline()</code>:
-</p>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; import weave    
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; a  = 1
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; weave.inline('printf("%d\\n",a);',['a'])
-    1
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<p>In this, its most basic form, <code>inline(c_code, var_list)</code>
-requires two arguments. <code>c_code</code> is a string of valid C/C++
-code. <code>var_list</code> is a list of variable names that are
-passed from Python into C/C++. Here we have a simple <code>printf</code>
-statement that writes the Python variable <code>a</code> to the
-screen. The first time you run this, there will be a pause while the
-code is written to a .cpp file, compiled into an extension module,
-loaded into Python, cataloged for future use, and executed. On windows
-(850 MHz PIII), this takes about 1.5 seconds when using Microsoft's C++
-compiler (MSVC) and 6-12 seconds using gcc (mingw32 2.95.2). All
-subsequent executions of the code will happen very quickly because the
-code only needs to be compiled once. If you kill and restart the
-interpreter and then execute the same code fragment again, there will
-be a much shorter delay in the fractions of seconds range. This is
-because <code>weave</code> stores a catalog of all previously compiled
-functions in an on disk cache. When it sees a string that has been
-compiled, it loads the already compiled module and executes the
-appropriate function. </p>
-<p><em>
-Note: If you try the <code>printf</code> example in a GUI shell such
-as IDLE, PythonWin, PyShell, etc., you're unlikely to see the output.
-This is because the C code is writing to stdout, instead of to the GUI
-window. This doesn't mean that inline doesn't work in these
-environments -- it only means that standard out in C is not the same as
-the standard out for Python in these cases. Non input/output functions
-will work as expected.
-</em></p>
-<p>Although effort has been made to reduce the overhead associated with
-calling inline, it is still less efficient for simple code snippets
-than using equivalent Python code. The simple <code>printf</code>
-example is actually slower by 30% or so than using Python <code>print</code>
-statement. And, it is not difficult to create code fragments that are
-8-10 times slower using inline than equivalent Python. However, for
-more complicated algorithms, the speed up can be worth while --
-anywhwere from 1.5- 30 times faster. Algorithms that have to manipulate
-Python objects (sorting a list) usually only see a factor of 2 or so
-improvement. Algorithms that are highly computational or manipulate
-NumPy arrays can see much larger improvements. The examples/vq.py file
-shows a factor of 30 or more improvement on the vector quantization
-algorithm that is used heavily in information theory and classification
-problems.
-</p>
-<p><a name="More with printf"></a>
-</p>
-<h2>More with printf</h2>
-<p>
-MSVC users will actually see a bit of compiler output that distutils
-does not
-supress the first time the code executes: </p>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>    <br>    &gt;&gt;&gt; weave.inline(r'printf("%d\n",a);',['a'])<br>    sc_e013937dbc8c647ac62438874e5795131.cpp<br>       Creating library C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp<br>       \Release\sc_e013937dbc8c647ac62438874e5795131.lib and object C:\DOCUME<br>       ~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\sc_e013937dbc8c64<br>       7ac62438874e5795131.exp<br>    1<br>    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<p>
-Nothing bad is happening, its just a bit annoying. <em> Anyone know
-how to turn this off?</em> </p>
-<p>This example also demonstrates using 'raw strings'. The <code>r</code>
-preceeding the code string in the last example denotes that this is a
-'raw string'. In raw strings, the backslash character is not
-interpreted as an escape character, and so it isn't necessary to use a
-double backslash to indicate that the '\n' is meant to be interpreted
-in the C <code>printf</code> statement instead of by Python. If your C
-code contains a lot
-of strings and control characters, raw strings might make things
-easier.
-Most of the time, however, standard strings work just as well.
-</p>
-<p>The <code>printf</code> statement in these examples is formatted to
-print out integers. What happens if <code>a</code> is a string? <code>inline</code>
-will happily, compile a new version of the code to accept strings as
-input,
-and execute the code. The result? </p>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>    <br>    &gt;&gt;&gt; a = 'string'<br>    &gt;&gt;&gt; weave.inline(r'printf("%d\n",a);',['a'])<br>    32956972<br>    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<p>In this case, the result is non-sensical, but also non-fatal. In
-other situations, it might produce a compile time error because <code>a</code>
-is required to be an integer at some point in the code, or it could
-produce a segmentation fault. Its possible to protect against passing <code>inline</code>
-arguments of the wrong data type by using asserts in Python. </p>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>    <br>    &gt;&gt;&gt; a = 'string'<br>    &gt;&gt;&gt; def protected_printf(a):    <br>    ...     assert(type(a) == type(1))<br>    ...     weave.inline(r'printf("%d\n",a);',['a'])<br>    &gt;&gt;&gt; protected_printf(1)<br>     1<br>    &gt;&gt;&gt; protected_printf('string')<br>    AssertError...<br>    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<p>For printing strings, the format statement needs to be changed.
-Also, weave
-doesn't convert strings to char*. Instead it uses CXX Py::String type,
-so you have to do a little more work. Here we convert it to a C++
-std::string
-and then ask cor the char* version. </p>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>    <br>    &gt;&gt;&gt; a = 'string'    <br>    &gt;&gt;&gt; weave.inline(r'printf("%s\n",std::string(a).c_str());',['a'])<br>    string<br>    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<p><em> This is a little convoluted. Perhaps strings should convert to
-std::string
-objects instead of CXX objects. Or maybe to char*.
-</em></p>
-<p>As in this case, C/C++ code fragments often have to change to accept
-different types. For the given printing task, however, C++ streams
-provide a way of a single statement that works for integers and
-strings. By default, the stream objects live in the std (standard)
-namespace and thus require the use of <code>std::</code>. </p>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>    <br>    &gt;&gt;&gt; weave.inline('std::cout &lt;&lt; a &lt;&lt; std::endl;',['a'])<br>    1    <br>    &gt;&gt;&gt; a = 'string'<br>    &gt;&gt;&gt; weave.inline('std::cout &lt;&lt; a &lt;&lt; std::endl;',['a'])<br>    string<br>    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<p>Examples using <code>printf</code> and <code>cout</code> are
-included in examples/print_example.py.
-<a name="More examples"></a></p>
-<h2> More examples </h2>
-This section shows several more advanced uses of <code>inline</code>.
-It includes a few algorithms from the <a
- href="http://aspn.activestate.com/ASPN/Cookbook/Python">Python Cookbook</a>
-that have been re-written in inline C to improve speed as well as a
-couple examples using NumPy and wxPython.
-<a name="Binary search"></a>
-<h3> Binary search</h3>
-Lets look at the example of searching a sorted list of integers for a
-value. For inspiration, we'll use Kalle Svensson's <a
- href="http://aspn.activestate.com/ASPN/Cookbook/Python/Recipe/81188">
-binary_search()</a> algorithm from the Python Cookbook. His recipe
-follows:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    def binary_search(seq, t):
-        min = 0; max = len(seq) - 1
-        while 1:
-            if max &lt; min:
-                return -1
-            m = (min  + max)  / 2
-            if seq[m] &lt; t: 
-                min = m  + 1 
-            elif seq[m] &gt; t: 
-                max = m  - 1 
-            else:
-                return m    
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-This Python version works for arbitrary Python data types. The C
-version below is specialized to handle integer values. There is a
-little type checking done in Python to assure that we're working with
-the correct data types before heading into C. The variables <code>seq</code>
-and <code>t</code> don't need to be declared beacuse <code>weave</code>
-handles converting and declaring them in the C code. All other
-temporary variables such as <code>min, max</code>, etc. must be
-declared -- it is C after all. Here's the new mixed Python/C function:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>    <br>    def c_int_binary_search(seq,t):<br>        # do a little type checking in Python<br>        assert(type(t) == type(1))<br>        assert(type(seq) == type([]))<br>        <br>        # now the C code<br>        code = """<br>               #line 29 "binary_search.py"<br>               int val, m, min = 0;  <br>               int max = seq.length() - 1;<br>               PyObject *py_val; <br>               for(;;)<br>               {<br>                   if (max &lt; min  ) <br>                   { <br>                       return_val =  Py::new_reference_to(Py::Int(-1)); <br>                       break;<br>                   } <br>                   m =  (min + max) /2;<br>                   val =    py_to_int(PyList_GetItem(seq.ptr(),m),"val"); <br>                   if (val  &lt; t) <br>                       min = m  + 1;<br>                   else if (val &gt;  t)<br>                       max = m - 1;<br>                   else<br>                   {<br>                       return_val = Py::new_reference_to(Py::Int(m));<br>                       break;<br>                   }<br>               }<br>               """<br>        return inline(code,['seq','t'])<br>    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<p>We have two variables <code>seq</code> and <code>t</code> passed
-in. <code>t</code> is guaranteed (by the <code>assert</code>) to be
-an integer. Python integers are converted to C int types in the
-transition from Python to C. <code>seq</code> is a Python list. By
-default, it is translated to a CXX list object. Full documentation for
-the CXX library can be found at its <a
- href="http://cxx.sourceforge.net/">website</a>. The basics are that
-the CXX provides C++ class equivalents for Python objects that
-simplify, or at least object orientify, working with Python objects in
-C/C++. For example, <code>seq.length()</code> returns the length of
-the list. A little more about
-CXX and its class methods, etc. is in the ** type conversions **
-section.
-</p>
-<p><em>
-Note: CXX uses templates and therefore may be a little less portable
-than another alternative by Gordan McMillan called SCXX which was
-inspired by
-CXX. It doesn't use templates so it should compile faster and be more
-portable.
-SCXX has a few less features, but it appears to me that it would mesh
-with
-the needs of weave quite well. Hopefully xxx_spec files will be written
-for SCXX in the future, and we'll be able to compare on a more
-empirical
-basis. Both sets of spec files will probably stick around, it just a
-question
-of which becomes the default.
-</em></p>
-<p>Most of the algorithm above looks similar in C to the original
-Python code. There are two main differences. The first is the setting
-of <code>return_val</code> instead of directly returning from the C
-code with a <code>return</code> statement. <code>return_val</code> is
-an automatically defined variable of type <code>PyObject*</code> that
-is returned from the C code back to Python. You'll have to handle
-reference counting issues when setting this variable. In this example,
-CXX classes and functions handle the dirty work. All CXX functions and
-classes live in the namespace <code>Py::</code>. The following code
-converts the integer <code>m</code> to a CXX <code>Int()</code>
-object and then to a <code>PyObject*</code> with an incremented
-reference count using <code>Py::new_reference_to()</code>. </p>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>   <br>    return_val = Py::new_reference_to(Py::Int(m));<br>    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<p>The second big differences shows up in the retrieval of integer
-values from the Python list. The simple Python <code>seq[i]</code>
-call balloons into a C Python API call to grab the value out of the
-list and then a separate call to <code>py_to_int()</code> that
-converts the PyObject* to an integer. <code>py_to_int()</code>
-includes both a NULL cheack and a <code>PyInt_Check()</code> call as
-well as the conversion call. If either of the checks fail, an exception
-is raised. The entire C++ code block is executed with in a <code>try/catch</code>
-block that handles exceptions much like Python does. This removes the
-need for most error checking code.
-</p>
-<p>It is worth note that CXX lists do have indexing operators that
-result in code that looks much like Python. However, the overhead in
-using them appears to be relatively high, so the standard Python API
-was used on the <code>seq.ptr()</code> which is the underlying <code>PyObject*</code>
-of the List object.
-</p>
-<p>The <code>#line</code> directive that is the first line of the C
-code block isn't necessary, but it's nice for debugging. If the
-compilation fails because of the syntax error in the code, the error
-will be reported as an error in the Python file "binary_search.py" with
-an offset from the given line number (29 here).
-</p>
-<p>So what was all our effort worth in terms of efficiency? Well not a
-lot in this case. The examples/binary_search.py file runs both Python
-and C versions of the functions As well as using the standard <code>bisect</code>
-module. If we run it on a 1 million element list and run the search
-3000 times (for 0-
-2999), here are the results we get: </p>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>   <br>    C:\home\ej\wrk\scipy\weave\examples&gt; python binary_search.py<br>    Binary search for 3000 items in 1000000 length list of integers:<br>     speed in python: 0.159999966621<br>     speed of bisect: 0.121000051498<br>     speed up: 1.32<br>     speed in c: 0.110000014305<br>     speed up: 1.45<br>     speed in c(no asserts): 0.0900000333786<br>     speed up: 1.78<br>    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<p>So, we get roughly a 50-75% improvement depending on whether we use
-the Python asserts in our C version. If we move down to searching a
-10000 element list, the advantage evaporates. Even smaller lists might
-result in the Python version being faster. I'd like to say that moving
-to NumPy lists (and getting rid of the GetItem() call) offers a
-substantial speed up, but my preliminary efforts didn't produce one. I
-think the log(N) algorithm is to blame. Because the algorithm is nice,
-there just isn't much time spent computing things, so moving to C isn't
-that big of a win. If there are ways to reduce conversion overhead of
-values, this may improve the C/Python speed up. Anyone have other
-explanations or faster code, please let me know.
-<a name="#Dictionary sort"></a></p>
-<h3> Dictionary Sort</h3>
-<p>
-The demo in examples/dict_sort.py is another example from the Python
-CookBook. <a
- href="http://aspn.activestate.com/ASPN/Cookbook/Python/Recipe/52306">This
-submission</a>, by Alex Martelli, demonstrates how to return the values
-from a dictionary sorted by their keys: </p>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>       <br>    def sortedDictValues3(adict):<br>        keys = adict.keys()<br>        keys.sort()<br>        return map(adict.get, keys)<br>    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<p>Alex provides 3 algorithms and this is the 3rd and fastest of the
-set. The C version of this same algorithm follows: </p>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>       <br>    def c_sort(adict):<br>        assert(type(adict) == type({}))<br>        code = """     <br>        #line 21 "dict_sort.py"  <br>        Py::List keys = adict.keys();<br>        Py::List items(keys.length()); keys.sort();     <br>        PyObject* item = NULL; <br>        for(int i = 0;  i &lt; keys.length();i++)<br>        {<br>            item = PyList_GET_ITEM(keys.ptr(),i);<br>            item = PyDict_GetItem(adict.ptr(),item);<br>            Py_XINCREF(item);<br>            PyList_SetItem(items.ptr(),i,item);              <br>        }           <br>        return_val = Py::new_reference_to(items);<br>        """   <br>        return inline_tools.inline(code,['adict'],verbose=1)<br>    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<p>Like the original Python function, the C++ version can handle any
-Python dictionary regardless of the key/value pair types. It uses CXX
-objects for the most part to declare python types in C++, but uses
-Python API calls to manipulate their contents. Again, this choice is
-made for speed. The C++ version, while
-more complicated, is about a factor of 2 faster than Python. </p>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>       <br>    C:\home\ej\wrk\scipy\weave\examples&gt; python dict_sort.py<br>    Dict sort of 1000 items for 300 iterations:<br>     speed in python: 0.319999933243<br>    [0, 1, 2, 3, 4]<br>     speed in c: 0.151000022888<br>     speed up: 2.12<br>    [0, 1, 2, 3, 4]<br>    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<p>
-<a name="#Numeric -- cast/copy/transpose"></a></p>
-<h3>NumPy -- cast/copy/transpose</h3>
-CastCopyTranspose is a function called quite heavily by Linear Algebra
-routines
-in the NumPy library. Its needed in part because of the row-major
-memory layout
-of multi-demensional Python (and C) arrays vs. the col-major order of
-the underlying
-Fortran algorithms. For small matrices (say 100x100 or less), a
-significant
-portion of the common routines such as LU decompisition or singular
-value decompostion
-are spent in this setup routine. This shouldn't happen. Here is the
-Python
-version of the function using standard NumPy operations.
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>       <br>    def _castCopyAndTranspose(type, array):<br>        if a.typecode() == type:<br>            cast_array = copy.copy(NumPy.transpose(a))<br>        else:<br>            cast_array = copy.copy(NumPy.transpose(a).astype(type))<br>        return cast_array<br>    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-And the following is a inline C version of the same function:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    from weave.blitz_tools import blitz_type_factories
-    from weave import scalar_spec
-    from weave import inline
-    def _cast_copy_transpose(type,a_2d):
-        assert(len(shape(a_2d)) == 2)
-        new_array = zeros(shape(a_2d),type)
-        NumPy_type = scalar_spec.NumPy_to_blitz_type_mapping[type]
-        code = \
-        """  
-        for(int i = 0;i &lt; _Na_2d[0]; i++)  
-            for(int j = 0;  j &lt; _Na_2d[1]; j++)
-                new_array(i,j) = (%s) a_2d(j,i);
-        """ % NumPy_type
-        inline(code,['new_array','a_2d'],
-               type_factories = blitz_type_factories,compiler='gcc')
-        return new_array
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-This example uses blitz++ arrays instead of the standard representation
-of NumPy arrays so that indexing is simplier to write. This is
-accomplished by passing in the blitz++ "type factories" to override the
-standard Python to C++ type conversions. Blitz++ arrays allow you to
-write clean, fast code, but they also are sloooow to compile (20
-seconds or more for this snippet). This is why they aren't the default
-type used for Numeric arrays (and also because most compilers can't
-compile blitz arrays...). <code>inline()</code> is also forced to use
-'gcc' as the compiler because the default compiler on Windows (MSVC)
-will not compile blitz code. <em> 'gcc' I think will use the standard
-compiler on Unix machine instead of explicitly forcing gcc (check this)
-</em>Comparisons of the Python vs inline C++ code show a factor of 3
-speed
-up. Also shown are the results of an "inplace" transpose routine that
-can be used if the output of the linear algebra routine can overwrite
-the original matrix (this is often appropriate). This provides another
-factor of 2 improvement.
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-     #C:\home\ej\wrk\scipy\weave\examples&gt; python cast_copy_transpose.py
-    # Cast/Copy/Transposing (150,150)array 1 times
-    #  speed in python: 0.870999932289
-    #  speed in c: 0.25
-    #  speed up: 3.48
-    #  inplace transpose c: 0.129999995232
-    #  speed up: 6.70
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<a name="#wxPython" a="">&lt;&gt;
-</a>
-<h3><a name="#wxPython" a="">wxPython</a></h3>
-<code><a name="#wxPython" a="">inline</a></code><a name="#wxPython" a="">
-knows how to handle wxPython objects. Thats nice in and of
-itself, but it also demonstrates that the type conversion mechanism is
-reasonably flexible. Chances are, it won't take a ton of effort to
-support special types
-you might have. The examples/wx_example.py borrows the scrolled window
-example from the wxPython demo, accept that it mixes inline C code in
-the middle
-of the drawing function. </a>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-<a name="#wxPython" a="">    def DoDrawing(self, dc):<br>        <br>        red = wxNamedColour("RED");<br>        blue = wxNamedColour("BLUE");<br>        grey_brush = wxLIGHT_GREY_BRUSH;<br>        code = \<br>        """<br>        #line 108 "wx_example.py" <br>        dc-&gt;BeginDrawing();<br>        dc-&gt;SetPen(wxPen(*red,4,wxSOLID));<br>        dc-&gt;DrawRectangle(5,5,50,50);<br>        dc-&gt;SetBrush(*grey_brush);<br>        dc-&gt;SetPen(wxPen(*blue,4,wxSOLID));<br>        dc-&gt;DrawRectangle(15, 15, 50, 50);<br>        """<br>        inline(code,['dc','red','blue','grey_brush'])<br>        <br>        dc.SetFont(wxFont(14, wxSWISS, wxNORMAL, wxNORMAL))<br>        dc.SetTextForeground(wxColour(0xFF, 0x20, 0xFF))<br>        te = dc.GetTextExtent("Hello World")<br>        dc.DrawText("Hello World", 60, 65)<br><br>        dc.SetPen(wxPen(wxNamedColour('VIOLET'), 4))<br>        dc.DrawLine(5, 65+te[1], 60+te[0], 65+te[1])<br>        ...<br>    </a></code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<a name="#wxPython" a="">Here, some of the Python calls to wx objects
-were just converted to C++ calls. There
-isn't any benefit, it just demonstrates the capabilities. You might
-want to use this
-if you have a computationally intensive loop in your drawing code that
-you want to speed up.
-On windows, you'll have to use the MSVC compiler if you use the
-standard wxPython
-DLLs distributed by Robin Dunn. Thats because MSVC and gcc, while
-binary
-compatible in C, are not binary compatible for C++. In fact, its
-probably best, no matter what platform you're on, to specify that <code>inline</code>
-use the same
-compiler that was used to build wxPython to be on the safe side. There
-isn't currently
-a way to learn this info from the library -- you just have to know.
-Also, at least
-on the windows platform, you'll need to install the wxWindows libraries
-and link to them. I think there is a way around this, but I haven't
-found it yet -- I get some
-linking errors dealing with wxString. One final note. You'll probably
-have to
-tweak weave/wx_spec.py or weave/wx_info.py for your machine's
-configuration to
-point at the correct directories etc. There. That should sufficiently
-scare people
-into not even looking at this... :)
-</a><a name="Keyword Options"></a>
-<h2> Keyword Options </h2>
-<p>
-The basic definition of the <code>inline()</code> function has a slew
-of optional variables. It also takes keyword arguments that are passed
-to <code>distutils</code> as compiler options. The following is a
-formatted cut/paste of the argument section of <code>inline's</code>
-doc-string. It explains all of the variables. Some examples using
-various options will follow. </p>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>       <br>    def inline(code,arg_names,local_dict = None, global_dict = None, <br>               force = 0, <br>               compiler='',<br>               verbose = 0, <br>               support_code = None,<br>               customize=None, <br>               type_factories = None, <br>               auto_downcast=1,<br>               **kw):<br>    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<code>inline</code> has quite a few options as listed below. Also, the
-keyword arguments for distutils extension modules are accepted to
-specify extra information needed for compiling.
-<blockquote></blockquote>
-<h4>inline Arguments:</h4>
-<blockquote>
-  <dl>
-    <dt>code </dt>
-    <dd>string. A string of valid C++ code. It should not specify a
-return statement. Instead it should assign results that need to be
-returned to Python in the return_val. </dd>
-    <dt>arg_names </dt>
-    <dd>list of strings. A list of Python variable names that should be
-transferred from Python into the C/C++ code. </dd>
-    <dt>local_dict </dt>
-    <dd>optional. dictionary. If specified, it is a dictionary of
-values that should be used as the local scope for the C/C++ code. If
-local_dict is not specified the local dictionary of the calling
-function is used. </dd>
-    <dt>global_dict </dt>
-    <dd>optional. dictionary. If specified, it is a dictionary of
-values that should be used as the global scope for the C/C++ code. If
-global_dict is not specified the global dictionary of the calling
-function is used. </dd>
-    <dt>force </dt>
-    <dd>optional. 0 or 1. default 0. If 1, the C++ code is compiled
-every time inline is called. This is really only useful for debugging,
-and probably only useful if you're editing support_code a lot. </dd>
-    <dt>compiler </dt>
-    <dd>optional. string. The name of compiler to use when compiling.
-On windows, it understands 'msvc' and 'gcc' as well as all the compiler
-names understood by distutils. On Unix, it'll only understand the
-values understoof by distutils. (I should add 'gcc' though to this).
-      <p>On windows, the compiler defaults to the Microsoft C++
-compiler. If this isn't available, it looks for mingw32 (the gcc
-compiler). </p>
-      <p>On Unix, it'll probably use the same compiler that was used
-when compiling Python. Cygwin's behavior should be similar.</p>
-    </dd>
-    <dt>verbose </dt>
-    <dd>optional. 0,1, or 2. defualt 0. Speficies how much much
-information is printed during the compile phase of inlining code. 0 is
-silent (except on windows with msvc where it still prints some
-garbage). 1 informs you when compiling starts, finishes, and how long
-it took. 2 prints out the command lines for the compilation process and
-can be useful if you're having problems getting code to work. Its handy
-for finding the name of the .cpp file if you need to examine it.
-verbose has no affect if the compilation isn't necessary. </dd>
-    <dt>support_code </dt>
-    <dd>optional. string. A string of valid C++ code declaring extra
-code that might be needed by your compiled function. This could be
-declarations of functions, classes, or structures. </dd>
-    <dt>customize </dt>
-    <dd>optional. base_info.custom_info object. An alternative way to
-specifiy support_code, headers, etc. needed by the function see the
-weave.base_info module for more details. (not sure this'll be used
-much). </dd>
-    <dt>type_factories </dt>
-    <dd>optional. list of type specification factories. These guys are
-what convert Python data types to C/C++ data types. If you'd like to
-use a different set of type conversions than the default, specify them
-here. Look in the type conversions section of the main documentation
-for examples. </dd>
-    <dt>auto_downcast </dt>
-    <dd>optional. 0 or 1. default 1. This only affects functions that
-have Numeric arrays as input variables. Setting this to 1 will cause
-all floating point values to be cast as float instead of double if all
-the NumPy arrays are of type float. If even one of the arrays has type
-double or double complex, all variables maintain there standard types. </dd>
-  </dl>
-</blockquote>
-<h4> Distutils keywords:</h4>
-<blockquote> <code>inline()</code> also accepts a number of <code>distutils</code>
-keywords for controlling how the code is compiled. The following
-descriptions have been copied from Greg Ward's <code>distutils.extension.Extension</code>
-class doc-
-strings for convenience:
-  <dl>
-    <dt>sources </dt>
-    <dd>[string] list of source filenames, relative to the distribution
-root (where the setup script lives), in Unix form (slash-separated) for
-portability. Source files may be C, C++, SWIG (.i), platform-specific
-resource files, or whatever else is recognized by the "build_ext"
-command as source for a Python extension. Note: The module_path file is
-always appended to the front of this list </dd>
-    <dt>include_dirs </dt>
-    <dd>[string] list of directories to search for C/C++ header files
-(in Unix form for portability) </dd>
-    <dt>define_macros </dt>
-    <dd>[(name : string, value : string|None)] list of macros to
-define; each macro is defined using a 2-tuple, where 'value' is either
-the string to define it to or None to define it without a particular
-value (equivalent of "#define FOO" in source or -DFOO on Unix C
-compiler command line) </dd>
-    <dt>undef_macros </dt>
-    <dd>[string] list of macros to undefine explicitly </dd>
-    <dt>library_dirs </dt>
-    <dd> [string] list of directories to search for C/C++ libraries at
-link time </dd>
-    <dt>libraries </dt>
-    <dd> [string] list of library names (not filenames or paths) to
-link against </dd>
-    <dt>runtime_library_dirs </dt>
-    <dd>[string] list of directories to search for C/C++ libraries at
-run time
-(for shared extensions, this is when the extension is loaded) </dd>
-    <dt>extra_objects </dt>
-    <dd>[string] list of extra files to link with (eg. object files not
-implied by 'sources', static library that must be explicitly specified,
-binary resource files, etc.) </dd>
-    <dt>extra_compile_args </dt>
-    <dd>[string] any extra platform- and compiler-specific information
-to use when compiling the source files in 'sources'. For platforms and
-compilers where "command line" makes sense, this is typically a list of
-command-line arguments, but for other platforms it could be anything. </dd>
-    <dt>extra_link_args </dt>
-    <dd>[string] any extra platform- and compiler-specific information
-to use when linking object files together to create the extension (or
-to create a new static Python interpreter). Similar interpretation as
-for 'extra_compile_args'. </dd>
-    <dt>export_symbols </dt>
-    <dd>[string] list of symbols to be exported from a shared
-extension. Not used on all platforms, and not generally necessary for
-Python extensions, which typically export exactly one symbol: "init" +
-extension_name. </dd>
-  </dl>
-</blockquote>
-<a name="Keyword Option  Examples"></a>
-<h3> Keyword Option Examples</h3>
-We'll walk through several examples here to demonstrate the behavior of
-<code>inline</code> and also how the various arguments are used.
-In the simplest (most) cases, <code>code</code> and <code>arg_names</code>
-are the only arguments that need to be specified. Here's a simple
-example
-run on Windows machine that has Microsoft VC++ installed.
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; from weave import inline
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; a = 'string'
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; code = """
-    ...        int l = a.length();
-    ...        return_val = Py::new_reference_to(Py::Int(l));
-    ...        """
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; inline(code,['a'])
-     sc_86e98826b65b047ffd2cd5f479c627f12.cpp
-    Creating
-       library C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\sc_86e98826b65b047ffd2cd5f479c627f12.lib
-    and object C:\DOCUME~ 1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\sc_86e98826b65b047ff
-    d2cd5f479c627f12.exp
-    6
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; inline(code,['a'])
-    6
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-When <code>inline</code> is first run, you'll notice that pause and
-some trash printed to the screen. The "trash" is acutually part of the
-compilers
-output that distutils does not supress. The name of the extension file,
-<code>sc_bighonkingnumber.cpp</code>, is generated from the md5 check
-sum
-of the C/C++ code fragment. On Unix or windows machines with only
-gcc installed, the trash will not appear. On the second call, the code
-fragment is not compiled since it already exists, and only the answer
-is returned. Now kill the interpreter and restart, and run the same
-code with
-a different string.
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; from weave import inline
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; a = 'a longer string' 
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; code = """ 
-    ...        int l = a.length();
-    ...        return_val = Py::new_reference_to(Py::Int(l));  
-    ...        """
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; inline(code,['a'])
-    15
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<p>
-Notice this time, <code>inline()</code> did not recompile the code
-because it
-found the compiled function in the persistent catalog of functions.
-There is
-a short pause as it looks up and loads the function, but it is much
-shorter than compiling would require.
-</p>
-<p>You can specify the local and global dictionaries if you'd like
-(much like <code>exec</code> or <code>eval()</code> in Python), but
-if they aren't specified, the "expected" ones are used -- i.e. the ones
-from the function that called <code>inline() </code>. This is
-accomplished through a little call frame trickery. Here is an example
-where the local_dict is specified using
-the same code example from above: </p>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; a = 'a longer string'
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; b = 'an even  longer string' 
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; my_dict = {'a':b}
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; inline(code,['a'])
-    15
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; inline(code,['a'],my_dict)
-    21
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<p>Everytime, the <code>code</code> is changed, <code>inline</code>
-does a recompile. However, changing any of the other options in inline
-does not
-force a recompile. The <code>force</code> option was added so that one
-could force a recompile when tinkering with other variables. In
-practice,
-it is just as easy to change the <code>code</code> by a single
-character
-(like adding a space some place) to force the recompile. <em>Note: It
-also might be nice to add some methods for purging the cache and on
-disk catalogs.</em>
-</p>
-<p>I use <code>verbose</code> sometimes for debugging. When set to 2,
-it'll output all the information (including the name of the .cpp file)
-that you'd
-expect from running a make file. This is nice if you need to examine
-the
-generated code to see where things are going haywire. Note that error
-messages from failed compiles are printed to the screen even if <code>verbose
-</code> is set to 0.
-</p>
-<p>The following example demonstrates using gcc instead of the standard
-msvc compiler on windows using same code fragment as above. Because the
-example has already been compiled, the <code>force=1</code> flag is
-needed to make <code>inline()</code> ignore the previously compiled
-version and recompile using gcc. The verbose flag is added to show what
-is printed out: </p>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt;inline(code,['a'],compiler='gcc',verbose=2,force=1)
-    running build_ext    
-    building 'sc_86e98826b65b047ffd2cd5f479c627f13' extension 
-    c:\gcc-2.95.2\bin\g++.exe -mno-cygwin -mdll -O2 -w -Wstrict-prototypes -IC:
-    \home\ej\wrk\scipy\weave -IC:\Python21\Include -c C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCAL
-    S~1\Temp\python21_compiled\sc_86e98826b65b047ffd2cd5f479c627f13.cpp -o C:\D
-    OCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\sc_86e98826b65b04
-    7ffd2cd5f479c627f13.o    
-    skipping C:\home\ej\wrk\scipy\weave\CXX\cxxextensions.c (C:\DOCUME~1\eri
-    c\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\cxxextensions.o up-to-date)
-    skipping C:\home\ej\wrk\scipy\weave\CXX\cxxsupport.cxx (C:\DOCUME~1\eric
-    \LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\cxxsupport.o up-to-date)
-    skipping C:\home\ej\wrk\scipy\weave\CXX\IndirectPythonInterface.cxx (C:\
-    DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\indirectpythonin
-    terface.o up-to-date)
-    skipping C:\home\ej\wrk\scipy\weave\CXX\cxx_extensions.cxx (C:\DOCUME~1\
-    eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\cxx_extensions.o up-to-da
-    te)
-    writing C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\sc_86
-    e98826b65b047ffd2cd5f479c627f13.def
-    c:\gcc-2.95.2\bin\dllwrap.exe --driver-name g++ -mno-cygwin -mdll -static -
-    -output-lib C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\l
-    ibsc_86e98826b65b047ffd2cd5f479c627f13.a --def C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Te
-    mp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\sc_86e98826b65b047ffd2cd5f479c627f13.def 
-    -s C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\sc_86e9882
-    6b65b047ffd2cd5f479c627f13.o C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compil
-    ed\temp\Release\cxxextensions.o C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_com
-    piled\temp\Release\cxxsupport.o C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_com
-    piled\temp\Release\indirectpythoninterface.o C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp
-    \python21_compiled\temp\Release\cxx_extensions.o -LC:\Python21\libs -lpytho
-    n21 -o C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\sc_86e98826b65b047f
-    fd2cd5f479c627f13.pyd
-    15
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-That's quite a bit of output. <code>verbose=1</code> just prints the
-compile
-time.
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt;inline(code,['a'],compiler='gcc',verbose=1,force=1)
-    Compiling code...
-    finished compiling (sec):  6.00800001621
-    15
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<p>
-<em> Note: I've only used the <code>compiler</code> option for
-switching between 'msvc'
-and 'gcc' on windows. It may have use on Unix also, but I don't know
-yet.
-</em></p>
-<p>The <code>support_code</code> argument is likely to be used a lot.
-It allows you to specify extra code fragments such as function,
-structure or class definitions that you want to use in the <code>code</code>
-string. Note that changes to <code>support_code</code> do <em>not</em>
-force a recompile. The catalog only relies on <code>code</code> (for
-performance reasons) to determine whether recompiling is necessary. So,
-if you make a change to support_code, you'll need to alter <code>code</code>
-in some way or use the <code>force</code> argument to get the code to
-recompile. I usually just add some inocuous whitespace to the end of
-one of the lines in <code>code</code> somewhere. Here's an example of
-defining a separate method for calculating
-the string length: </p>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; from weave import inline
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; a = 'a longer string'
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; support_code = """
-    ...                PyObject* length(Py::String a)
-    ...                {
-    ...                    int l = a.length();  
-    ...                    return Py::new_reference_to(Py::Int(l)); 
-    ...                }
-    ...                """        
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; inline("return_val = length(a);",['a'],
-    ...        support_code = support_code)
-    15
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<p>
-<code>customize</code> is a left over from a previous way of specifying
-compiler options. It is a <code>custom_info</code> object that can
-specify quite a bit of information about how a file is compiled. These <code>info</code>
-objects are the standard way of defining compile information for type
-conversion classes. However, I don't think they are as handy here,
-especially since we've exposed all the keyword arguments that distutils
-can handle. Between these keywords, and the <code>support_code</code>
-option, I think <code>customize</code> may be obsolete. We'll see if
-anyone cares to use it. If not, it'll get axed in the next version.
-</p>
-<p>The <code>type_factories</code> variable is important to people who
-want to
-customize the way arguments are converted from Python to C. We'll talk
-about
-this in the next chapter **xx** of this document when we discuss type
-conversions.
-</p>
-<p><code>auto_downcast</code> handles one of the big type conversion
-issues that
-is common when using NumPy arrays in conjunction with Python scalar
-values.
-If you have an array of single precision values and multiply that array
-by a Python scalar, the result is upcast to a double precision array
-because the
-scalar value is double precision. This is not usually the desired
-behavior
-because it can double your memory usage. <code>auto_downcast</code>
-goes
-some distance towards changing the casting precedence of arrays and
-scalars.
-If your only using single precision arrays, it will automatically
-downcast all
-scalar values from double to single precision when they are passed into
-the
-C++ code. This is the default behavior. If you want all values to keep
-there
-default type, set <code>auto_downcast</code> to 0.
-</p>
-<p><a name="Returning Values"></a>
-</p>
-<h3> Returning Values</h3>
-Python variables in the local and global scope transfer seemlessly from
-Python into the C++ snippets. And, if <code>inline</code> were to
-completely live up
-to its name, any modifications to variables in the C++ code would be
-reflected
-in the Python variables when control was passed back to Python. For
-example,
-the desired behavior would be something like:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    # THIS DOES NOT WORK
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; a = 1
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; weave.inline("a++;",['a'])
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; a
-    2
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-Instead you get:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; a = 1
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; weave.inline("a++;",['a'])
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; a
-    1
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-Variables are passed into C++ as if you are calling a Python function.
-Python's calling convention is sometimes called "pass by assignment".
-This means its as if a <code>c_a = a</code> assignment is made right
-before <code>inline</code> call is made and the <code>c_a</code>
-variable is used within the C++ code. Thus, any changes made to <code>c_a</code>
-are not reflected in Python's <code>a</code> variable. Things do get a
-little more confusing, however, when looking at variables with mutable
-types. Changes made in C++ to the contents of mutable types <em>are</em>
-reflected in the Python variables.
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; a= [1,2]
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; weave.inline("PyList_SetItem(a.ptr(),0,PyInt_FromLong(3));",['a'])
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; print a
-    [3, 2]
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-So modifications to the contents of mutable types in C++ are seen when
-control
-is returned to Python. Modifications to immutable types such as tuples,
-strings, and numbers do not alter the Python variables.
-If you need to make changes to an immutable variable, you'll need to
-assign
-the new value to the "magic" variable <code>return_val</code> in C++.
-This
-value is returned by the <code>inline()</code> function:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; a = 1
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; a = weave.inline("return_val = Py::new_reference_to(Py::Int(a+1));",['a'])  
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; a
-    2
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-The <code>return_val</code> variable can also be used to return newly
-created values. This is possible by returning a tuple. The following
-trivial example illustrates how this can be done:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>       <br>    # python version<br>    def multi_return():<br>        return 1, '2nd'<br>    <br>    # C version.<br>    def c_multi_return():    <br>        code =  """<br>     	        py::tuple results(2);<br>     	        results[0] = 1;<br>     	        results[1] = "2nd";<br>     	        return_val = results; 	        <br>                """<br>        return inline_tools.inline(code)<br>    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<p> The example is available in <code>examples/tuple_return.py</code>.
-It also
-has the dubious honor of demonstrating how much <code>inline()</code>
-can slow things down. The C version here is about 7-10 times slower
-than
-the Python
-version. Of course, something so trivial has no reason to be written in
-C anyway.
-<a name="The issue with locals()"></a></p>
-<h4> The issue with <code>locals()</code></h4>
-<p>
-<code>inline</code> passes the <code>locals()</code> and <code>globals()</code>
-dictionaries from Python into the C++ function from the calling
-function. It extracts the variables that are used in the C++ code from
-these dictionaries, converts then to C++ variables, and then calculates
-using them. It seems like it would be trivial, then, after the
-calculations were finished to then insert the new values back into the <code>locals()</code>
-and <code>globals()</code> dictionaries so that the modified values
-were reflected in Python. Unfortunately, as pointed out by the Python
-manual, the locals() dictionary is not writable. </p>
-<p><em>
-I suspect <code>locals()</code> is not writable because there are some
-optimizations done to speed lookups of the local namespace. I'm
-guessing local lookups don't always look at a dictionary to find
-values. Can someone "in the know" confirm or correct this? Another
-thing I'd like to know is whether there is a way to write to the local
-namespace of another stack frame from C/C++. If so, it would be
-possible to have some clean up code in compiled functions that wrote
-final values of variables in C++ back to the correct Python stack
-frame. I think this goes a long way toward making <code>inline</code>
-truely live up to its name. I don't think we'll get to the point of
-creating variables in Python for variables created in C -- although I
-suppose with a C/C++ parser you could do that also.
-</em></p>
-<p><a name="inline_quick_look_at_code"></a>
-</p>
-<h3>A quick look at the code</h3>
-<code>weave</code> generates a C++ file holding an extension function
-for each <code>inline</code> code snippet. These file names are
-generated using from the md5 signature of the code snippet and saved to
-a location specified by the PYTHONCOMPILED environment variable
-(discussed later). The cpp files are generally about 200-400 lines long
-and include quite a few functions to support type conversions, etc.
-However, the actual compiled function is pretty simple. Below is the
-familiar <code>printf</code> example:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; import weave    
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; a = 1
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; weave.inline('printf("%d\\n",a);',['a'])
-    1
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-And here is the extension function generated by <code>inline</code>:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-static PyObject* compiled_func(PyObject*self, PyObject* args)<br>{<br>    py::object return_val;<br>    int exception_occured = 0;<br>    PyObject *py__locals = NULL;<br>    PyObject *py__globals = NULL;<br>    PyObject *py_a;<br>    py_a = NULL;<br><br>    if(!PyArg_ParseTuple(args,"OO:compiled_func",&amp;py__locals,&amp;py__globals))<br>        return NULL;<br>    try<br>    {<br>        PyObject* raw_locals = py_to_raw_dict(py__locals,"_locals");<br>        PyObject* raw_globals = py_to_raw_dict(py__globals,"_globals");<br>        /* argument conversion code */<br>        py_a = get_variable("a",raw_locals,raw_globals);<br>        int a = convert_to_int(py_a,"a");<br>        /* inline code */<br>        /* NDARRAY API VERSION 90907 */<br>        printf("%d\n",a);    /*I would like to fill in changed    locals and globals here...*/<br><br>    }<br>    catch(...)<br>    {<br>        return_val =  py::object();<br>        exception_occured = 1;<br>    }<br>    /* cleanup code */<br>    if(!(PyObject*)return_val &amp;&amp; !exception_occured)<br>    {<br><br>        return_val = Py_None;<br>    }<br><br>    return return_val.disown();<br>}<br>       </code><br></pre>
-</blockquote>
-Every inline function takes exactly two arguments -- the local and
-global
-dictionaries for the current scope. All variable values are looked up
-out
-of these dictionaries. The lookups, along with all <code>inline</code>
-code execution, are done within a C++ <code>try</code> block. If the
-variables
-aren't found, or there is an error converting a Python variable to the
-appropriate type in C++, an exception is raised. The C++ exception
-is automatically converted to a Python exception by SCXX and returned
-to
-Python.
-The <code>py_to_int()</code> function illustrates how the conversions
-and
-exception handling works. py_to_int first checks that the given
-PyObject*
-pointer is not NULL and is a Python integer. If all is well, it calls
-the
-Python API to convert the value to an <code>int</code>. Otherwise, it
-calls
-<code>handle_bad_type()</code> which gathers information about what
-went wrong
-and then raises a SCXX TypeError which returns to Python as a
-TypeError.
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    int py_to_int(PyObject* py_obj,char* name)
-    {
-        if (!py_obj || !PyInt_Check(py_obj))
-            handle_bad_type(py_obj,"int", name);
-        return (int) PyInt_AsLong(py_obj);
-    }
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    void handle_bad_type(PyObject* py_obj, char* good_type, char*  var_name)
-    {
-        char msg[500];
-        sprintf(msg,"received '%s' type instead of '%s' for variable '%s'",
-                find_type(py_obj),good_type,var_name);
-        throw Py::TypeError(msg);
-    }
-    
-    char* find_type(PyObject* py_obj)
-    {
-        if(py_obj == NULL) return "C NULL value";
-        if(PyCallable_Check(py_obj)) return "callable";
-        if(PyString_Check(py_obj)) return "string";
-        if(PyInt_Check(py_obj)) return "int";
-        if(PyFloat_Check(py_obj)) return "float";
-        if(PyDict_Check(py_obj)) return "dict";
-        if(PyList_Check(py_obj)) return "list";
-        if(PyTuple_Check(py_obj)) return "tuple";
-        if(PyFile_Check(py_obj)) return "file";
-        if(PyModule_Check(py_obj)) return "module";
-        
-        //should probably do more interagation (and thinking) on these.
-        if(PyCallable_Check(py_obj) &amp;&amp; PyInstance_Check(py_obj)) return "callable";
-        if(PyInstance_Check(py_obj)) return "instance"; 
-        if(PyCallable_Check(py_obj)) return "callable";
-        return "unkown type";
-    }
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-Since the <code>inline</code> is also executed within the <code>try/catch</code>
-block, you can use CXX exceptions within your code. It is usually a bad
-idea
-to directly <code>return</code> from your code, even if an error
-occurs. This
-skips the clean up section of the extension function. In this simple
-example,
-there isn't any clean up code, but in more complicated examples, there
-may
-be some reference counting that needs to be taken care of here on
-converted
-variables. To avoid this, either uses exceptions or set <code>return_val</code>
-to NULL and use <code>if/then's</code> to skip code
-after errors.
-<a name="inline_technical_details"></a>
-<h2> Technical Details </h2>
-<p>
-There are several main steps to using C/C++ code withing Python:
-</p>
-<ol>
-  <li>Type conversion </li>
-  <li>Generating C/C++ code </li>
-  <li>Compile the code to an extension module </li>
-  <li>Catalog (and cache) the function for future use</li>
-</ol>
-<p>
-Items 1 and 2 above are related, but most easily discussed separately.
-Type conversions are customizable by the user if needed. Understanding
-them is pretty important for anything beyond trivial uses of <code>inline</code>.
-Generating the C/C++ code is handled by <code>ext_function</code> and <code>ext_module</code>
-classes and . For the most part, compiling the code is handled by
-distutils. Some customizations were needed, but they were relatively
-minor and do not require changes to distutils itself. Cataloging is
-pretty simple in concept, but surprisingly required the most code to
-implement (and still likely needs some work). So, this section covers
-items 1 and 4 from the list. Item 2 is covered later in the chapter
-covering the <code>ext_tools</code> module, and distutils is covered
-by a completely separate document xxx.
-</p>
-<h2>Passing Variables in/out of the C/C++ code</h2>
-<em>
-Note: Passing variables into the C code is pretty straight forward, but
-there are subtlties to how variable modifications in C are returned to
-Python. see <a href="#Returning%20Values">Returning Values</a> for a
-more thorough discussion of this issue.
-</em> <a name="Converting Types"></a>
-<h2>Type Conversions</h2>
-<em>
-Note: Maybe <code>xxx_converter</code> instead of <code>xxx_specification</code>
-is a more descriptive name. Might change in future version?
-</em>
-<p>By default, <code>inline()</code> makes the following type
-conversions between
-Python and C++ types.
-</p>
-<p></p>
-<center>
-<table border="1" width="100%">
-  <tbody>
-    <tr>
-      <td colspan="2" width="100%">
-      <p align="center">Default Data Type Conversions</p>
-      </td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>
-      <p align="center">Python</p>
-      </td>
-      <td>
-      <p align="center">C++</p>
-      </td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>&nbsp;&nbsp; int</td>
-      <td>&nbsp;&nbsp; int</td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>&nbsp;&nbsp; float</td>
-      <td>&nbsp;&nbsp; double</td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>&nbsp;&nbsp; complex</td>
-      <td>&nbsp;&nbsp; std::complex<double></double></td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>&nbsp;&nbsp; string</td>
-      <td>&nbsp;&nbsp; py::string</td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>&nbsp;&nbsp; list</td>
-      <td>&nbsp;&nbsp; py::list</td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>&nbsp;&nbsp; dict</td>
-      <td>&nbsp;&nbsp; py::dict</td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>&nbsp;&nbsp; tuple</td>
-      <td>&nbsp;&nbsp; py::tuple</td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>&nbsp;&nbsp; file</td>
-      <td>&nbsp;&nbsp; FILE*</td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>&nbsp;&nbsp; callable</td>
-      <td>&nbsp;&nbsp; py::object</td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>&nbsp;&nbsp; instance</td>
-      <td>&nbsp;&nbsp; py::object</td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>&nbsp;&nbsp; numpy.ndarray</td>
-      <td>&nbsp;&nbsp; PyArrayObject*</td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>&nbsp;&nbsp; wxXXX</td>
-      <td>&nbsp;&nbsp; wxXXX*</td>
-    </tr>
-  </tbody>
-</table>
-</center>
-<p>
-The <code>Py::</code> namespace is defined by the SCXX library which
-has C++ class
-equivalents for many Python types. <code>std::</code> is the namespace
-of the
-standard library in C++.
-</p>
-<p><em>
-Note:
-<ul>
-  <li>I haven't figured out how to handle <code>long int</code> yet (I
-think they are currenlty converted to int - - check this). </li>
-  <li>Hopefully VTK will be added to the list soon</li>
-</ul>
-</em>
-</p>
-<p>Python to C++ conversions fill in code in several locations in the
-generated
-<code>inline</code> extension function. Below is the basic template for
-the
-function. This is actually the exact code that is generated by calling
-<code>weave.inline("")</code>. </p>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-The <code>/* inline code */</code> section is filled with the code
-passed to
-the <code>inline()</code> function call. The <code>/*argument
-convserion code*/</code> and <code>/* cleanup code */</code>
-sections are filled with code that handles conversion from Python to
-C++
-types and code that deallocates memory or manipulates reference counts
-before
-the function returns. The following sections demostrate how these two
-areas
-are filled in by the default conversion methods.
-<em> Note: I'm not sure I have reference counting correct on a few of
-these. The only thing I increase/decrease the ref count on is NumPy
-arrays. If you
-see an issue, please let me know.
-</em><a name="inline_numeric_argument_conversion"></a>
-<h3> NumPy Argument Conversion </h3>
-Integer, floating point, and complex arguments are handled in a very
-similar
-fashion. Consider the following inline function that has a single
-integer variable passed in:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; a = 1
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; inline("",['a'])
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-The argument conversion code inserted for <code>a</code> is:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    /* argument conversion code */
-    int a = py_to_int (get_variable("a",raw_locals,raw_globals),"a");
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<code>get_variable()</code> reads the variable <code>a</code>
-from the local and global namespaces. <code>py_to_int()</code> has the
-following
-form:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    static int py_to_int(PyObject* py_obj,char* name)
-    {
-        if (!py_obj || !PyInt_Check(py_obj))
-            handle_bad_type(py_obj,"int", name);
-        return (int) PyInt_AsLong(py_obj);
-    }
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-Similarly, the float and complex conversion routines look like:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>    <br>    static double py_to_float(PyObject* py_obj,char* name)<br>    {<br>        if (!py_obj || !PyFloat_Check(py_obj))<br>            handle_bad_type(py_obj,"float", name);<br>        return PyFloat_AsDouble(py_obj);<br>    }<br>    <br>    static std::complex<double> py_to_complex(PyObject* py_obj,char* name)<br>    {<br>        if (!py_obj || !PyComplex_Check(py_obj))<br>            handle_bad_type(py_obj,"complex", name);<br>        return std::complex<double>(PyComplex_RealAsDouble(py_obj),<br>                                    PyComplex_ImagAsDouble(py_obj));    <br>    }<br>    </double></double></code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-NumPy conversions do not require any clean up code.
-<a name="inline_python_argument_conversion"></a>
-<h3> String, List, Tuple, and Dictionary Conversion </h3>
-Strings, Lists, Tuples and Dictionary conversions are all converted to
-SCXX types by default.
-For the following code,
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; a = [1]
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; inline("",['a'])
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-The argument conversion code inserted for <code>a</code> is:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    /* argument conversion code */
-    Py::List a = py_to_list (get_variable("a",raw_locals,raw_globals),"a");
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<code>get_variable()</code> reads the variable <code>a</code>
-from the local and global namespaces. <code>py_to_list()</code> and
-its
-friends has the following form:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>    <br>    static Py::List py_to_list(PyObject* py_obj,char* name)<br>    {<br>        if (!py_obj || !PyList_Check(py_obj))<br>            handle_bad_type(py_obj,"list", name);<br>        return Py::List(py_obj);<br>    }<br>    <br>    static Py::String py_to_string(PyObject* py_obj,char* name)<br>    {<br>        if (!PyString_Check(py_obj))<br>            handle_bad_type(py_obj,"string", name);<br>        return Py::String(py_obj);<br>    }<br><br>    static Py::Dict py_to_dict(PyObject* py_obj,char* name)<br>    {<br>        if (!py_obj || !PyDict_Check(py_obj))<br>            handle_bad_type(py_obj,"dict", name);<br>        return Py::Dict(py_obj);<br>    }<br>    <br>    static Py::Tuple py_to_tuple(PyObject* py_obj,char* name)<br>    {<br>        if (!py_obj || !PyTuple_Check(py_obj))<br>            handle_bad_type(py_obj,"tuple", name);<br>        return Py::Tuple(py_obj);<br>    }<br>    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-SCXX handles reference counts on for strings, lists, tuples, and
-dictionaries,
-so clean up code isn't necessary.
-<a name="#inline_file_argument_conversion"></a>
-<h3> File Conversion </h3>
-For the following code,
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; a = open("bob",'w')  
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; inline("",['a'])
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-The argument conversion code is:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    /* argument conversion code */
-    PyObject* py_a = get_variable("a",raw_locals,raw_globals);
-    FILE* a = py_to_file(py_a,"a");
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<code>get_variable()</code> reads the variable <code>a</code>
-from the local and global namespaces. <code>py_to_file()</code>
-converts
-PyObject* to a FILE* and increments the reference count of the
-PyObject*:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    FILE* py_to_file(PyObject* py_obj, char* name)
-    {
-        if (!py_obj || !PyFile_Check(py_obj))
-            handle_bad_type(py_obj,"file", name);
-    
-        Py_INCREF(py_obj);
-        return PyFile_AsFile(py_obj);
-    }
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-Because the PyObject* was incremented, the clean up code needs to
-decrement
-the counter
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    /* cleanup code */
-    Py_XDECREF(py_a);
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-Its important to understand that file conversion only works on actual
-files --
-i.e. ones created using the <code>open()</code> command in Python. It
-does
-not support converting arbitrary objects that support the file
-interface into
-C <code>FILE*</code> pointers. This can affect many things. For
-example, in
-initial <code>printf()</code> examples, one might be tempted to solve
-the problem of C and Python IDE's (PythonWin, PyCrust, etc.) writing to
-different
-stdout and stderr by using <code>fprintf()</code> and passing in <code>sys.stdout</code>
-and <code>sys.stderr</code>. For example, instead of
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; weave.inline('printf("hello\\n");')
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-You might try:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; buf = sys.stdout
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; weave.inline('fprintf(buf,"hello\\n");',['buf'])
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-This will work as expected from a standard python interpreter, but in
-PythonWin,
-the following occurs:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; buf = sys.stdout
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; weave.inline('fprintf(buf,"hello\\n");',['buf'])
-    Traceback (most recent call last):
-        File "<interactive
- input="">", line 1, in ?<br>        File "C:\Python21\weave\inline_tools.py", line 315, in inline<br>            auto_downcast = auto_downcast,<br>        File "C:\Python21\weave\inline_tools.py", line 386, in compile_function<br>            type_factories = type_factories)<br>        File "C:\Python21\weave\ext_tools.py", line 197, in __init__<br>            auto_downcast, type_factories)<br>        File "C:\Python21\weave\ext_tools.py", line 390, in assign_variable_types<br>            raise TypeError, format_error_msg(errors)<br>        TypeError: {'buf': "Unable to convert variable 'buf' to a C++ type."}<br>    </interactive></code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-The traceback tells us that <code>inline()</code> was unable to
-convert 'buf' to a
-C++ type (If instance conversion was implemented, the error would have
-occurred at runtime instead). Why is this? Let's look at what the <code>buf</code>
-object really is:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; buf
-    pywin.framework.interact.InteractiveView instance at 00EAD014
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-PythonWin has reassigned <code>sys.stdout</code> to a special object
-that implements the Python file interface. This works great in Python,
-but since the special object doesn't have a FILE* pointer underlying
-it, fprintf doesn't know what to do with it (well this will be the
-problem when instance conversion is implemented...).
-<a name="#inline_callable_argument_conversion"></a>
-<h3> Callable, Instance, and Module Conversion </h3>
-<em>Note: Need to look into how ref counts should be handled. Also,
-Instance and Module conversion are not currently implemented.
-</em>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; def a(): 
-        pass
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; inline("",['a'])
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-Callable and instance variables are converted to PyObject*. Nothing is
-done
-to there reference counts.
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    /* argument conversion code */
-    PyObject* a = py_to_callable(get_variable("a",raw_locals,raw_globals),"a");
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<code>get_variable()</code> reads the variable <code>a</code>
-from the local and global namespaces. The <code>py_to_callable()</code>
-and
-<code>py_to_instance()</code> don't currently increment the ref count.
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>    <br>    PyObject* py_to_callable(PyObject* py_obj, char* name)<br>    {<br>        if (!py_obj || !PyCallable_Check(py_obj))<br>            handle_bad_type(py_obj,"callable", name);    <br>        return py_obj;<br>    }<br><br>    PyObject* py_to_instance(PyObject* py_obj, char* name)<br>    {<br>        if (!py_obj || !PyFile_Check(py_obj))<br>            handle_bad_type(py_obj,"instance", name);    <br>        return py_obj;<br>    }<br>    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-There is no cleanup code for callables, modules, or instances.
-<a name="#Customizing Conversions"></a>
-<h3> Customizing Conversions </h3>
-<p>
-Converting from Python to C++ types is handled by xxx_specification
-classes. A type specification class actually serve in two related but
-different roles. The first is in determining whether a Python variable
-that needs to be converted should be represented by the given class.
-The second is as a code generator that generate C++ code needed to
-convert from Python to C++ types for a specific variable.
-</p>
-<p>When </p>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; a = 1
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; weave.inline('printf("%d",a);',['a'])
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-is called for the first time, the code snippet has to be compiled. In
-this process, the variable 'a' is tested against a list of type
-specifications (the default list is stored in weave/ext_tools.py). The <em>first</em>
-specification in the list is used to represent the variable.
-<p>Examples of <code>xxx_specification</code> are scattered throughout
-numerous "xxx_spec.py" files in the <code>weave</code> package.
-Closely related to the <code>xxx_specification</code> classes are <code>yyy_info</code>
-classes. These classes contain compiler, header, and support code
-information necessary for including a certain set of capabilities (such
-as blitz++ or CXX support)
-in a compiled module. <code>xxx_specification</code> classes have one
-or more
-<code>yyy_info</code> classes associated with them.
-If you'd like to define your own set of type specifications, the
-current best route
-is to examine some of the existing spec and info files. Maybe looking
-over
-sequence_spec.py and cxx_info.py are a good place to start. After
-defining specification classes, you'll need to pass them into <code>inline</code>
-using the <code>type_factories</code> argument. A lot of times you may
-just want to change how a specific variable type is represented. Say
-you'd rather have Python strings converted to <code>std::string</code>
-or maybe <code>char*</code> instead of using the CXX string object,
-but would like all other type conversions to have default behavior.
-This requires that a new specification class that handles strings
-is written and then prepended to a list of the default type
-specifications. Since
-it is closer to the front of the list, it effectively overrides the
-default
-string specification.
-The following code demonstrates how this is done:
-...
-<a name="The Catalog"></a></p>
-<h2> The Catalog </h2>
-<p>
-<code>catalog.py</code> has a class called <code>catalog</code> that
-helps keep track of previously compiled functions. This prevents <code>inline()</code>
-and related functions from having to compile functions everytime they
-are called. Instead, catalog will check an in memory cache to see if
-the function has already been loaded into python. If it hasn't, then it
-starts searching through persisent catalogs on disk to see if it finds
-an entry for the given function. By saving information about compiled
-functions to disk, it isn't
-necessary to re-compile functions everytime you stop and restart the
-interpreter.
-Functions are compiled once and stored for future use.
-</p>
-<p>When <code>inline(cpp_code)</code> is called the following things
-happen:
-</p>
-<ol>
-  <li> A fast local cache of functions is checked for the last function
-called for <code>cpp_code</code>. If an entry for <code>cpp_code</code>
-doesn't exist in the cache or the cached function call fails (perhaps
-because the function doesn't have compatible types) then the next step
-is to check the catalog. </li>
-  <li> The catalog class also keeps an in-memory cache with a list of
-all the functions compiled for <code>cpp_code</code>. If <code>cpp_code</code>
-has ever been called, then this cache will be present (loaded from
-disk). If the cache isn't present, then it is loaded from disk.
-    <p> If the cache is present, each function in the cache is called
-until one is found that was compiled for the correct argument types. If
-none of the functions work, a new function is compiled with the given
-argument types. This function is written to the on-disk catalog as well
-as into the in-memory cache.</p>
-  </li>
-  <li> When a lookup for <code>cpp_code</code> fails, the catalog
-looks through the on-disk function catalogs for the entries. The
-PYTHONCOMPILED variable determines where to search for these catalogs
-and in what order. If PYTHONCOMPILED is not present several platform
-dependent locations are searched. All functions found for <code>cpp_code</code>
-in the path are loaded into the in-memory cache with functions found
-earlier in the search path closer to the front of the call list.
-    <p> If the function isn't found in the on-disk catalog, then the
-function is compiled, written to the first writable directory in the
-PYTHONCOMPILED path, and also loaded into the in-memory cache.</p>
-  </li>
-</ol>
-<a name="function storage"></a>
-<h3> Function Storage: How functions are stored in caches and on disk </h3>
-<p>
-Function caches are stored as dictionaries where the key is the entire
-C++
-code string and the value is either a single function (as in the "level
-1"
-cache) or a list of functions (as in the main catalog cache). On disk
-catalogs are stored in the same manor using standard Python shelves.
-</p>
-<p>Early on, there was a question as to whether md5 check sums of the
-C++
-code strings should be used instead of the actual code strings. I think
-this
-is the route inline Perl took. Some (admittedly quick) tests of the md5
-vs.
-the entire string showed that using the entire string was at least a
-factor of 3 or 4 faster for Python. I think this is because it is more
-time consuming to compute the md5 value than it is to do look-ups of
-long
-strings in the dictionary. Look at the examples/md5_speed.py file for
-the
-test run. <a name="PYTHONCOMPILED"></a>
-</p>
-<h3> Catalog search paths and the PYTHONCOMPILED variable</h3>
-<p>
-The default location for catalog files on Unix is is
-~/.pythonXX_compiled where XX is version of Python being used. If this
-directory doesn't exist, it is created the first time a catalog is
-used. The directory must be writable. If, for any reason it isn't, then
-the catalog attempts to create a directory based on your user id in the
-/tmp directory. The directory permissions are set so that only you have
-access to the directory. If this fails, I think you're out of luck. I
-don't think either of these should ever fail though. On Windows, a
-directory called pythonXX_compiled is created in the user's temporary
-directory. </p>
-<p>The actual catalog file that lives in this directory is a Python
-shelve with
-a platform specific name such as "nt21compiled_catalog" so that
-multiple OSes
-can share the same file systems without trampling on each other. Along
-with
-the catalog file, the .cpp and .so or .pyd files created by inline will
-live
-in this directory. The catalog file simply contains keys which are the
-C++
-code strings with values that are lists of functions. The function
-lists point
-at functions within these compiled modules. Each function in the lists
-executes the same C++ code string, but compiled for different input
-variables.
-</p>
-<p>You can use the PYTHONCOMPILED environment variable to specify
-alternative
-locations for compiled functions. On Unix this is a colon (':')
-separated
-list of directories. On windows, it is a (';') separated list of
-directories.
-These directories will be searched prior to the default directory for a
-compiled function catalog. Also, the first writable directory in the
-list
-is where all new compiled function catalogs, .cpp and .so or .pyd files
-are
-written. Relative directory paths ('.' and '..') should work fine in
-the
-PYTHONCOMPILED variable as should environement variables.
-</p>
-<p>There is a "special" path variable called MODULE that can be placed
-in the PYTHONCOMPILED variable. It specifies that the compiled catalog
-should
-reside in the same directory as the module that called it. This is
-useful
-if an admin wants to build a lot of compiled functions during the build
-of a package and then install them in site-packages along with the
-package.
-User's who specify MODULE in their PYTHONCOMPILED variable will have
-access
-to these compiled functions. Note, however, that if they call the
-function
-with a set of argument types that it hasn't previously been built for,
-the
-new function will be stored in their default directory (or some other
-writable
-directory in the PYTHONCOMPILED path) because the user will not have
-write
-access to the site-packages directory.
-</p>
-<p>An example of using the PYTHONCOMPILED path on bash follows: </p>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    PYTHONCOMPILED=MODULE:/some/path;export PYTHONCOMPILED;
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-If you are using python21 on linux, and the module bob.py in
-site-packages
-has a compiled function in it, then the catalog search order when
-calling that
-function for the first time in a python session would be:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    /usr/lib/python21/site-packages/linuxpython_compiled
-    /some/path/linuxpython_compiled
-    ~/.python21_compiled/linuxpython_compiled
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-The default location is always included in the search path.
-<p><em> Note: hmmm. see a possible problem here. I should probably make
-a sub-
-directory such as /usr/lib/python21/site-
-packages/python21_compiled/linuxpython_compiled so that library files
-compiled with python21 are tried to link with python22 files in some
-strange scenarios. Need to check this.
-</em></p>
-<p>The in-module cache (in <code>weave.inline_tools</code> reduces the
-overhead of calling inline functions by about a factor of 2. It can be
-reduced a little more for type loop calls where the same function is
-called over and over again if the cache was a single value instead of a
-dictionary, but the benefit is very small (less than 5%) and the
-utility is quite a bit less. So, we'll stick with a dictionary as the
-cache.
-</p>
-<p></p>
-<a name="Blitz"></a>
-<h1>Blitz</h1>
-<em> Note: most of this section is lifted from old documentation. It
-should be
-pretty accurate, but there may be a few discrepancies.</em>
-<p><code>weave.blitz()</code> compiles NumPy Python expressions for
-fast execution. For most applications, compiled expressions should
-provide a factor of 2-10 speed-up over NumPy arrays. Using compiled
-expressions is meant to be as unobtrusive as possible and works much
-like pythons exec statement. As an example, the following code fragment
-takes a 5 point average of the 512x512 2d image, b, and stores it in
-array, a: </p>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    from scipy import *  # or from NumPy import *
-    a = ones((512,512), Float64) 
-    b = ones((512,512), Float64) 
-    # ...do some stuff to fill in b...
-    # now average
-    a[1:-1,1:-1] =  (b[1:-1,1:-1] + b[2:,1:-1] + b[:-2,1:-1] \
-                   + b[1:-1,2:] + b[1:-1,:-2]) / 5.
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-To compile the expression, convert the expression to a string by
-putting
-quotes around it and then use <code>weave.blitz</code>:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    import weave
-    expr = "a[1:-1,1:-1] =  (b[1:-1,1:-1] + b[2:,1:-1] + b[:-2,1:-1]" \
-                          "+ b[1:-1,2:] + b[1:-1,:-2]) / 5."
-    weave.blitz(expr)
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-The first time <code>weave.blitz</code> is run for a given expression
-and set of arguements, C++ code that accomplishes the exact same task
-as the Python expression is generated and compiled to an extension
-module. This can take up to a couple of minutes depending on the
-complexity of the function. Subsequent calls to the function are very
-fast. Futher, the generated module is saved between program executions
-so that the compilation is only done once for a given expression and
-associated set of array types. If the given expression
-is executed with a new set of array types, the code most be compiled
-again. This
-does not overwrite the previously compiled function -- both of them are
-saved and
-available for exectution.
-<p>The following table compares the run times for standard NumPy code
-and compiled code for the 5 point averaging.
-</p>
-<p></p>
-<center>
-<table border="1">
-  <tbody>
-    <tr>
-      <td>Method</td>
-      <td>Run Time (seconds)</td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>Standard NumPy</td>
-      <td>0.46349</td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>blitz (1st time compiling)</td>
-      <td> 78.95526</td>
-    </tr>
-    <tr>
-      <td>blitz (subsequent calls)</td>
-      <td>0.05843 (factor of 8 speedup)</td>
-    </tr>
-  </tbody>
-</table>
-</center>
-<p>
-These numbers are for a 512x512 double precision image run on a 400 MHz
-Celeron processor under RedHat Linux 6.2.
-</p>
-<p>Because of the slow compile times, its probably most effective to
-develop algorithms as you usually do using the capabilities of scipy or
-the NumPy module. Once the algorithm is perfected, put quotes around it
-and execute it using <code>weave.blitz</code>. This provides the
-standard rapid prototyping strengths of Python and results in
-algorithms that run close to that of hand coded C or Fortran.
-<a name="blitz_requirements"></a></p>
-<h2>Requirements</h2>
-Currently, the <code>weave.blitz</code> has only been tested under
-Linux with gcc-2.95-3 and on Windows with Mingw32 (2.95.2). Its
-compiler requirements are pretty heavy duty (see the <a
- href="http://www.oonumerics.org/blitz/">blitz++ home page</a>), so it
-won't work with just any compiler. Particularly MSVC++ isn't up to
-snuff. A number of other compilers such as KAI++ will also work, but my
-suspicions are that gcc will get the most use.
-<a name="blitz_limitations"></a>
-<h2>Limitations</h2>
-<ol>
-  <li>Currently, <code>weave.blitz</code> handles all standard
-mathematic
-operators except for the ** power operator. The built-in
-trigonmetric, log, floor/ceil, and fabs functions might work (but
-haven't been tested). It also handles all types of array indexing
-supported by the NumPy module. numarray's NumPy compatible array
-indexing modes are likewise supported, but numarray's enhanced
-(array based) indexing modes are not supported.
-    <p><code>weave.blitz</code> does not currently support operations
-that use array broadcasting, nor have any of the special purpose
-functions in NumPy such as take, compress, etc. been implemented. Note
-that there are no obvious reasons why most of this functionality cannot
-be added to scipy.weave, so it will likely trickle into future
-versions. Using <code>slice()</code> objects directly instead of <code>start:stop:step</code>
-is also not supported. </p>
-  </li>
-  <li>Currently Python only works on expressions that include
-assignment such as
-    <blockquote>
-      <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; result = b + c + d
-    </code></pre>
-    </blockquote>
-This means that the result array must exist before calling <code>weave.blitz</code>.
-Future versions will allow the following:
-    <blockquote>
-      <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; result = weave.blitz_eval("b + c + d")
-    </code></pre>
-    </blockquote>
-  </li>
-  <li> <code>weave.blitz</code> works best when algorithms can be
-expressed in a "vectorized" form. Algorithms that have a large number
-of if/thens and other conditions are better hand written in C or
-Fortran. Further, the restrictions imposed by requiring vectorized
-expressions sometimes preclude the use of more efficient data
-structures or algorithms. For maximum speed in these cases, hand-coded
-C or Fortran code is the only way to go. </li>
-  <li> <code>weave.blitz</code> can produce different results than
-NumPy
-in certain situations. It can happen when the array receiving the
-results of a calculation is also used during the calculation. The NumPy
-behavior is to carry out the entire calculation on the right hand side
-of an equation and store it in a temporary array. This temprorary array
-is assigned to the array on the left hand side of the equation. blitz,
-on the other hand, does a "running" calculation of the array elements
-assigning values from the right hand
-side to the elements on the left hand side immediately after they are
-calculated.
-Here is an example, provided by Prabhu Ramachandran, where this
-happens:
-    <blockquote>
-      <pre><code>
-        # 4 point average.
-        &gt;&gt;&gt; expr = "u[1:-1, 1:-1] = (u[0:-2, 1:-1] + u[2:, 1:-1] + "\
-        ...                "u[1:-1,0:-2] + u[1:-1, 2:])*0.25"
-        &gt;&gt;&gt; u = zeros((5, 5), 'd'); u[0,:] = 100
-        &gt;&gt;&gt; exec (expr)
-        &gt;&gt;&gt; u
-        array([[ 100.,  100.,  100.,  100.,  100.],
-               [   0.,   25.,   25.,   25.,    0.],
-               [   0.,    0.,    0.,    0.,    0.],
-               [   0.,    0.,    0.,    0.,    0.],
-               [   0.,    0.,    0.,    0.,    0.]])
-        
-        &gt;&gt;&gt; u = zeros((5, 5), 'd'); u[0,:] = 100
-        &gt;&gt;&gt; weave.blitz (expr)
-        &gt;&gt;&gt; u
-        array([[ 100.  ,  100.       ,  100.       ,  100.       ,  100. ],
-               [   0.  ,   25.       ,   31.25     ,   32.8125   ,    0. ],
-               [   0.  ,    6.25     ,    9.375    ,   10.546875 ,    0. ],
-               [   0.  ,    1.5625   ,    2.734375 ,    3.3203125,    0. ],
-               [   0.  ,    0.       ,    0.       ,    0.       ,    0. ]])    
-        </code></pre>
-    </blockquote>
-You can prevent this behavior by using a temporary array.
-    <blockquote>
-      <pre><code>
-        &gt;&gt;&gt; u = zeros((5, 5), 'd'); u[0,:] = 100
-        &gt;&gt;&gt; temp = zeros((4, 4), 'd');
-        &gt;&gt;&gt; expr = "temp = (u[0:-2, 1:-1] + u[2:, 1:-1] + "\
-        ...        "u[1:-1,0:-2] + u[1:-1, 2:])*0.25;"\
-        ...        "u[1:-1,1:-1] = temp"
-        &gt;&gt;&gt; weave.blitz (expr)
-        &gt;&gt;&gt; u
-        array([[ 100.,  100.,  100.,  100.,  100.],
-               [   0.,   25.,   25.,   25.,    0.],
-               [   0.,    0.,    0.,    0.,    0.],
-               [   0.,    0.,    0.,    0.,    0.],
-               [   0.,    0.,    0.,    0.,    0.]])
-        </code></pre>
-    </blockquote>
-  </li>
-  <li>One other point deserves mention lest people be confused. <code>weave.blitz</code>
-is not a general purpose Python-&gt;C compiler. It only works for
-expressions that contain NumPy arrays and/or Python scalar values. This
-focused scope concentrates effort on the compuationally intensive
-regions of the program and sidesteps the difficult issues associated
-with a general purpose Python-&gt;C compiler. </li>
-</ol>
-<a name="Numeric Efficiency"></a>
-<h2>NumPy efficiency issues: What compilation buys you</h2>
-Some might wonder why compiling NumPy expressions to C++ is beneficial
-since operations on NumPy array operations are already executed within
-C loops. The problem is that anything other than the simplest
-expression are executed in less than optimal fashion. Consider the
-following NumPy expression:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    a = 1.2 * b + c * d
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-When NumPy calculates the value for the 2d array, <code>a</code>, it
-does the following steps:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    temp1 = 1.2 * b
-    temp2 = c * d
-    a = temp1 + temp2
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-Two things to note. Since <code>c</code> is an (perhaps large) array,
-a large temporary array must be created to store the results of <code>1.2
-* b</code>. The same is true for <code>temp2</code>. Allocation is
-slow. The second thing is that we have 3 loops executing, one to
-calculate <code>temp1</code>, one for <code>temp2</code> and one for
-adding them up. A C loop for the same problem might look like:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    for(int i = 0; i &lt; M; i++)
-        for(int j = 0; j &lt; N; j++)
-            a[i,j] = 1.2 * b[i,j] + c[i,j] * d[i,j]
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-Here, the 3 loops have been fused into a single loop and there is no
-longer
-a need for a temporary array. This provides a significant speed
-improvement
-over the above example (write me and tell me what you get).
-<p>So, converting NumPy expressions into C/C++ loops that fuse the
-loops and eliminate temporary arrays can provide big gains. The goal
-then,is to convert NumPy expression to C/C++ loops, compile them in an
-extension module, and then call the compiled extension function. The
-good news is that there is an obvious correspondence between the NumPy
-expression above and the C loop. The bad news is that NumPy is
-generally much more powerful than this simple example illustrates and
-handling all possible indexing possibilities results in loops that are
-less than straight forward to write. (take a peak in NumPy for
-confirmation). Luckily, there are several available tools that simplify
-the process.
-<a name="blitz_tools"></a></p>
-<h2>The Tools</h2>
-<code>weave.blitz</code> relies heavily on several remarkable tools. On
-the Python side, the main facilitators are Jermey Hylton's parser
-module and Travis Oliphant's NumPy module. On the compiled language
-side,
-Todd Veldhuizen's blitz++ array library, written in C++ (shhhh. don't
-tell David Beazley), does the heavy lifting. Don't assume that, because
-it's C++, it's much slower than C or Fortran. Blitz++ uses a jaw
-dropping array of template techniques (metaprogramming, template
-expression, etc) to convert innocent looking and readable C++
-expressions into to code that usually executes within a few percentage
-points of Fortran code for the same problem. This is good.
-Unfortunately all the template raz-ma-taz is very expensive to compile,
-so the 200 line extension modules often take 2 or more minutes to
-compile. This isn't so good. <code>weave.blitz</code> works to
-minimize this issue by remembering where compiled modules live and
-reusing them instead of re-compiling every time a program is re-run.
-<a name="blitz_parser"></a>
-<h3>Parser</h3>
-Tearing NumPy expressions apart, examining the pieces, and then
-rebuilding them as C++ (blitz) expressions requires a parser of some
-sort. I can imagine someone attacking this problem with regular
-expressions, but it'd likely be ugly and fragile. Amazingly, Python
-solves this problem for us. It actually exposes its parsing engine to
-the world through the <code>parser</code> module. The following
-fragment creates an Abstract Syntax Tree (AST) object for the
-expression and then converts to a (rather unpleasant looking) deeply
-nested list representation of the tree.
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; import parser
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; import scipy.weave.misc
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; ast = parser.suite("a = b * c + d")
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; ast_list = ast.tolist()
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; sym_list = scipy.weave.misc.translate_symbols(ast_list)
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; pprint.pprint(sym_list)
-    ['file_input',
-     ['stmt',
-      ['simple_stmt',
-       ['small_stmt',
-        ['expr_stmt',
-         ['testlist',
-          ['test',
-           ['and_test',
-            ['not_test',
-             ['comparison',
-              ['expr',
-               ['xor_expr',
-                ['and_expr',
-                 ['shift_expr',
-                  ['arith_expr',
-                   ['term',
-                    ['factor', ['power', ['atom', ['NAME', 'a']]]]]]]]]]]]]]],
-         ['EQUAL', '='],
-         ['testlist',
-          ['test',
-           ['and_test',
-            ['not_test',
-             ['comparison',
-              ['expr',
-               ['xor_expr',
-                ['and_expr',
-                 ['shift_expr',
-                  ['arith_expr',
-                   ['term',
-                    ['factor', ['power', ['atom', ['NAME', 'b']]]],
-                    ['STAR', '*'],
-                    ['factor', ['power', ['atom', ['NAME', 'c']]]]],
-                   ['PLUS', '+'],
-                   ['term',
-                    ['factor', ['power', ['atom', ['NAME', 'd']]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]],
-       ['NEWLINE', '']]],
-     ['ENDMARKER', '']]
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-Despite its looks, with some tools developed by Jermey H., its possible
-to search these trees for specific patterns (sub-trees), extract the
-sub-tree, manipulate them converting python specific code fragments
-to blitz code fragments, and then re-insert it in the parse tree. The
-parser
-module documentation has some details on how to do this. Traversing the
-new blitzified tree, writing out the terminal symbols as you go,
-creates
-our new blitz++ expression string.
-<a name="blitz_blitz"></a>
-<h3> Blitz and NumPy </h3>
-The other nice discovery in the project is that the data structure used
-for NumPy arrays and blitz arrays is nearly identical. NumPy stores
-"strides" as byte offsets and blitz stores them as element offsets, but
-other than that, they are the same. Further, most of the concept and
-capabilities of the two libraries are remarkably similar. It is
-satisfying that two completely different implementations solved the
-problem with similar basic architectures. It is also fortuitous. The
-work involved in converting NumPy expressions to blitz expressions was
-greatly diminished.
-As an example, consider the code for slicing an array in Python with a
-stride:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; a = b[0:4:2] + c
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; a
-    [0,2,4]
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-In Blitz it is as follows:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    Array&lt;2,int&gt; b(10);
-    Array&lt;2,int&gt; c(3);
-    // ...
-    Array&lt;2,int&gt; a = b(Range(0,3,2)) + c;
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-Here the range object works exactly like Python slice objects with the
-exception
-that the top index (3) is inclusive where as Python's (4) is exclusive.
-Other differences include the type declaraions in C++ and parentheses
-instead of brackets for indexing arrays. Currently, <code>weave.blitz</code>
-handles the inclusive/exclusive issue by subtracting one from upper
-indices during the
-translation. An alternative that is likely more robust/maintainable in
-the long run, is to write a PyRange class that behaves like Python's
-range. This is likely very easy.
-<p>The stock blitz also doesn't handle negative indices in ranges. The
-current implementation of the <code>blitz()</code> has a partial
-solution to this problem. It calculates and index that starts with a
-'-' sign by subtracting it from the maximum index in the array so that:
-</p>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-                    upper index limit
-                        /-----\
-    b[:-1] -&gt; b(Range(0,Nb[0]-1-1))
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-This approach fails, however, when the top index is calculated from
-other values. In the following scenario, if <code>i+j</code> evaluates
-to a negative value, the compiled code will produce incorrect results
-and could even core-
-dump. Right now, all calculated indices are assumed to be positive.
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    b[:i-j] -&gt; b(Range(0,i+j))
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-A solution is to calculate all indices up front using if/then to handle
-the
-+/- cases. This is a little work and results in more code, so it hasn't
-been
-done. I'm holding out to see if blitz++ can be modified to handle
-negative
-indexing, but haven't looked into how much effort is involved yet.
-While it needs fixin', I don't think there is a ton of code where this
-is an issue.
-<p>The actual translation of the Python expressions to blitz
-expressions is currently a two part process. First, all x:y:z slicing
-expression are removed
-from the AST, converted to slice(x,y,z) and re-inserted into the tree.
-Any
-math needed on these expressions (subtracting from the maximum index,
-etc.) are also preformed here. _beg and _end are used as special
-variables that are defined as blitz::fromBegin and blitz::toEnd. </p>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    a[i+j:i+j+1,:] = b[2:3,:] 
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-becomes a more verbose:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    a[slice(i+j,i+j+1),slice(_beg,_end)] = b[slice(2,3),slice(_beg,_end)]
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-The second part does a simple string search/replace to convert to a
-blitz expression with the following translations:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    slice(_beg,_end) -&gt; _all  # not strictly needed, but cuts down on code.
-    slice            -&gt; blitz::Range
-    [                -&gt; (
-    ]                -&gt; )
-    _stp             -&gt; 1
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<code>_all</code> is defined in the compiled function as <code>blitz::Range.all()</code>.
-These translations could of course happen directly in the syntax tree.
-But the string replacement is slightly easier. Note that name spaces
-are maintained in the C++ code to lessen the likelyhood of name
-clashes. Currently no effort is made to detect name clashes. A good
-rule of thumb is don't use values that start with '_' or 'py_' in
-compiled expressions and you'll be fine.
-<a name="blitz_type_conversions"></a>
-<h2>Type definitions and coersion</h2>
-So far we've glossed over the dynamic vs. static typing issue between
-Python and C++. In Python, the type of value that a variable holds can
-change
-through the course of program execution. C/C++, on the other hand,
-forces you
-to declare the type of value a variables will hold prior at compile
-time.
-<code>weave.blitz</code> handles this issue by examining the types of
-the
-variables in the expression being executed, and compiling a function
-for those
-explicit types. For example:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    a = ones((5,5),Float32)
-    b = ones((5,5),Float32)
-    weave.blitz("a = a + b")
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-When compiling this expression to C++, <code>weave.blitz</code> sees
-that the
-values for a and b in the local scope have type <code>Float32</code>,
-or 'float'
-on a 32 bit architecture. As a result, it compiles the function using
-the float type (no attempt has been made to deal with 64 bit issues).
-It also goes one step further. If all arrays have the same type, a
-templated
-version of the function is made and instantiated for float, double,
-complex<float>, and complex<double> arrays. <em> Note: This feature
-has been removed from the current version of the code. Each version
-will be compiled
-separately </em>
-</double></float>
-<p>What happens if you call a compiled function with array types that
-are different than the ones for which it was originally compiled? No
-biggie, you'll just have to wait on it to compile a new version for
-your new types. This doesn't overwrite the old functions, as they are
-still accessible. See the catalog section in the inline() documentation
-to see how this is handled. Suffice to say, the mechanism is
-transparent to the user and behaves like dynamic typing with the
-occasional wait for compiling newly typed functions.
-</p>
-<p>When working with combined scalar/array operations, the type of the
-array is <em>always</em> used. This is similar to the savespace flag
-that was recently added to NumPy. This prevents issues with the
-following expression perhaps unexpectedly being calculated at a higher
-(more expensive) precision that can occur in Python: </p>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; a = array((1,2,3),typecode = Float32)
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; b = a * 2.1 # results in b being a Float64 array.
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-In this example,
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; a = ones((5,5),Float32)
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; b = ones((5,5),Float32)
-    &gt;&gt;&gt; weave.blitz("b = a * 2.1")
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-the <code>2.1</code> is cast down to a <code>float</code> before
-carrying out the operation. If you really want to force the calculation
-to be a <code>double</code>, define <code>a</code> and <code>b</code>
-as <code>double</code> arrays.
-<p>One other point of note. Currently, you must include both the right
-hand side and left hand side (assignment side) of your equation in the
-compiled expression. Also, the array being assigned to must be created
-prior to calling <code>weave.blitz</code>. I'm pretty sure this is
-easily changed so that a compiled_eval expression can be defined, but
-no effort has been made to allocate new arrays (and decern their type)
-on the fly.
-<a name="blitz_catalog"></a> </p>
-<h2>Cataloging Compiled Functions</h2>
-See the <a href="#The%20Catalog">Cataloging functions</a> section in
-the <code>weave.inline()</code> documentation.
-<a name="blitz_array_sizes"></a>
-<h2>Checking Array Sizes</h2>
-Surprisingly, one of the big initial problems with compiled code was
-making
-sure all the arrays in an operation were of compatible type. The
-following
-case is trivially easy:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    a = b + c
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-It only requires that arrays <code>a</code>, <code>b</code>, and <code>c</code>
-have the same shape. However, expressions like:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    a[i+j:i+j+1,:] = b[2:3,:] + c
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-are not so trivial. Since slicing is involved, the size of the slices,
-not the input arrays must be checked. Broadcasting complicates things
-further because arrays and slices with different dimensions and shapes
-may be compatible for math operations (broadcasting isn't yet supported
-by <code>weave.blitz</code>). Reductions have a similar effect as
-their results are different shapes than their input operand. The binary
-operators in NumPy compare the shapes of their two operands just before
-they operate on them. This is possible because NumPy treats each
-operation independently. The intermediate (temporary) arrays created
-during sub-operations in an expression are tested for the correct shape
-before they are combined by another operation. Because <code>weave.blitz</code>
-fuses all operations into a single loop, this isn't possible. The shape
-comparisons must be done and guaranteed compatible before evaluating
-the expression.
-<p>The solution chosen converts input arrays to "dummy arrays" that
-only represent the dimensions of the arrays, not the data. Binary
-operations on dummy arrays check that input array sizes are comptible
-and return a dummy array with the size correct size. Evaluating an
-expression of dummy arrays traces the changing array sizes through all
-operations and fails if incompatible array sizes are ever found. </p>
-<p>The machinery for this is housed in <code>weave.size_check</code>.
-It basically involves writing a new class (dummy array) and overloading
-it math operators to calculate the new sizes correctly. All the code is
-in Python and there is a fair amount of logic (mainly to handle
-indexing and slicing) so the operation does impose some overhead. For
-large arrays (ie. 50x50x50), the overhead is negligible compared to
-evaluating the actual expression. For small arrays (ie. 16x16), the
-overhead imposed for checking the shapes with this method can cause the
-<code>weave.blitz</code> to be slower than evaluating the expression in
-Python. </p>
-<p>What can be done to reduce the overhead? (1) The size checking code
-could be moved into C. This would likely remove most of the overhead
-penalty compared to NumPy (although there is also some calling
-overhead), but no effort has been made to do this. (2) You can also
-call <code>weave.blitz</code> with
-<code>check_size=0</code> and the size checking isn't done. However, if
-the sizes aren't compatible, it can cause a core-dump. So, foregoing
-size_checking
-isn't advisable until your code is well debugged.
-<a name="blitz_extension_module"></a> </p>
-<h2>Creating the Extension Module</h2>
-<code>weave.blitz</code> uses the same machinery as <code>weave.inline</code>
-to build the extension module. The only difference
-is the code included in the function is automatically generated from
-the NumPy array expression instead of supplied by the user.
-<a name="#Extension Modules"></a>
-<h1>Extension Modules</h1>
-<code>weave.inline</code> and <code>weave.blitz</code> are high level
-tools
-that generate extension modules automatically. Under the covers, they
-use several
-classes from <code>weave.ext_tools</code> to help generate the
-extension module.
-The main two classes are <code>ext_module</code> and <code>ext_function</code>
-(I'd
-like to add <code>ext_class</code> and <code>ext_method</code> also).
-These classes
-simplify the process of generating extension modules by handling most
-of the "boiler
-plate" code automatically.
-<em>Note: <code>inline</code> actually sub-classes <code>weave.ext_tools.ext_function</code>
-to generate slightly different code than the standard <code>ext_function</code>.
-The main difference is that the standard class converts function
-arguments to
-C types, while inline always has two arguments, the local and global
-dicts, and
-the grabs the variables that need to be convereted to C from these.
-</em><a name="A Simple Example"></a>
-<h2> A Simple Example </h2>
-The following simple example demonstrates how to build an extension
-module within
-a Python function:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    # examples/increment_example.py
-    from weave import ext_tools
-    
-    def build_increment_ext():
-        """ Build a simple extension with functions that increment numbers.
-            The extension will be built in the local directory.
-        """        
-        mod = ext_tools.ext_module('increment_ext')
-    
-        a = 1 # effectively a type declaration for 'a' in the 
-              # following functions.
-    
-        ext_code = "return_val = Py::new_reference_to(Py::Int(a+1));"    
-        func = ext_tools.ext_function('increment',ext_code,['a'])
-        mod.add_function(func)
-        
-        ext_code = "return_val = Py::new_reference_to(Py::Int(a+2));"    
-        func = ext_tools.ext_function('increment_by_2',ext_code,['a'])
-        mod.add_function(func)
-                
-        mod.compile()
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-The function <code>build_increment_ext()</code> creates an extension
-module named <code>increment_ext</code> and compiles it to a shared
-library (.so or .pyd) that can be loaded into Python.. <code>increment_ext</code>
-contains two functions, <code>increment</code> and <code>increment_by_2</code>.
-The first line of <code>build_increment_ext()</code>,
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-        mod = ext_tools.ext_module('increment_ext') 
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-creates an <code>ext_module</code> instance that is ready to have <code>ext_function</code>
-instances added to it. <code>ext_function</code> instances are created
-much with a calling convention similar to <code>weave.inline()</code>.
-The most common call includes a C/C++ code snippet and a list of the
-arguments for the function. The following
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-        ext_code = "return_val = Py::new_reference_to(Py::Int(a+1));"    
-        func = ext_tools.ext_function('increment',ext_code,['a'])
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-creates a C/C++ extension function that is equivalent to the following
-Python
-function:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-        def increment(a):
-            return a + 1
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-A second method is also added to the module and then,
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-        mod.compile()
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-is called to build the extension module. By default, the module is
-created
-in the current working directory.
-This example is available in the <code>examples/increment_example.py</code>
-file
-found in the <code>weave</code> directory. At the bottom of the file
-in the
-module's "main" program, an attempt to import <code>increment_ext</code>
-without
-building it is made. If this fails (the module doesn't exist in the
-PYTHONPATH), the module is built by calling <code>build_increment_ext()</code>.
-This approach
-only takes the time consuming ( a few seconds for this example) process
-of building
-the module if it hasn't been built before.
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    if __name__ == "__main__":
-        try:
-            import increment_ext
-        except ImportError:
-            build_increment_ext()
-            import increment_ext
-        a = 1
-        print 'a, a+1:', a, increment_ext.increment(a)
-        print 'a, a+2:', a, increment_ext.increment_by_2(a)           
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<em>Note: If we were willing to always pay the penalty of building the
-C++ code for a module, we could store the md5 checksum of the C++ code
-along with some information about the compiler, platform, etc. Then, <code>ext_module.compile()</code>
-could try importing the module before it actually
-compiles it, check the md5 checksum and other meta-data in the imported
-module
-with the meta-data of the code it just produced and only compile the
-code if
-the module didn't exist or the meta-data didn't match. This would
-reduce the
-above code to:
-</em>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    if __name__ == "__main__":
-        build_increment_ext()
-
-        a = 1
-        print 'a, a+1:', a, increment_ext.increment(a)
-        print 'a, a+2:', a, increment_ext.increment_by_2(a)           
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-<em>Note: There would always be the overhead of building the C++ code,
-but it would only actually compile the code once. You pay a little in
-overhead and get cleaner
-"import" code. Needs some thought.
-</em>
-<p>If you run <code>increment_example.py</code> from the command line,
-you get
-the following: </p>
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    [eric@n0]$ python increment_example.py
-    a, a+1: 1 2
-    a, a+2: 1 3
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-If the module didn't exist before it was run, the module is created. If
-it did
-exist, it is just imported and used.
-<a name="Fibonacci Example"></a>
-<h2> Fibonacci Example </h2>
-<code>examples/fibonacci.py</code> provides a little more complex
-example of how to use <code>ext_tools</code>. Fibonacci numbers are a
-series of numbers where each number in the series is the sum of the
-previous two: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, etc. Here, the first two numbers in the
-series are taken to be 1. One approach to calculating Fibonacci numbers
-uses recursive function calls. In Python, it might be written as:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-    def fib(a):
-        if a &lt;= 2:
-            return 1
-        else:
-            return fib(a-2) + fib(a-1)
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-In C, the same function would look something like this:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-     int fib(int a)
-     {                   
-         if(a &lt;= 2)
-             return 1;
-         else
-             return fib(a-2) + fib(a-1);  
-     }                      
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-Recursion is much faster in C than in Python, so it would be beneficial
-to use the C version for fibonacci number calculations instead of the
-Python version. We need an extension function that calls this C
-function
-to do this. This is possible by including the above code snippet as
-"support code" and then calling it from the extension function. Support
-code snippets (usually structure definitions, helper functions and the
-like)
-are inserted into the extension module C/C++ file before the extension
-function code. Here is how to build the C version of the fibonacci
-number
-generator:
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
-def build_fibonacci():
-    """ Builds an extension module with fibonacci calculators.
-    """
-    mod = ext_tools.ext_module('fibonacci_ext')
-    a = 1 # this is effectively a type declaration
-    
-    # recursive fibonacci in C 
-    fib_code = """
-                   int fib1(int a)
-                   {                   
-                       if(a &lt;= 2)
-                           return 1;
-                       else
-                           return fib1(a-2) + fib1(a-1);  
-                   }                         
-               """
-    ext_code = """
-                   int val = fib1(a);
-                   return_val = Py::new_reference_to(Py::Int(val));
-               """    
-    fib = ext_tools.ext_function('fib',ext_code,['a'])
-    fib.customize.add_support_code(fib_code)
-    mod.add_function(fib)
-
-    mod.compile()
-
-    </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-XXX More about custom_info, and what xxx_info instances are good for.
-<p><em>Note: recursion is not the fastest way to calculate fibonacci
-numbers,
-but this approach serves nicely for this example.
-</em></p>
-<p><a name="#Type Factories"></a>
-</p>
-<h1>Customizing Type Conversions -- Type Factories</h1>
-not written
-<h1>Things I wish <code>weave</code> did</h1>
-It is possible to get name clashes if you uses a variable name that is
-already defined
-in a header automatically included (such as <code>stdio.h</code>) For
-instance, if you
-try to pass in a variable named <code>stdout</code>, you'll get a
-cryptic error report
-due to the fact that <code>stdio.h</code> also defines the name. <code>weave</code>
-should probably try and handle this in some way.
-Other things...
-</body>
-</html>

Added: trunk/scipy/weave/doc/tutorial.txt
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/weave/doc/tutorial.txt	2007-10-24 22:55:18 UTC (rev 3461)
+++ trunk/scipy/weave/doc/tutorial.txt	2007-10-25 17:09:53 UTC (rev 3462)
@@ -0,0 +1,2531 @@
+=====================
+ Weave Documentation
+=====================
+
+By Eric Jones eric@enthought.com
+
+
+Outline
+=======
+
+.. contents::
+
+
+==============
+ Introduction
+==============
+
+The ``weave`` package provides tools for including C/C++ code within in
+Python code. This offers both another level of optimization to those who need
+it, and an easy way to modify and extend any supported extension libraries
+such as wxPython and hopefully VTK soon. Inlining C/C++ code within Python
+generally results in speed ups of 1.5x to 30x speed-up over algorithms
+written in pure Python (However, it is also possible to slow things down...).
+Generally algorithms that require a large number of calls to the Python API
+don't benefit as much from the conversion to C/C++ as algorithms that have
+inner loops completely convertable to C.
+
+There are three basic ways to use ``weave``. The ``weave.inline()`` function
+executes C code directly within Python, and ``weave.blitz()`` translates
+Python NumPy expressions to C++ for fast execution. ``blitz()`` was the
+original reason ``weave`` was built. For those interested in building
+extension libraries, the ``ext_tools`` module provides classes for building
+extension modules within Python.
+
+Most of ``weave's`` functionality should work on Windows and Unix, although
+some of its functionality requires ``gcc`` or a similarly modern C++ compiler
+that handles templates well. Up to now, most testing has been done on Windows
+2000 with Microsoft's C++ compiler (MSVC) and with gcc (mingw32 2.95.2 and
+2.95.3-6). All tests also pass on Linux (RH 7.1 with gcc 2.96), and I've had
+reports that it works on Debian also (thanks Pearu).
+
+The ``inline`` and ``blitz`` provide new functionality to Python (although
+I've recently learned about the `PyInline`_ project which may offer similar
+functionality to ``inline``). On the other hand, tools for building Python
+extension modules already exists (SWIG, SIP, pycpp, CXX, and others). As of
+yet, I'm not sure where ``weave`` fits in this spectrum. It is closest in
+flavor to CXX in that it makes creating new C/C++ extension modules pretty
+easy. However, if you're wrapping a gaggle of legacy functions or classes,
+SWIG and friends are definitely the better choice. ``weave`` is set up so
+that you can customize how Python types are converted to C types in
+``weave``. This is great for ``inline()``, but, for wrapping legacy code, it
+is more flexible to specify things the other way around -- that is how C
+types map to Python types. This ``weave`` does not do. I guess it would be
+possible to build such a tool on top of ``weave``, but with good tools like
+SWIG around, I'm not sure the effort produces any new capabilities. Things
+like function overloading are probably easily implemented in ``weave`` and it
+might be easier to mix Python/C code in function calls, but nothing beyond
+this comes to mind. So, if you're developing new extension modules or
+optimizing Python functions in C, ``weave.ext_tools()`` might be the tool for
+you. If you're wrapping legacy code, stick with SWIG.
+
+The next several sections give the basics of how to use ``weave``. We'll
+discuss what's happening under the covers in more detail later on. Serious
+users will need to at least look at the type conversion section to understand
+how Python variables map to C/C++ types and how to customize this behavior.
+One other note. If you don't know C or C++ then these docs are probably of
+very little help to you. Further, it'd be helpful if you know something about
+writing Python extensions. ``weave`` does quite a bit for you, but for
+anything complex, you'll need to do some conversions, reference counting,
+etc.
+
+.. note::
+  ``weave`` is actually part of the `SciPy`_ package. However, it
+  also works fine as a standalone package (you can check out the sources using
+  ``svn co http://svn.scipy.org/svn/scipy/trunk/Lib/weave weave`` and install as
+  python setup.py install). The examples here are given as if it is used as a
+  stand alone package. If you are using from within scipy, you can use `` from
+  scipy import weave`` and the examples will work identically.
+
+
+==============
+ Requirements
+==============
+
+-   Python
+
+    I use 2.1.1. Probably 2.0 or higher should work.
+
+-   C++ compiler
+
+    ``weave`` uses ``distutils`` to actually build extension modules, so
+    it uses whatever compiler was originally used to build Python. ``weave``
+    itself requires a C++ compiler. If you used a C++ compiler to build
+    Python, your probably fine.
+
+    On Unix gcc is the preferred choice because I've done a little
+    testing with it. All testing has been done with gcc, but I expect the
+    majority of compilers should work for ``inline`` and ``ext_tools``. The
+    one issue I'm not sure about is that I've hard coded things so that
+    compilations are linked with the ``stdc++`` library. *Is this standard
+    across Unix compilers, or is this a gcc-ism?*
+
+    For ``blitz()``, you'll need a reasonably recent version of gcc.
+    2.95.2 works on windows and 2.96 looks fine on Linux. Other versions are
+    likely to work. Its likely that KAI's C++ compiler and maybe some others
+    will work, but I haven't tried. My advice is to use gcc for now unless
+    your willing to tinker with the code some.
+
+    On Windows, either MSVC or gcc (`mingw32`_) should work. Again,
+    you'll need gcc for ``blitz()`` as the MSVC compiler doesn't handle
+    templates well.
+
+    I have not tried Cygwin, so please report success if it works for
+    you.
+
+-   NumPy
+
+    The python `NumPy`_ module is required for ``blitz()`` to
+    work and for numpy.distutils which is used by weave.
+
+
+==============
+ Installation
+==============
+
+There are currently two ways to get ``weave``. First, ``weave`` is part of
+SciPy and installed automatically (as a sub- package) whenever SciPy is
+installed. Second, since ``weave`` is useful outside of the scientific
+community, it has been setup so that it can be used as a stand-alone module.
+
+The stand-alone version can be downloaded from `here`_.  Instructions for
+installing should be found there as well.  setup.py file to simplify
+installation.
+
+
+=========
+ Testing
+=========
+
+Once ``weave`` is installed, fire up python and run its unit tests.
+
+::
+
+    >>> import weave
+    >>> weave.test()
+    runs long time... spews tons of output and a few warnings
+    .
+    .
+    .
+    ..............................................................
+    ................................................................
+    ..................................................
+    ----------------------------------------------------------------------
+    Ran 184 tests in 158.418s
+    OK
+    >>>
+
+
+This takes a while, usually several minutes. On Unix with remote file
+systems, I've had it take 15 or so minutes. In the end, it should run about
+180 tests and spew some speed results along the way. If you get errors,
+they'll be reported at the end of the output. Please report errors that you
+find. Some tests are known to fail at this point.
+
+
+If you only want to test a single module of the package, you can do this by
+running test() for that specific module.
+
+::
+
+        >>> import weave.scalar_spec
+        >>> weave.scalar_spec.test()
+        .......
+         ----------------------------------------------------------------------
+        Ran 7 tests in 23.284s
+
+
+Testing Notes:
+==============
+
+
+-   Windows 1
+
+    I've had some test fail on windows machines where I have msvc,
+    gcc-2.95.2 (in c:\gcc-2.95.2), and gcc-2.95.3-6 (in c:\gcc) all
+    installed. My environment has c:\gcc in the path and does not have
+    c:\gcc-2.95.2 in the path. The test process runs very smoothly until the
+    end where several test using gcc fail with cpp0 not found by g++. If I
+    check os.system('gcc -v') before running tests, I get gcc-2.95.3-6. If I
+    check after running tests (and after failure), I get gcc-2.95.2. ??huh??.
+    The os.environ['PATH'] still has c:\gcc first in it and is not corrupted
+    (msvc/distutils messes with the environment variables, so we have to undo
+    its work in some places). If anyone else sees this, let me know - - it
+    may just be an quirk on my machine (unlikely). Testing with the gcc-
+    2.95.2 installation always works.
+
+-   Windows 2
+
+    If you run the tests from PythonWin or some other GUI tool, you'll
+    get a ton of DOS windows popping up periodically as ``weave`` spawns the
+    compiler multiple times. Very annoying. Anyone know how to fix this?
+
+-   wxPython
+
+    wxPython tests are not enabled by default because importing wxPython
+    on a Unix machine without access to a X-term will cause the program to
+    exit. Anyone know of a safe way to detect whether wxPython can be
+    imported and whether a display exists on a machine?
+
+============
+ Benchmarks
+============
+
+This section has not been updated from old scipy weave and Numeric....
+
+This section has a few benchmarks  -- thats all people want to see anyway
+right? These are mostly taken from running files in the ``weave/example``
+directory and also from the test scripts. Without more information about what
+the test actually do, their value is limited. Still, their here for the
+curious. Look at the example scripts for more specifics about what problem
+was actually solved by each run. These examples are run under windows 2000
+using Microsoft Visual C++ and python2.1 on a 850 MHz PIII laptop with 320 MB
+of RAM. Speed up is the improvement (degredation) factor of ``weave``
+compared to conventional Python functions. ``The blitz()`` comparisons are
+shown compared to NumPy.
+
+inline and ext_tools
+
+Algorithm
+
+Speed up
+
+binary search   1.50
+fibonacci (recursive)  82.10
+fibonacci (loop)   9.17
+return None   0.14
+map   1.20
+dictionary sort   2.54
+vector quantization  37.40
+
+blitz -- double precision
+
+Algorithm
+
+Speed up
+
+a = b + c 512x512   3.05
+a = b + c + d 512x512   4.59
+5 pt avg. filter, 2D Image 512x512   9.01
+Electromagnetics (FDTD) 100x100x100   8.61
+
+The benchmarks shown ``blitz`` in the best possible light. NumPy (at least on
+my machine) is significantly worse for double precision than it is for single
+precision calculations. If your interested in single precision results, you
+can pretty much divide the double precision speed up by 3 and you'll be
+close.
+
+
+========
+ Inline
+========
+
+``inline()`` compiles and executes C/C++ code on the fly. Variables in the
+local and global Python scope are also available in the C/C++ code. Values
+are passed to the C/C++ code by assignment much like variables are passed
+into a standard Python function. Values are returned from the C/C++ code
+through a special argument called return_val. Also, the contents of mutable
+objects can be changed within the C/C++ code and the changes remain after the
+C code exits and returns to Python. (more on this later)
+
+Here's a trivial ``printf`` example using ``inline()``::
+
+        >>> import weave
+        >>> a  = 1
+        >>> weave.inline('printf("%d\\n",a);',['a'])
+        1
+
+In this, its most basic form, ``inline(c_code, var_list)`` requires two
+arguments. ``c_code`` is a string of valid C/C++ code. ``var_list`` is a list
+of variable names that are passed from Python into C/C++. Here we have a
+simple ``printf`` statement that writes the Python variable ``a`` to the
+screen. The first time you run this, there will be a pause while the code is
+written to a .cpp file, compiled into an extension module, loaded into
+Python, cataloged for future use, and executed. On windows (850 MHz PIII),
+this takes about 1.5 seconds when using Microsoft's C++ compiler (MSVC) and
+6-12 seconds using gcc (mingw32 2.95.2). All subsequent executions of the
+code will happen very quickly because the code only needs to be compiled
+once. If you kill and restart the interpreter and then execute the same code
+fragment again, there will be a much shorter delay in the fractions of
+seconds range. This is because ``weave`` stores a catalog of all previously
+compiled functions in an on disk cache. When it sees a string that has been
+compiled, it loads the already compiled module and executes the appropriate
+function.
+
+.. note::
+  If you try the ``printf`` example in a GUI shell such as IDLE,
+  PythonWin, PyShell, etc., you're unlikely to see the output. This is because
+  the C code is writing to stdout, instead of to the GUI window. This doesn't
+  mean that inline doesn't work in these environments -- it only means that
+  standard out in C is not the same as the standard out for Python in these
+  cases. Non input/output functions will work as expected.
+
+Although effort has been made to reduce the overhead associated with calling
+inline, it is still less efficient for simple code snippets than using
+equivalent Python code. The simple ``printf`` example is actually slower by
+30% or so than using Python ``print`` statement. And, it is not difficult to
+create code fragments that are 8-10 times slower using inline than equivalent
+Python. However, for more complicated algorithms, the speed up can be worth
+while -- anywhwere from 1.5- 30 times faster. Algorithms that have to
+manipulate Python objects (sorting a list) usually only see a factor of 2 or
+so improvement. Algorithms that are highly computational or manipulate NumPy
+arrays can see much larger improvements. The examples/vq.py file shows a
+factor of 30 or more improvement on the vector quantization algorithm that is
+used heavily in information theory and classification problems.
+
+
+More with printf
+================
+
+MSVC users will actually see a bit of compiler output that distutils does not
+supress the first time the code executes::
+
+        >>> weave.inline(r'printf("%d\n",a);',['a'])
+        sc_e013937dbc8c647ac62438874e5795131.cpp
+           Creating library C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp
+           \Release\sc_e013937dbc8c647ac62438874e5795131.lib and
+           object C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\sc_e013937dbc8c647ac62438874e5795131.exp
+        1
+
+Nothing bad is happening, its just a bit annoying. * Anyone know how to turn
+this off?*
+
+This example also demonstrates using 'raw strings'. The ``r`` preceeding the
+code string in the last example denotes that this is a 'raw string'. In raw
+strings, the backslash character is not interpreted as an escape character,
+and so it isn't necessary to use a double backslash to indicate that the '\n'
+is meant to be interpreted in the C ``printf`` statement instead of by
+Python. If your C code contains a lot of strings and control characters, raw
+strings might make things easier. Most of the time, however, standard strings
+work just as well.
+
+The ``printf`` statement in these examples is formatted to print out
+integers. What happens if ``a`` is a string? ``inline`` will happily, compile
+a new version of the code to accept strings as input, and execute the code.
+The result?
+
+::
+
+        >>> a = 'string'
+        >>> weave.inline(r'printf("%d\n",a);',['a'])
+        32956972
+
+
+In this case, the result is non-sensical, but also non-fatal. In other
+situations, it might produce a compile time error because ``a`` is required
+to be an integer at some point in the code, or it could produce a
+segmentation fault. Its possible to protect against passing ``inline``
+arguments of the wrong data type by using asserts in Python.
+
+::
+
+         >>> a = 'string'
+         >>> def protected_printf(a):
+         ...     assert(type(a) == type(1))
+         ...     weave.inline(r'printf("%d\n",a);',['a'])
+         >>> protected_printf(1)
+          1
+         >>> protected_printf('string')
+         AssertError...
+
+
+For printing strings, the format statement needs to be changed. Also, weave
+doesn't convert strings to char*. Instead it uses CXX Py::String type, so you
+have to do a little more work. Here we convert it to a C++ std::string and
+then ask cor the char* version.
+
+::
+
+         >>> a = 'string'
+         >>> weave.inline(r'printf("%s\n",std::string(a).c_str());',['a'])
+         string
+
+.. admonition:: XXX
+
+  This is a little convoluted. Perhaps strings should convert to ``std::string``
+  objects instead of CXX objects. Or maybe to ``char*``.
+
+As in this case, C/C++ code fragments often have to change to accept
+different types. For the given printing task, however, C++ streams provide a
+way of a single statement that works for integers and strings. By default,
+the stream objects live in the std (standard) namespace and thus require the
+use of ``std::``.
+
+::
+
+        >>> weave.inline('std::cout << a << std::endl;',['a'])
+        1
+        >>> a = 'string'
+        >>> weave.inline('std::cout << a << std::endl;',['a'])
+        string
+
+
+Examples using ``printf`` and ``cout`` are included in
+examples/print_example.py.
+
+
+More examples
+=============
+
+This section shows several more advanced uses of ``inline``. It includes a
+few algorithms from the `Python Cookbook`_ that have been re-written in
+inline C to improve speed as well as a couple examples using NumPy and
+wxPython.
+
+Binary search
+-------------
+
+Lets look at the example of searching a sorted list of integers for a value.
+For inspiration, we'll use Kalle Svensson's `binary_search()`_ algorithm
+from the Python Cookbook. His recipe follows::
+
+        def binary_search(seq, t):
+            min = 0; max = len(seq) - 1
+            while 1:
+                if max < min:
+                    return -1
+                m = (min  + max)  / 2
+                if seq[m] < t:
+                    min = m  + 1
+                elif seq[m] > t:
+                    max = m  - 1
+                else:
+                    return m
+
+
+This Python version works for arbitrary Python data types. The C version
+below is specialized to handle integer values. There is a little type
+checking done in Python to assure that we're working with the correct data
+types before heading into C. The variables ``seq`` and ``t`` don't need to be
+declared beacuse ``weave`` handles converting and declaring them in the C
+code. All other temporary variables such as ``min, max``, etc. must be
+declared -- it is C after all. Here's the new mixed Python/C function::
+
+        def c_int_binary_search(seq,t):
+            # do a little type checking in Python
+            assert(type(t) == type(1))
+            assert(type(seq) == type([]))
+
+            # now the C code
+            code = """
+                   #line 29 "binary_search.py"
+                   int val, m, min = 0;
+                   int max = seq.length() - 1;
+                   PyObject *py_val;
+                   for(;;)
+                   {
+                       if (max < min  )
+                       {
+                           return_val =  Py::new_reference_to(Py::Int(-1));
+                           break;
+                       }
+                       m =  (min + max) /2;
+                       val = py_to_int(PyList_GetItem(seq.ptr(),m),"val");
+                       if (val  < t)
+                           min = m  + 1;
+                       else if (val >  t)
+                           max = m - 1;
+                       else
+                       {
+                           return_val = Py::new_reference_to(Py::Int(m));
+                           break;
+                       }
+                   }
+                   """
+            return inline(code,['seq','t'])
+
+We have two variables ``seq`` and ``t`` passed in. ``t`` is guaranteed (by
+the ``assert``) to be an integer. Python integers are converted to C int
+types in the transition from Python to C. ``seq`` is a Python list. By
+default, it is translated to a CXX list object. Full documentation for the
+CXX library can be found at its `website`_. The basics are that the CXX
+provides C++ class equivalents for Python objects that simplify, or at least
+object orientify, working with Python objects in C/C++. For example,
+``seq.length()`` returns the length of the list. A little more about CXX and
+its class methods, etc. is in the ** type conversions ** section.
+
+.. note::
+  CXX uses templates and therefore may be a little less portable than
+  another alternative by Gordan McMillan called SCXX which was
+  inspired by CXX. It doesn't use templates so it should compile
+  faster and be more portable. SCXX has a few less features, but it
+  appears to me that it would mesh with the needs of weave quite well.
+  Hopefully xxx_spec files will be written for SCXX in the future, and
+  we'll be able to compare on a more empirical basis. Both sets of
+  spec files will probably stick around, it just a question of which
+  becomes the default.
+
+Most of the algorithm above looks similar in C to the original Python code.
+There are two main differences. The first is the setting of ``return_val``
+instead of directly returning from the C code with a ``return`` statement.
+``return_val`` is an automatically defined variable of type ``PyObject*``
+that is returned from the C code back to Python. You'll have to handle
+reference counting issues when setting this variable. In this example, CXX
+classes and functions handle the dirty work. All CXX functions and classes
+live in the namespace ``Py::``. The following code converts the integer ``m``
+to a CXX ``Int()`` object and then to a ``PyObject*`` with an incremented
+reference count using ``Py::new_reference_to()``.
+
+::
+        return_val = Py::new_reference_to(Py::Int(m));
+
+
+The second big differences shows up in the retrieval of integer values from
+the Python list. The simple Python ``seq[i]`` call balloons into a C Python
+API call to grab the value out of the list and then a separate call to
+``py_to_int()`` that converts the PyObject* to an integer. ``py_to_int()``
+includes both a NULL cheack and a ``PyInt_Check()`` call as well as the
+conversion call. If either of the checks fail, an exception is raised. The
+entire C++ code block is executed with in a ``try/catch`` block that handles
+exceptions much like Python does. This removes the need for most error
+checking code.
+
+It is worth note that CXX lists do have indexing operators that result in
+code that looks much like Python. However, the overhead in using them appears
+to be relatively high, so the standard Python API was used on the
+``seq.ptr()`` which is the underlying ``PyObject*`` of the List object.
+
+The ``#line`` directive that is the first line of the C code block isn't
+necessary, but it's nice for debugging. If the compilation fails because of
+the syntax error in the code, the error will be reported as an error in the
+Python file "binary_search.py" with an offset from the given line number (29
+here).
+
+So what was all our effort worth in terms of efficiency? Well not a lot in
+this case. The examples/binary_search.py file runs both Python and C versions
+of the functions As well as using the standard ``bisect`` module. If we run
+it on a 1 million element list and run the search 3000 times (for 0- 2999),
+here are the results we get::
+
+        C:\home\ej\wrk\scipy\weave\examples> python binary_search.py
+        Binary search for 3000 items in 1000000 length list of integers:
+        speed in python: 0.159999966621
+        speed of bisect: 0.121000051498
+        speed up: 1.32
+        speed in c: 0.110000014305
+        speed up: 1.45
+        speed in c(no asserts): 0.0900000333786
+        speed up: 1.78
+
+
+So, we get roughly a 50-75% improvement depending on whether we use the
+Python asserts in our C version. If we move down to searching a 10000 element
+list, the advantage evaporates. Even smaller lists might result in the Python
+version being faster. I'd like to say that moving to NumPy lists (and getting
+rid of the GetItem() call) offers a substantial speed up, but my preliminary
+efforts didn't produce one. I think the log(N) algorithm is to blame. Because
+the algorithm is nice, there just isn't much time spent computing things, so
+moving to C isn't that big of a win. If there are ways to reduce conversion
+overhead of values, this may improve the C/Python speed up. Anyone have other
+explanations or faster code, please let me know.
+
+
+Dictionary Sort
+---------------
+
+The demo in examples/dict_sort.py is another example from the Python
+CookBook. `This submission`_, by Alex Martelli, demonstrates how to return
+the values from a dictionary sorted by their keys:
+
+::
+        def sortedDictValues3(adict):
+            keys = adict.keys()
+            keys.sort()
+            return map(adict.get, keys)
+
+
+Alex provides 3 algorithms and this is the 3rd and fastest of the set. The C
+version of this same algorithm follows::
+
+        def c_sort(adict):
+            assert(type(adict) == type({}))
+            code = """
+            #line 21 "dict_sort.py"
+            Py::List keys = adict.keys();
+            Py::List items(keys.length()); keys.sort();
+            PyObject* item = NULL;
+            for(int i = 0;  i < keys.length();i++)
+            {
+                item = PyList_GET_ITEM(keys.ptr(),i);
+                item = PyDict_GetItem(adict.ptr(),item);
+                Py_XINCREF(item);
+                PyList_SetItem(items.ptr(),i,item);
+            }
+            return_val = Py::new_reference_to(items);
+            """
+            return inline_tools.inline(code,['adict'],verbose=1)
+
+
+Like the original Python function, the C++ version can handle any Python
+dictionary regardless of the key/value pair types. It uses CXX objects for
+the most part to declare python types in C++, but uses Python API calls to
+manipulate their contents. Again, this choice is made for speed. The C++
+version, while more complicated, is about a factor of 2 faster than Python.
+
+::
+
+        C:\home\ej\wrk\scipy\weave\examples> python dict_sort.py
+        Dict sort of 1000 items for 300 iterations:
+         speed in python: 0.319999933243
+        [0, 1, 2, 3, 4]
+         speed in c: 0.151000022888
+         speed up: 2.12
+        [0, 1, 2, 3, 4]
+
+
+
+NumPy -- cast/copy/transpose
+----------------------------
+
+CastCopyTranspose is a function called quite heavily by Linear Algebra
+routines in the NumPy library. Its needed in part because of the row-major
+memory layout of multi-demensional Python (and C) arrays vs. the col-major
+order of the underlying Fortran algorithms. For small matrices (say 100x100
+or less), a significant portion of the common routines such as LU
+decompisition or singular value decompostion are spent in this setup routine.
+This shouldn't happen. Here is the Python version of the function using
+standard NumPy operations.
+
+::
+
+        def _castCopyAndTranspose(type, array):
+            if a.typecode() == type:
+                cast_array = copy.copy(NumPy.transpose(a))
+            else:
+                cast_array = copy.copy(NumPy.transpose(a).astype(type))
+            return cast_array
+
+
+And the following is a inline C version of the same function::
+
+        from weave.blitz_tools import blitz_type_factories
+        from weave import scalar_spec
+        from weave import inline
+        def _cast_copy_transpose(type,a_2d):
+            assert(len(shape(a_2d)) == 2)
+            new_array = zeros(shape(a_2d),type)
+            NumPy_type = scalar_spec.NumPy_to_blitz_type_mapping[type]
+            code = \
+            """
+            for(int i = 0;i < _Na_2d[0]; i++)
+                for(int j = 0;  j < _Na_2d[1]; j++)
+                    new_array(i,j) = (%s) a_2d(j,i);
+            """ % NumPy_type
+            inline(code,['new_array','a_2d'],
+                   type_factories = blitz_type_factories,compiler='gcc')
+            return new_array
+
+
+This example uses blitz++ arrays instead of the standard representation of
+NumPy arrays so that indexing is simplier to write. This is accomplished by
+passing in the blitz++ "type factories" to override the standard Python to
+C++ type conversions. Blitz++ arrays allow you to write clean, fast code, but
+they also are sloooow to compile (20 seconds or more for this snippet). This
+is why they aren't the default type used for Numeric arrays (and also because
+most compilers can't compile blitz arrays...). ``inline()`` is also forced to
+use 'gcc' as the compiler because the default compiler on Windows (MSVC) will
+not compile blitz code. ('gcc' I think will use the standard compiler on
+Unix machine instead of explicitly forcing gcc (check this)) Comparisons of
+the Python vs inline C++ code show a factor of 3 speed up. Also shown are the
+results of an "inplace" transpose routine that can be used if the output of
+the linear algebra routine can overwrite the original matrix (this is often
+appropriate). This provides another factor of 2 improvement.
+
+::
+
+        #C:\home\ej\wrk\scipy\weave\examples> python cast_copy_transpose.py
+        # Cast/Copy/Transposing (150,150)array 1 times
+        #  speed in python: 0.870999932289
+        #  speed in c: 0.25
+        #  speed up: 3.48
+        #  inplace transpose c: 0.129999995232
+        #  speed up: 6.70
+
+wxPython
+--------
+
+``inline`` knows how to handle wxPython objects. Thats nice in and of itself,
+but it also demonstrates that the type conversion mechanism is reasonably
+flexible. Chances are, it won't take a ton of effort to support special types
+you might have. The examples/wx_example.py borrows the scrolled window
+example from the wxPython demo, accept that it mixes inline C code in the
+middle of the drawing function.
+
+::
+
+        def DoDrawing(self, dc):
+
+            red = wxNamedColour("RED");
+            blue = wxNamedColour("BLUE");
+            grey_brush = wxLIGHT_GREY_BRUSH;
+            code = \
+            """
+            #line 108 "wx_example.py"
+            dc->BeginDrawing();
+            dc->SetPen(wxPen(*red,4,wxSOLID));
+            dc->DrawRectangle(5,5,50,50);
+            dc->SetBrush(*grey_brush);
+            dc->SetPen(wxPen(*blue,4,wxSOLID));
+            dc->DrawRectangle(15, 15, 50, 50);
+            """
+            inline(code,['dc','red','blue','grey_brush'])
+
+            dc.SetFont(wxFont(14, wxSWISS, wxNORMAL, wxNORMAL))
+            dc.SetTextForeground(wxColour(0xFF, 0x20, 0xFF))
+            te = dc.GetTextExtent("Hello World")
+            dc.DrawText("Hello World", 60, 65)
+
+            dc.SetPen(wxPen(wxNamedColour('VIOLET'), 4))
+            dc.DrawLine(5, 65+te[1], 60+te[0], 65+te[1])
+            ...
+
+Here, some of the Python calls to wx objects were just converted to C++
+calls. There isn't any benefit, it just demonstrates the capabilities. You
+might want to use this if you have a computationally intensive loop in your
+drawing code that you want to speed up. On windows, you'll have to use the
+MSVC compiler if you use the standard wxPython DLLs distributed by Robin
+Dunn. Thats because MSVC and gcc, while binary compatible in C, are not
+binary compatible for C++. In fact, its probably best, no matter what
+platform you're on, to specify that ``inline`` use the same compiler that was
+used to build wxPython to be on the safe side. There isn't currently a way to
+learn this info from the library -- you just have to know. Also, at least on
+the windows platform, you'll need to install the wxWindows libraries and link
+to them. I think there is a way around this, but I haven't found it yet -- I
+get some linking errors dealing with wxString. One final note. You'll
+probably have to tweak weave/wx_spec.py or weave/wx_info.py for your
+machine's configuration to point at the correct directories etc. There. That
+should sufficiently scare people into not even looking at this... :)
+
+Keyword Option
+==============
+
+The basic definition of the ``inline()`` function has a slew of optional
+variables. It also takes keyword arguments that are passed to ``distutils``
+as compiler options. The following is a formatted cut/paste of the argument
+section of ``inline's`` doc-string. It explains all of the variables. Some
+examples using various options will follow.
+
+::
+
+        def inline(code,arg_names,local_dict = None, global_dict = None,
+                   force = 0,
+                   compiler='',
+                   verbose = 0,
+                   support_code = None,
+                   customize=None,
+                   type_factories = None,
+                   auto_downcast=1,
+                   **kw):
+
+
+``inline`` has quite a few options as listed below. Also, the keyword
+arguments for distutils extension modules are accepted to specify extra
+information needed for compiling.
+
+Inline Arguments
+================
+
+code  string. A string of valid C++ code. It should not specify a return
+statement. Instead it should assign results that need to be returned to
+Python in the return_val.  arg_names  list of strings. A list of Python
+variable names that should be transferred from Python into the C/C++ code.
+local_dict  optional. dictionary. If specified, it is a dictionary of values
+that should be used as the local scope for the C/C++ code. If local_dict is
+not specified the local dictionary of the calling function is used.
+global_dict  optional. dictionary. If specified, it is a dictionary of values
+that should be used as the global scope for the C/C++ code. If global_dict is
+not specified the global dictionary of the calling function is used.  force
+optional. 0 or 1. default 0. If 1, the C++ code is compiled every time inline
+is called. This is really only useful for debugging, and probably only useful
+if you're editing support_code a lot.  compiler  optional. string. The name
+of compiler to use when compiling. On windows, it understands 'msvc' and
+'gcc' as well as all the compiler names understood by distutils. On Unix,
+it'll only understand the values understoof by distutils. (I should add 'gcc'
+though to this).
+
+On windows, the compiler defaults to the Microsoft C++ compiler. If this
+isn't available, it looks for mingw32 (the gcc compiler).
+
+On Unix, it'll probably use the same compiler that was used when compiling
+Python. Cygwin's behavior should be similar.
+
+verbose  optional. 0,1, or 2. defualt 0. Speficies how much much
+information is printed during the compile phase of inlining code. 0 is silent
+(except on windows with msvc where it still prints some garbage). 1 informs
+you when compiling starts, finishes, and how long it took. 2 prints out the
+command lines for the compilation process and can be useful if you're having
+problems getting code to work. Its handy for finding the name of the .cpp
+file if you need to examine it. verbose has no affect if the compilation
+isn't necessary.  support_code  optional. string. A string of valid C++ code
+declaring extra code that might be needed by your compiled function. This
+could be declarations of functions, classes, or structures.  customize
+optional. base_info.custom_info object. An alternative way to specifiy
+support_code, headers, etc. needed by the function see the weave.base_info
+module for more details. (not sure this'll be used much).  type_factories
+optional. list of type specification factories. These guys are what convert
+Python data types to C/C++ data types. If you'd like to use a different set
+of type conversions than the default, specify them here. Look in the type
+conversions section of the main documentation for examples.  auto_downcast
+optional. 0 or 1. default 1. This only affects functions that have Numeric
+arrays as input variables. Setting this to 1 will cause all floating point
+values to be cast as float instead of double if all the NumPy arrays are of
+type float. If even one of the arrays has type double or double complex, all
+variables maintain there standard types.
+
+
+Distutils keywords
+==================
+
+``inline()`` also accepts a number of ``distutils`` keywords for
+controlling how the code is compiled. The following descriptions have been
+copied from Greg Ward's ``distutils.extension.Extension`` class doc- strings
+for convenience:  sources  [string] list of source filenames, relative to the
+distribution root (where the setup script lives), in Unix form (slash-
+separated) for portability. Source files may be C, C++, SWIG (.i), platform-
+specific resource files, or whatever else is recognized by the "build_ext"
+command as source for a Python extension. Note: The module_path file is
+always appended to the front of this list  include_dirs  [string] list of
+directories to search for C/C++ header files (in Unix form for portability)
+define_macros  [(name : string, value : string|None)] list of macros to
+define; each macro is defined using a 2-tuple, where 'value' is either the
+string to define it to or None to define it without a particular value
+(equivalent of "#define FOO" in source or -DFOO on Unix C compiler command
+line)  undef_macros  [string] list of macros to undefine explicitly
+library_dirs  [string] list of directories to search for C/C++ libraries at
+link time  libraries  [string] list of library names (not filenames or paths)
+to link against  runtime_library_dirs  [string] list of directories to search
+for C/C++ libraries at run time (for shared extensions, this is when the
+extension is loaded)  extra_objects  [string] list of extra files to link
+with (eg. object files not implied by 'sources', static library that must be
+explicitly specified, binary resource files, etc.)  extra_compile_args
+[string] any extra platform- and compiler-specific information to use when
+compiling the source files in 'sources'. For platforms and compilers where
+"command line" makes sense, this is typically a list of command-line
+arguments, but for other platforms it could be anything.  extra_link_args
+[string] any extra platform- and compiler-specific information to use when
+linking object files together to create the extension (or to create a new
+static Python interpreter). Similar interpretation as for
+'extra_compile_args'.  export_symbols  [string] list of symbols to be
+exported from a shared extension. Not used on all platforms, and not
+generally necessary for Python extensions, which typically export exactly one
+symbol: "init" + extension_name.
+
+
+Keyword Option Examples
+-----------------------
+
+We'll walk through several examples here to demonstrate the behavior of
+``inline`` and also how the various arguments are used. In the simplest
+(most) cases, ``code`` and ``arg_names`` are the only arguments that need to
+be specified. Here's a simple example run on Windows machine that has
+Microsoft VC++ installed.
+
+::
+
+        >>> from weave import inline
+        >>> a = 'string'
+        >>> code = """
+        ...        int l = a.length();
+        ...        return_val = Py::new_reference_to(Py::Int(l));
+        ...        """
+        >>> inline(code,['a'])
+         sc_86e98826b65b047ffd2cd5f479c627f12.cpp
+        Creating
+           library C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\sc_86e98826b65b047ffd2cd5f479c627f12.lib
+        and object C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\sc_86e98826b65b047ff
+        d2cd5f479c627f12.exp
+        6
+        >>> inline(code,['a'])
+        6
+
+
+When ``inline`` is first run, you'll notice that pause and some trash printed
+to the screen. The "trash" is acutually part of the compilers output that
+distutils does not supress. The name of the extension file,
+``sc_bighonkingnumber.cpp``, is generated from the md5 check sum of the C/C++
+code fragment. On Unix or windows machines with only gcc installed, the trash
+will not appear. On the second call, the code fragment is not compiled since
+it already exists, and only the answer is returned. Now kill the interpreter
+and restart, and run the same code with a different string.
+
+::
+
+        >>> from weave import inline
+        >>> a = 'a longer string'
+        >>> code = """
+        ...        int l = a.length();
+        ...        return_val = Py::new_reference_to(Py::Int(l));
+        ...        """
+        >>> inline(code,['a'])
+        15
+
+
+Notice this time, ``inline()`` did not recompile the code because it found
+the compiled function in the persistent catalog of functions. There is a
+short pause as it looks up and loads the function, but it is much shorter
+than compiling would require.
+
+You can specify the local and global dictionaries if you'd like (much like
+``exec`` or ``eval()`` in Python), but if they aren't specified, the
+"expected" ones are used -- i.e. the ones from the function that called
+``inline()``. This is accomplished through a little call frame trickery.
+Here is an example where the local_dict is specified using the same code
+example from above::
+
+        >>> a = 'a longer string'
+        >>> b = 'an even  longer string'
+        >>> my_dict = {'a':b}
+        >>> inline(code,['a'])
+        15
+        >>> inline(code,['a'],my_dict)
+        21
+
+
+Everytime, the ``code`` is changed, ``inline`` does a recompile. However,
+changing any of the other options in inline does not force a recompile. The
+``force`` option was added so that one could force a recompile when tinkering
+with other variables. In practice, it is just as easy to change the ``code``
+by a single character (like adding a space some place) to force the
+recompile.
+
+.. note::
+   It also might be nice to add some methods for purging the
+   cache and on disk catalogs.
+
+I use ``verbose`` sometimes for debugging. When set to 2, it'll output all
+the information (including the name of the .cpp file) that you'd expect from
+running a make file. This is nice if you need to examine the generated code
+to see where things are going haywire. Note that error messages from failed
+compiles are printed to the screen even if ``verbose`` is set to 0.
+
+The following example demonstrates using gcc instead of the standard msvc
+compiler on windows using same code fragment as above. Because the example
+has already been compiled, the ``force=1`` flag is needed to make
+``inline()`` ignore the previously compiled version and recompile using gcc.
+The verbose flag is added to show what is printed out::
+
+        >>>inline(code,['a'],compiler='gcc',verbose=2,force=1)
+        running build_ext
+        building 'sc_86e98826b65b047ffd2cd5f479c627f13' extension
+        c:\gcc-2.95.2\bin\g++.exe -mno-cygwin -mdll -O2 -w -Wstrict-prototypes -IC:
+        \home\ej\wrk\scipy\weave -IC:\Python21\Include -c C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCAL
+        S~1\Temp\python21_compiled\sc_86e98826b65b047ffd2cd5f479c627f13.cpp
+        -o C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\sc_86e98826b65b04ffd2cd5f479c627f13.o
+        skipping C:\home\ej\wrk\scipy\weave\CXX\cxxextensions.c
+        (C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\cxxextensions.o up-to-date)
+        skipping C:\home\ej\wrk\scipy\weave\CXX\cxxsupport.cxx
+        (C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\cxxsupport.o up-to-date)
+        skipping C:\home\ej\wrk\scipy\weave\CXX\IndirectPythonInterface.cxx
+        (C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\indirectpythoninterface.o up-to-date)
+        skipping C:\home\ej\wrk\scipy\weave\CXX\cxx_extensions.cxx
+        (C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\cxx_extensions.o
+        up-to-date)
+        writing C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\sc_86e98826b65b047ffd2cd5f479c627f13.def
+        c:\gcc-2.95.2\bin\dllwrap.exe --driver-name g++ -mno-cygwin
+        -mdll -static --output-lib
+        C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\libsc_86e98826b65b047ffd2cd5f479c627f13.a --def
+        C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\sc_86e98826b65b047ffd2cd5f479c627f13.def
+        -sC:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\sc_86e98826b65b047ffd2cd5f479c627f13.o
+        C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\cxxextensions.o
+        C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\cxxsupport.o
+        C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\indirectpythoninterface.o
+        C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\temp\Release\cxx_extensions.o -LC:\Python21\libs
+        -lpython21 -o
+        C:\DOCUME~1\eric\LOCALS~1\Temp\python21_compiled\sc_86e98826b65b047ffd2cd5f479c627f13.pyd
+        15
+
+That's quite a bit of output. ``verbose=1`` just prints the compile time.
+
+::
+
+        >>>inline(code,['a'],compiler='gcc',verbose=1,force=1)
+        Compiling code...
+        finished compiling (sec):  6.00800001621
+        15
+
+
+.. note::
+  I've only used the ``compiler`` option for switching between 'msvc'
+  and 'gcc' on windows. It may have use on Unix also, but I don't know yet.
+
+The ``support_code`` argument is likely to be used a lot. It allows you to
+specify extra code fragments such as function, structure or class definitions
+that you want to use in the ``code`` string. Note that changes to
+``support_code`` do *not* force a recompile. The catalog only relies on
+``code`` (for performance reasons) to determine whether recompiling is
+necessary. So, if you make a change to support_code, you'll need to alter
+``code`` in some way or use the ``force`` argument to get the code to
+recompile. I usually just add some inocuous whitespace to the end of one of
+the lines in ``code`` somewhere. Here's an example of defining a separate
+method for calculating the string length:
+
+::
+        >>> from weave import inline
+        >>> a = 'a longer string'
+        >>> support_code = """
+        ...                PyObject* length(Py::String a)
+        ...                {
+        ...                    int l = a.length();
+        ...                    return Py::new_reference_to(Py::Int(l));
+        ...                }
+        ...                """
+        >>> inline("return_val = length(a);",['a'],
+        ...        support_code = support_code)
+        15
+
+
+``customize`` is a left over from a previous way of specifying compiler
+options. It is a ``custom_info`` object that can specify quite a bit of
+information about how a file is compiled. These ``info`` objects are the
+standard way of defining compile information for type conversion classes.
+However, I don't think they are as handy here, especially since we've exposed
+all the keyword arguments that distutils can handle. Between these keywords,
+and the ``support_code`` option, I think ``customize`` may be obsolete. We'll
+see if anyone cares to use it. If not, it'll get axed in the next version.
+
+The ``type_factories`` variable is important to people who want to customize
+the way arguments are converted from Python to C. We'll talk about this in
+the next chapter **xx** of this document when we discuss type conversions.
+
+``auto_downcast`` handles one of the big type conversion issues that is
+common when using NumPy arrays in conjunction with Python scalar values. If
+you have an array of single precision values and multiply that array by a
+Python scalar, the result is upcast to a double precision array because the
+scalar value is double precision. This is not usually the desired behavior
+because it can double your memory usage. ``auto_downcast`` goes some distance
+towards changing the casting precedence of arrays and scalars. If your only
+using single precision arrays, it will automatically downcast all scalar
+values from double to single precision when they are passed into the C++
+code. This is the default behavior. If you want all values to keep there
+default type, set ``auto_downcast`` to 0.
+
+
+Returning Values
+----------------
+
+Python variables in the local and global scope transfer seemlessly from
+Python into the C++ snippets. And, if ``inline`` were to completely live up
+to its name, any modifications to variables in the C++ code would be
+reflected in the Python variables when control was passed back to Python. For
+example, the desired behavior would be something like::
+
+        # THIS DOES NOT WORK
+        >>> a = 1
+        >>> weave.inline("a++;",['a'])
+        >>> a
+        2
+
+
+Instead you get::
+
+        >>> a = 1
+        >>> weave.inline("a++;",['a'])
+        >>> a
+        1
+
+
+Variables are passed into C++ as if you are calling a Python function.
+Python's calling convention is sometimes called "pass by assignment". This
+means its as if a ``c_a = a`` assignment is made right before ``inline`` call
+is made and the ``c_a`` variable is used within the C++ code. Thus, any
+changes made to ``c_a`` are not reflected in Python's ``a`` variable. Things
+do get a little more confusing, however, when looking at variables with
+mutable types. Changes made in C++ to the contents of mutable types *are*
+reflected in the Python variables.
+
+::
+        >>> a= [1,2]
+        >>> weave.inline("PyList_SetItem(a.ptr(),0,PyInt_FromLong(3));",['a'])
+        >>> print a
+        [3, 2]
+
+
+So modifications to the contents of mutable types in C++ are seen when
+control is returned to Python. Modifications to immutable types such as
+tuples, strings, and numbers do not alter the Python variables. If you need
+to make changes to an immutable variable, you'll need to assign the new value
+to the "magic" variable ``return_val`` in C++. This value is returned by the
+``inline()`` function::
+
+        >>> a = 1
+        >>> a = weave.inline("return_val = Py::new_reference_to(Py::Int(a+1));",['a'])
+        >>> a
+        2
+
+
+The ``return_val`` variable can also be used to return newly created values.
+This is possible by returning a tuple. The following trivial example
+illustrates how this can be done::
+
+        # python version
+        def multi_return():
+            return 1, '2nd'
+
+        # C version.
+        def c_multi_return():
+            code =  """
+                      py::tuple results(2);
+                      results[0] = 1;
+                      results[1] = "2nd";
+                      return_val = results;
+                    """
+            return inline_tools.inline(code)
+
+The example is available in ``examples/tuple_return.py``. It also has the
+dubious honor of demonstrating how much ``inline()`` can slow things down.
+The C version here is about 7-10 times slower than the Python version. Of
+course, something so trivial has no reason to be written in C anyway.
+
+
+The issue with ``locals()``
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+``inline`` passes the ``locals()`` and ``globals()`` dictionaries from Python
+into the C++ function from the calling function. It extracts the variables
+that are used in the C++ code from these dictionaries, converts then to C++
+variables, and then calculates using them. It seems like it would be trivial,
+then, after the calculations were finished to then insert the new values back
+into the ``locals()`` and ``globals()`` dictionaries so that the modified
+values were reflected in Python. Unfortunately, as pointed out by the Python
+manual, the locals() dictionary is not writable.
+
+I suspect ``locals()`` is not writable because there are some optimizations
+done to speed lookups of the local namespace. I'm guessing local lookups
+don't always look at a dictionary to find values. Can someone "in the know"
+confirm or correct this? Another thing I'd like to know is whether there is a
+way to write to the local namespace of another stack frame from C/C++. If so,
+it would be possible to have some clean up code in compiled functions that
+wrote final values of variables in C++ back to the correct Python stack
+frame. I think this goes a long way toward making ``inline`` truely live up
+to its name. I don't think we'll get to the point of creating variables in
+Python for variables created in C -- although I suppose with a C/C++ parser
+you could do that also.
+
+
+A quick look at the code
+------------------------
+
+``weave`` generates a C++ file holding an extension function for each
+``inline`` code snippet. These file names are generated using from the md5
+signature of the code snippet and saved to a location specified by the
+PYTHONCOMPILED environment variable (discussed later). The cpp files are
+generally about 200-400 lines long and include quite a few functions to
+support type conversions, etc. However, the actual compiled function is
+pretty simple. Below is the familiar ``printf`` example:
+
+::
+        >>> import weave
+        >>> a = 1
+        >>> weave.inline('printf("%d\\n",a);',['a'])
+        1
+
+
+And here is the extension function generated by ``inline``::
+
+    static PyObject* compiled_func(PyObject*self, PyObject* args)
+    {
+        py::object return_val;
+        int exception_occured = 0;
+        PyObject *py__locals = NULL;
+        PyObject *py__globals = NULL;
+        PyObject *py_a;
+        py_a = NULL;
+
+        if(!PyArg_ParseTuple(args,"OO:compiled_func",&py__locals,&py__globals))
+            return NULL;
+        try
+        {
+            PyObject* raw_locals = py_to_raw_dict(py__locals,"_locals");
+            PyObject* raw_globals = py_to_raw_dict(py__globals,"_globals");
+            /* argument conversion code */
+            py_a = get_variable("a",raw_locals,raw_globals);
+            int a = convert_to_int(py_a,"a");
+            /* inline code */
+            /* NDARRAY API VERSION 90907 */
+            printf("%d\n",a);    /*I would like to fill in changed locals and globals here...*/
+        }
+        catch(...)
+        {
+            return_val =  py::object();
+            exception_occured = 1;
+        }
+        /* cleanup code */
+        if(!(PyObject*)return_val && !exception_occured)
+        {
+            return_val = Py_None;
+        }
+        return return_val.disown();
+    }
+
+Every inline function takes exactly two arguments -- the local and global
+dictionaries for the current scope. All variable values are looked up out of
+these dictionaries. The lookups, along with all ``inline`` code execution,
+are done within a C++ ``try`` block. If the variables aren't found, or there
+is an error converting a Python variable to the appropriate type in C++, an
+exception is raised. The C++ exception is automatically converted to a Python
+exception by SCXX and returned to Python. The ``py_to_int()`` function
+illustrates how the conversions and exception handling works. py_to_int first
+checks that the given PyObject* pointer is not NULL and is a Python integer.
+If all is well, it calls the Python API to convert the value to an ``int``.
+Otherwise, it calls ``handle_bad_type()`` which gathers information about
+what went wrong and then raises a SCXX TypeError which returns to Python as a
+TypeError.
+
+::
+
+        int py_to_int(PyObject* py_obj,char* name)
+        {
+            if (!py_obj || !PyInt_Check(py_obj))
+                handle_bad_type(py_obj,"int", name);
+            return (int) PyInt_AsLong(py_obj);
+        }
+
+
+::
+
+        void handle_bad_type(PyObject* py_obj, char* good_type, char* var_name)
+        {
+            char msg[500];
+            sprintf(msg,"received '%s' type instead of '%s' for variable '%s'",
+                    find_type(py_obj),good_type,var_name);
+            throw Py::TypeError(msg);
+        }
+
+        char* find_type(PyObject* py_obj)
+        {
+            if(py_obj == NULL) return "C NULL value";
+            if(PyCallable_Check(py_obj)) return "callable";
+            if(PyString_Check(py_obj)) return "string";
+            if(PyInt_Check(py_obj)) return "int";
+            if(PyFloat_Check(py_obj)) return "float";
+            if(PyDict_Check(py_obj)) return "dict";
+            if(PyList_Check(py_obj)) return "list";
+            if(PyTuple_Check(py_obj)) return "tuple";
+            if(PyFile_Check(py_obj)) return "file";
+            if(PyModule_Check(py_obj)) return "module";
+
+            //should probably do more interagation (and thinking) on these.
+            if(PyCallable_Check(py_obj) && PyInstance_Check(py_obj)) return "callable";
+            if(PyInstance_Check(py_obj)) return "instance";
+            if(PyCallable_Check(py_obj)) return "callable";
+            return "unkown type";
+        }
+
+Since the ``inline`` is also executed within the ``try/catch`` block, you can
+use CXX exceptions within your code. It is usually a bad idea to directly
+``return`` from your code, even if an error occurs. This skips the clean up
+section of the extension function. In this simple example, there isn't any
+clean up code, but in more complicated examples, there may be some reference
+counting that needs to be taken care of here on converted variables. To avoid
+this, either uses exceptions or set ``return_val`` to NULL and use
+``if/then's`` to skip code after errors.
+
+Technical Details
+=================
+
+There are several main steps to using C/C++ code withing Python:
+
+1.  Type conversion
+2.  Generating C/C++ code
+3.  Compile the code to an extension module
+4.  Catalog (and cache) the function for future use
+
+Items 1 and 2 above are related, but most easily discussed separately. Type
+conversions are customizable by the user if needed. Understanding them is
+pretty important for anything beyond trivial uses of ``inline``. Generating
+the C/C++ code is handled by ``ext_function`` and ``ext_module`` classes and
+. For the most part, compiling the code is handled by distutils. Some
+customizations were needed, but they were relatively minor and do not require
+changes to distutils itself. Cataloging is pretty simple in concept, but
+surprisingly required the most code to implement (and still likely needs some
+work). So, this section covers items 1 and 4 from the list. Item 2 is covered
+later in the chapter covering the ``ext_tools`` module, and distutils is
+covered by a completely separate document xxx.
+
+
+Passing Variables in/out of the C/C++ code
+==========================================
+
+.. note::
+  Passing variables into the C code is pretty straight forward, but
+  there are subtlties to how variable modifications in C are returned to
+  Python. see `Returning Values`_ for a more thorough discussion of this issue.
+
+Type Conversions
+================
+
+.. note::
+  Maybe ``xxx_converter`` instead of ``xxx_specification`` is a more
+  descriptive name. Might change in future version?
+
+By default, ``inline()`` makes the following type conversions between Python
+and C++ types.
+
+Default Data Type Conversions
+
+Python
+
+C++
+
+   int    int
+   float    double
+   complex    std::complex
+   string    py::string
+   list    py::list
+   dict    py::dict
+   tuple    py::tuple
+   file    FILE*
+   callable    py::object
+   instance    py::object
+   numpy.ndarray    PyArrayObject*
+   wxXXX    wxXXX*
+
+The ``Py::`` namespace is defined by the SCXX library which has C++ class
+equivalents for many Python types. ``std::`` is the namespace of the standard
+library in C++.
+
+
+.. note::
+  -   I haven't figured out how to handle ``long int`` yet (I think they
+      are currenlty converted to int - - check this).
+  -   Hopefully VTK will be added to the list soon
+
+Python to C++ conversions fill in code in several locations in the generated
+``inline`` extension function. Below is the basic template for the function.
+This is actually the exact code that is generated by calling
+``weave.inline("")``.
+
+
+The ``/* inline code */`` section is filled with the code passed to the
+``inline()`` function call. The ``/*argument convserion code*/`` and ``/*
+cleanup code */`` sections are filled with code that handles conversion from
+Python to C++ types and code that deallocates memory or manipulates reference
+counts before the function returns. The following sections demostrate how
+these two areas are filled in by the default conversion methods. * Note: I'm
+not sure I have reference counting correct on a few of these. The only thing
+I increase/decrease the ref count on is NumPy arrays. If you see an issue,
+please let me know.
+
+NumPy Argument Conversion
+-------------------------
+
+Integer, floating point, and complex arguments are handled in a very similar
+fashion. Consider the following inline function that has a single integer
+variable passed in::
+
+        >>> a = 1
+        >>> inline("",['a'])
+
+
+The argument conversion code inserted for ``a`` is::
+
+        /* argument conversion code */
+        int a = py_to_int (get_variable("a",raw_locals,raw_globals),"a");
+
+``get_variable()`` reads the variable ``a`` from the local and global
+namespaces. ``py_to_int()`` has the following form::
+
+        static int py_to_int(PyObject* py_obj,char* name)
+        {
+            if (!py_obj || !PyInt_Check(py_obj))
+                handle_bad_type(py_obj,"int", name);
+            return (int) PyInt_AsLong(py_obj);
+        }
+
+
+Similarly, the float and complex conversion routines look like::
+
+        static double py_to_float(PyObject* py_obj,char* name)
+        {
+            if (!py_obj || !PyFloat_Check(py_obj))
+                handle_bad_type(py_obj,"float", name);
+            return PyFloat_AsDouble(py_obj);
+        }
+
+        static std::complex py_to_complex(PyObject* py_obj,char* name)
+        {
+            if (!py_obj || !PyComplex_Check(py_obj))
+                handle_bad_type(py_obj,"complex", name);
+            return std::complex(PyComplex_RealAsDouble(py_obj),
+                                        PyComplex_ImagAsDouble(py_obj));
+        }
+
+NumPy conversions do not require any clean up code.
+
+String, List, Tuple, and Dictionary Conversion
+----------------------------------------------
+
+Strings, Lists, Tuples and Dictionary conversions are all converted to SCXX
+types by default. For the following code,
+
+::
+
+        >>> a = [1]
+        >>> inline("",['a'])
+
+
+The argument conversion code inserted for ``a`` is::
+
+        /* argument conversion code */
+        Py::List a = py_to_list(get_variable("a",raw_locals,raw_globals),"a");
+
+
+``get_variable()`` reads the variable ``a`` from the local and global
+namespaces. ``py_to_list()`` and its friends has the following form::
+
+        static Py::List py_to_list(PyObject* py_obj,char* name)
+        {
+            if (!py_obj || !PyList_Check(py_obj))
+                handle_bad_type(py_obj,"list", name);
+            return Py::List(py_obj);
+        }
+
+        static Py::String py_to_string(PyObject* py_obj,char* name)
+        {
+            if (!PyString_Check(py_obj))
+                handle_bad_type(py_obj,"string", name);
+            return Py::String(py_obj);
+        }
+
+        static Py::Dict py_to_dict(PyObject* py_obj,char* name)
+        {
+            if (!py_obj || !PyDict_Check(py_obj))
+                handle_bad_type(py_obj,"dict", name);
+            return Py::Dict(py_obj);
+        }
+
+        static Py::Tuple py_to_tuple(PyObject* py_obj,char* name)
+        {
+            if (!py_obj || !PyTuple_Check(py_obj))
+                handle_bad_type(py_obj,"tuple", name);
+            return Py::Tuple(py_obj);
+        }
+
+SCXX handles reference counts on for strings, lists, tuples, and
+dictionaries, so clean up code isn't necessary.
+
+File Conversion
+---------------
+
+For the following code,
+
+::
+
+        >>> a = open("bob",'w')
+        >>> inline("",['a'])
+
+
+The argument conversion code is::
+
+        /* argument conversion code */
+        PyObject* py_a = get_variable("a",raw_locals,raw_globals);
+        FILE* a = py_to_file(py_a,"a");
+
+
+``get_variable()`` reads the variable ``a`` from the local and global
+namespaces. ``py_to_file()`` converts PyObject* to a FILE* and increments the
+reference count of the PyObject*::
+
+        FILE* py_to_file(PyObject* py_obj, char* name)
+        {
+            if (!py_obj || !PyFile_Check(py_obj))
+                handle_bad_type(py_obj,"file", name);
+
+            Py_INCREF(py_obj);
+            return PyFile_AsFile(py_obj);
+        }
+
+Because the PyObject* was incremented, the clean up code needs to decrement
+the counter
+
+::
+
+        /* cleanup code */
+        Py_XDECREF(py_a);
+
+
+Its important to understand that file conversion only works on actual files
+-- i.e. ones created using the ``open()`` command in Python. It does not
+support converting arbitrary objects that support the file interface into C
+``FILE*`` pointers. This can affect many things. For example, in initial
+``printf()`` examples, one might be tempted to solve the problem of C and
+Python IDE's (PythonWin, PyCrust, etc.) writing to different stdout and
+stderr by using ``fprintf()`` and passing in ``sys.stdout`` and
+``sys.stderr``. For example, instead of
+
+::
+
+        >>> weave.inline('printf("hello\\n");')
+
+
+You might try:
+
+::
+
+        >>> buf = sys.stdout
+        >>> weave.inline('fprintf(buf,"hello\\n");',['buf'])
+
+
+This will work as expected from a standard python interpreter, but in
+PythonWin, the following occurs:
+
+::
+
+        >>> buf = sys.stdout
+        >>> weave.inline('fprintf(buf,"hello\\n");',['buf'])
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+            File "", line 1, in ?
+            File "C:\Python21\weave\inline_tools.py", line 315, in inline
+                auto_downcast = auto_downcast,
+            File "C:\Python21\weave\inline_tools.py", line 386, in compile_function
+                type_factories = type_factories)
+            File "C:\Python21\weave\ext_tools.py", line 197, in __init__
+                auto_downcast, type_factories)
+            File "C:\Python21\weave\ext_tools.py", line 390, in assign_variable_types
+                raise TypeError, format_error_msg(errors)
+            TypeError: {'buf': "Unable to convert variable 'buf' to a C++ type."}
+
+
+The traceback tells us that ``inline()`` was unable to convert 'buf' to a C++
+type (If instance conversion was implemented, the error would have occurred
+at runtime instead). Why is this? Let's look at what the ``buf`` object
+really is::
+
+        >>> buf
+        pywin.framework.interact.InteractiveView instance at 00EAD014
+
+
+PythonWin has reassigned ``sys.stdout`` to a special object that implements
+the Python file interface. This works great in Python, but since the special
+object doesn't have a FILE* pointer underlying it, fprintf doesn't know what
+to do with it (well this will be the problem when instance conversion is
+implemented...).
+
+Callable, Instance, and Module Conversion
+-----------------------------------------
+
+
+.. note::
+  Need to look into how ref counts should be handled. Also, Instance and
+  Module conversion are not currently implemented.
+
+::
+
+        >>> def a():
+            pass
+        >>> inline("",['a'])
+
+
+Callable and instance variables are converted to PyObject*. Nothing is done
+to there reference counts.
+
+::
+
+        /* argument conversion code */
+        PyObject* a = py_to_callable(get_variable("a",raw_locals,raw_globals),"a");
+
+
+``get_variable()`` reads the variable ``a`` from the local and global
+namespaces. The ``py_to_callable()`` and ``py_to_instance()`` don't currently
+increment the ref count.
+
+::
+
+        PyObject* py_to_callable(PyObject* py_obj, char* name)
+        {
+            if (!py_obj || !PyCallable_Check(py_obj))
+                handle_bad_type(py_obj,"callable", name);
+            return py_obj;
+        }
+
+        PyObject* py_to_instance(PyObject* py_obj, char* name)
+        {
+            if (!py_obj || !PyFile_Check(py_obj))
+                handle_bad_type(py_obj,"instance", name);
+            return py_obj;
+        }
+
+There is no cleanup code for callables, modules, or instances.
+
+Customizing Conversions
+-----------------------
+
+Converting from Python to C++ types is handled by xxx_specification classes.
+A type specification class actually serve in two related but different roles.
+The first is in determining whether a Python variable that needs to be
+converted should be represented by the given class. The second is as a code
+generator that generate C++ code needed to convert from Python to C++ types
+for a specific variable.
+
+When
+
+::
+
+        >>> a = 1
+        >>> weave.inline('printf("%d",a);',['a'])
+
+
+is called for the first time, the code snippet has to be compiled. In this
+process, the variable 'a' is tested against a list of type specifications
+(the default list is stored in weave/ext_tools.py). The *first* specification
+in the list is used to represent the variable.
+
+Examples of ``xxx_specification`` are scattered throughout numerous
+"xxx_spec.py" files in the ``weave`` package. Closely related to the
+``xxx_specification`` classes are ``yyy_info`` classes. These classes contain
+compiler, header, and support code information necessary for including a
+certain set of capabilities (such as blitz++ or CXX support) in a compiled
+module. ``xxx_specification`` classes have one or more ``yyy_info`` classes
+associated with them. If you'd like to define your own set of type
+specifications, the current best route is to examine some of the existing
+spec and info files. Maybe looking over sequence_spec.py and cxx_info.py are
+a good place to start. After defining specification classes, you'll need to
+pass them into ``inline`` using the ``type_factories`` argument. A lot of
+times you may just want to change how a specific variable type is
+represented. Say you'd rather have Python strings converted to
+``std::string`` or maybe ``char*`` instead of using the CXX string object,
+but would like all other type conversions to have default behavior. This
+requires that a new specification class that handles strings is written and
+then prepended to a list of the default type specifications. Since it is
+closer to the front of the list, it effectively overrides the default string
+specification. The following code demonstrates how this is done: ...
+
+
+The Catalog
+===========
+
+``catalog.py`` has a class called ``catalog`` that helps keep track of
+previously compiled functions. This prevents ``inline()`` and related
+functions from having to compile functions everytime they are called.
+Instead, catalog will check an in memory cache to see if the function has
+already been loaded into python. If it hasn't, then it starts searching
+through persisent catalogs on disk to see if it finds an entry for the given
+function. By saving information about compiled functions to disk, it isn't
+necessary to re-compile functions everytime you stop and restart the
+interpreter. Functions are compiled once and stored for future use.
+
+When ``inline(cpp_code)`` is called the following things happen:
+
+1.  A fast local cache of functions is checked for the last function
+    called for ``cpp_code``. If an entry for ``cpp_code`` doesn't exist in
+    the cache or the cached function call fails (perhaps because the function
+    doesn't have compatible types) then the next step is to check the
+    catalog.
+
+2.  The catalog class also keeps an in-memory cache with a list of all
+    the functions compiled for ``cpp_code``. If ``cpp_code`` has ever been
+    called, then this cache will be present (loaded from disk). If the cache
+    isn't present, then it is loaded from disk.
+
+    If the cache is present, each function in the cache is called until
+    one is found that was compiled for the correct argument types. If none of
+    the functions work, a new function is compiled with the given argument
+    types. This function is written to the on-disk catalog as well as into
+    the in-memory cache.
+
+3.  When a lookup for ``cpp_code`` fails, the catalog looks through the
+    on-disk function catalogs for the entries. The PYTHONCOMPILED variable
+    determines where to search for these catalogs and in what order. If
+    PYTHONCOMPILED is not present several platform dependent locations are
+    searched. All functions found for ``cpp_code`` in the path are loaded
+    into the in-memory cache with functions found earlier in the search path
+    closer to the front of the call list.
+
+    If the function isn't found in the on-disk catalog, then the function
+    is compiled, written to the first writable directory in the
+    PYTHONCOMPILED path, and also loaded into the in-memory cache.
+
+
+Function Storage
+----------------
+
+Function caches are stored as dictionaries where the key is the entire C++
+code string and the value is either a single function (as in the "level 1"
+cache) or a list of functions (as in the main catalog cache). On disk
+catalogs are stored in the same manor using standard Python shelves.
+
+Early on, there was a question as to whether md5 check sums of the C++ code
+strings should be used instead of the actual code strings. I think this is
+the route inline Perl took. Some (admittedly quick) tests of the md5 vs. the
+entire string showed that using the entire string was at least a factor of 3
+or 4 faster for Python. I think this is because it is more time consuming to
+compute the md5 value than it is to do look-ups of long strings in the
+dictionary. Look at the examples/md5_speed.py file for the test run.
+
+
+Catalog search paths and the PYTHONCOMPILED variable
+----------------------------------------------------
+
+The default location for catalog files on Unix is is ~/.pythonXX_compiled
+where XX is version of Python being used. If this directory doesn't exist, it
+is created the first time a catalog is used. The directory must be writable.
+If, for any reason it isn't, then the catalog attempts to create a directory
+based on your user id in the /tmp directory. The directory permissions are
+set so that only you have access to the directory. If this fails, I think
+you're out of luck. I don't think either of these should ever fail though. On
+Windows, a directory called pythonXX_compiled is created in the user's
+temporary directory.
+
+The actual catalog file that lives in this directory is a Python shelve with
+a platform specific name such as "nt21compiled_catalog" so that multiple OSes
+can share the same file systems without trampling on each other. Along with
+the catalog file, the .cpp and .so or .pyd files created by inline will live
+in this directory. The catalog file simply contains keys which are the C++
+code strings with values that are lists of functions. The function lists
+point at functions within these compiled modules. Each function in the lists
+executes the same C++ code string, but compiled for different input
+variables.
+
+You can use the PYTHONCOMPILED environment variable to specify alternative
+locations for compiled functions. On Unix this is a colon (':') separated
+list of directories. On windows, it is a (';') separated list of directories.
+These directories will be searched prior to the default directory for a
+compiled function catalog. Also, the first writable directory in the list is
+where all new compiled function catalogs, .cpp and .so or .pyd files are
+written. Relative directory paths ('.' and '..') should work fine in the
+PYTHONCOMPILED variable as should environement variables.
+
+There is a "special" path variable called MODULE that can be placed in the
+PYTHONCOMPILED variable. It specifies that the compiled catalog should reside
+in the same directory as the module that called it. This is useful if an
+admin wants to build a lot of compiled functions during the build of a
+package and then install them in site-packages along with the package. User's
+who specify MODULE in their PYTHONCOMPILED variable will have access to these
+compiled functions. Note, however, that if they call the function with a set
+of argument types that it hasn't previously been built for, the new function
+will be stored in their default directory (or some other writable directory
+in the PYTHONCOMPILED path) because the user will not have write access to
+the site-packages directory.
+
+An example of using the PYTHONCOMPILED path on bash follows::
+
+        PYTHONCOMPILED=MODULE:/some/path;export PYTHONCOMPILED;
+
+
+If you are using python21 on linux, and the module bob.py in site-packages
+has a compiled function in it, then the catalog search order when calling
+that function for the first time in a python session would be::
+
+        /usr/lib/python21/site-packages/linuxpython_compiled
+        /some/path/linuxpython_compiled
+        ~/.python21_compiled/linuxpython_compiled
+
+
+The default location is always included in the search path.
+
+.. note::
+  hmmm. see a possible problem here. I should probably make a sub-
+  directory such as /usr/lib/python21/site-
+  packages/python21_compiled/linuxpython_compiled so that library files
+  compiled with python21 are tried to link with python22 files in some strange
+  scenarios. Need to check this.
+
+The in-module cache (in ``weave.inline_tools`` reduces the overhead of
+calling inline functions by about a factor of 2. It can be reduced a little
+more for type loop calls where the same function is called over and over
+again if the cache was a single value instead of a dictionary, but the
+benefit is very small (less than 5%) and the utility is quite a bit less. So,
+we'll stick with a dictionary as the cache.
+
+
+=======
+ Blitz
+=======
+
+.. note::
+  most of this section is lifted from old documentation. It should be
+  pretty accurate, but there may be a few discrepancies.
+
+``weave.blitz()`` compiles NumPy Python expressions for fast execution. For
+most applications, compiled expressions should provide a factor of 2-10
+speed-up over NumPy arrays. Using compiled expressions is meant to be as
+unobtrusive as possible and works much like pythons exec statement. As an
+example, the following code fragment takes a 5 point average of the 512x512
+2d image, b, and stores it in array, a::
+
+        from scipy import *  # or from NumPy import *
+        a = ones((512,512), Float64)
+        b = ones((512,512), Float64)
+        # ...do some stuff to fill in b...
+        # now average
+        a[1:-1,1:-1] =  (b[1:-1,1:-1] + b[2:,1:-1] + b[:-2,1:-1] \
+                       + b[1:-1,2:] + b[1:-1,:-2]) / 5.
+
+
+To compile the expression, convert the expression to a string by putting
+quotes around it and then use ``weave.blitz``::
+
+        import weave
+        expr = "a[1:-1,1:-1] =  (b[1:-1,1:-1] + b[2:,1:-1] + b[:-2,1:-1]" \
+                              "+ b[1:-1,2:] + b[1:-1,:-2]) / 5."
+        weave.blitz(expr)
+
+
+The first time ``weave.blitz`` is run for a given expression and set of
+arguements, C++ code that accomplishes the exact same task as the Python
+expression is generated and compiled to an extension module. This can take up
+to a couple of minutes depending on the complexity of the function.
+Subsequent calls to the function are very fast. Futher, the generated module
+is saved between program executions so that the compilation is only done once
+for a given expression and associated set of array types. If the given
+expression is executed with a new set of array types, the code most be
+compiled again. This does not overwrite the previously compiled function --
+both of them are saved and available for exectution.
+
+The following table compares the run times for standard NumPy code and
+compiled code for the 5 point averaging.
+
+Method Run Time (seconds)
+Standard NumPy 0.46349
+blitz (1st time compiling) 78.95526
+blitz (subsequent calls) 0.05843 (factor of 8 speedup)
+
+These numbers are for a 512x512 double precision image run on a 400 MHz
+Celeron processor under RedHat Linux 6.2.
+
+Because of the slow compile times, its probably most effective to develop
+algorithms as you usually do using the capabilities of scipy or the NumPy
+module. Once the algorithm is perfected, put quotes around it and execute it
+using ``weave.blitz``. This provides the standard rapid prototyping strengths
+of Python and results in algorithms that run close to that of hand coded C or
+Fortran.
+
+
+Requirements
+============
+
+Currently, the ``weave.blitz`` has only been tested under Linux with
+gcc-2.95-3 and on Windows with Mingw32 (2.95.2). Its compiler requirements
+are pretty heavy duty (see the `blitz++ home page`_), so it won't work with
+just any compiler. Particularly MSVC++ isn't up to snuff. A number of other
+compilers such as KAI++ will also work, but my suspicions are that gcc will
+get the most use.
+
+Limitations
+===========
+
+1.  Currently, ``weave.blitz`` handles all standard mathematic operators
+    except for the ** power operator. The built-in trigonmetric, log,
+    floor/ceil, and fabs functions might work (but haven't been tested). It
+    also handles all types of array indexing supported by the NumPy module.
+    numarray's NumPy compatible array indexing modes are likewise supported,
+    but numarray's enhanced (array based) indexing modes are not supported.
+
+    ``weave.blitz`` does not currently support operations that use array
+    broadcasting, nor have any of the special purpose functions in NumPy such
+    as take, compress, etc. been implemented. Note that there are no obvious
+    reasons why most of this functionality cannot be added to scipy.weave, so
+    it will likely trickle into future versions. Using ``slice()`` objects
+    directly instead of ``start:stop:step`` is also not supported.
+
+2.  Currently Python only works on expressions that include assignment
+    such as
+
+    ::
+
+            >>> result = b + c + d
+
+    This means that the result array must exist before calling
+    ``weave.blitz``. Future versions will allow the following::
+
+            >>> result = weave.blitz_eval("b + c + d")
+
+3.  ``weave.blitz`` works best when algorithms can be expressed in a
+    "vectorized" form. Algorithms that have a large number of if/thens and
+    other conditions are better hand written in C or Fortran. Further, the
+    restrictions imposed by requiring vectorized expressions sometimes
+    preclude the use of more efficient data structures or algorithms. For
+    maximum speed in these cases, hand-coded C or Fortran code is the only
+    way to go.
+
+4.  ``weave.blitz`` can produce different results than NumPy in certain
+    situations. It can happen when the array receiving the results of a
+    calculation is also used during the calculation. The NumPy behavior is to
+    carry out the entire calculation on the right hand side of an equation
+    and store it in a temporary array. This temprorary array is assigned to
+    the array on the left hand side of the equation. blitz, on the other
+    hand, does a "running" calculation of the array elements assigning values
+    from the right hand side to the elements on the left hand side
+    immediately after they are calculated. Here is an example, provided by
+    Prabhu Ramachandran, where this happens::
+
+                # 4 point average.
+                >>> expr = "u[1:-1, 1:-1] = (u[0:-2, 1:-1] + u[2:, 1:-1] + \
+                ...                "u[1:-1,0:-2] + u[1:-1, 2:])*0.25"
+                >>> u = zeros((5, 5), 'd'); u[0,:] = 100
+                >>> exec (expr)
+                >>> u
+                array([[ 100.,  100.,  100.,  100.,  100.],
+                       [   0.,   25.,   25.,   25.,    0.],
+                       [   0.,    0.,    0.,    0.,    0.],
+                       [   0.,    0.,    0.,    0.,    0.],
+                       [   0.,    0.,    0.,    0.,    0.]])
+
+                >>> u = zeros((5, 5), 'd'); u[0,:] = 100
+                >>> weave.blitz (expr)
+                >>> u
+                array([[ 100.  ,  100.       ,  100.       ,  100.       , 100. ],
+                       [   0.  ,   25.       ,   31.25     ,   32.8125   , 0. ],
+                       [   0.  ,    6.25     ,    9.375    ,   10.546875 , 0. ],
+                       [   0.  ,    1.5625   ,    2.734375 ,    3.3203125, 0. ],
+                       [   0.  ,    0.       ,    0.       ,    0.       , 0. ]])
+
+    You can prevent this behavior by using a temporary array.
+
+    ::
+
+                >>> u = zeros((5, 5), 'd'); u[0,:] = 100
+                >>> temp = zeros((4, 4), 'd');
+                >>> expr = "temp = (u[0:-2, 1:-1] + u[2:, 1:-1] + "\
+                ...        "u[1:-1,0:-2] + u[1:-1, 2:])*0.25;"\
+                ...        "u[1:-1,1:-1] = temp"
+                >>> weave.blitz (expr)
+                >>> u
+                array([[ 100.,  100.,  100.,  100.,  100.],
+                       [   0.,   25.,   25.,   25.,    0.],
+                       [   0.,    0.,    0.,    0.,    0.],
+                       [   0.,    0.,    0.,    0.,    0.],
+                       [   0.,    0.,    0.,    0.,    0.]])
+
+5.  One other point deserves mention lest people be confused.
+    ``weave.blitz`` is not a general purpose Python->C compiler. It only
+    works for expressions that contain NumPy arrays and/or Python scalar
+    values. This focused scope concentrates effort on the compuationally
+    intensive regions of the program and sidesteps the difficult issues
+    associated with a general purpose Python->C compiler.
+
+
+NumPy efficiency issues: What compilation buys you
+==================================================
+
+Some might wonder why compiling NumPy expressions to C++ is beneficial since
+operations on NumPy array operations are already executed within C loops. The
+problem is that anything other than the simplest expression are executed in
+less than optimal fashion. Consider the following NumPy expression::
+
+        a = 1.2 * b + c * d
+
+
+When NumPy calculates the value for the 2d array, ``a``, it does the
+following steps::
+
+        temp1 = 1.2 * b
+        temp2 = c * d
+        a = temp1 + temp2
+
+
+Two things to note. Since ``c`` is an (perhaps large) array, a large
+temporary array must be created to store the results of ``1.2 * b``. The same
+is true for ``temp2``. Allocation is slow. The second thing is that we have 3
+loops executing, one to calculate ``temp1``, one for ``temp2`` and one for
+adding them up. A C loop for the same problem might look like::
+
+        for(int i = 0; i < M; i++)
+            for(int j = 0; j < N; j++)
+                a[i,j] = 1.2 * b[i,j] + c[i,j] * d[i,j]
+
+
+Here, the 3 loops have been fused into a single loop and there is no longer a
+need for a temporary array. This provides a significant speed improvement
+over the above example (write me and tell me what you get).
+
+So, converting NumPy expressions into C/C++ loops that fuse the loops and
+eliminate temporary arrays can provide big gains. The goal then,is to convert
+NumPy expression to C/C++ loops, compile them in an extension module, and
+then call the compiled extension function. The good news is that there is an
+obvious correspondence between the NumPy expression above and the C loop. The
+bad news is that NumPy is generally much more powerful than this simple
+example illustrates and handling all possible indexing possibilities results
+in loops that are less than straight forward to write. (take a peak in NumPy
+for confirmation). Luckily, there are several available tools that simplify
+the process.
+
+
+The Tools
+=========
+
+``weave.blitz`` relies heavily on several remarkable tools. On the Python
+side, the main facilitators are Jermey Hylton's parser module and Travis
+Oliphant's NumPy module. On the compiled language side, Todd Veldhuizen's
+blitz++ array library, written in C++ (shhhh. don't tell David Beazley), does
+the heavy lifting. Don't assume that, because it's C++, it's much slower than
+C or Fortran. Blitz++ uses a jaw dropping array of template techniques
+(metaprogramming, template expression, etc) to convert innocent looking and
+readable C++ expressions into to code that usually executes within a few
+percentage points of Fortran code for the same problem. This is good.
+Unfortunately all the template raz-ma-taz is very expensive to compile, so
+the 200 line extension modules often take 2 or more minutes to compile. This
+isn't so good. ``weave.blitz`` works to minimize this issue by remembering
+where compiled modules live and reusing them instead of re-compiling every
+time a program is re-run.
+
+Parser
+------
+
+Tearing NumPy expressions apart, examining the pieces, and then rebuilding
+them as C++ (blitz) expressions requires a parser of some sort. I can imagine
+someone attacking this problem with regular expressions, but it'd likely be
+ugly and fragile. Amazingly, Python solves this problem for us. It actually
+exposes its parsing engine to the world through the ``parser`` module. The
+following fragment creates an Abstract Syntax Tree (AST) object for the
+expression and then converts to a (rather unpleasant looking) deeply nested
+list representation of the tree.
+
+::
+
+        >>> import parser
+        >>> import scipy.weave.misc
+        >>> ast = parser.suite("a = b * c + d")
+        >>> ast_list = ast.tolist()
+        >>> sym_list = scipy.weave.misc.translate_symbols(ast_list)
+        >>> pprint.pprint(sym_list)
+        ['file_input',
+         ['stmt',
+          ['simple_stmt',
+           ['small_stmt',
+            ['expr_stmt',
+             ['testlist',
+              ['test',
+               ['and_test',
+                ['not_test',
+                 ['comparison',
+                  ['expr',
+                   ['xor_expr',
+                    ['and_expr',
+                     ['shift_expr',
+                      ['arith_expr',
+                       ['term',
+                        ['factor', ['power', ['atom', ['NAME', 'a']]]]]]]]]]]]]]],
+             ['EQUAL', '='],
+             ['testlist',
+              ['test',
+               ['and_test',
+                ['not_test',
+                 ['comparison',
+                  ['expr',
+                   ['xor_expr',
+                    ['and_expr',
+                     ['shift_expr',
+                      ['arith_expr',
+                       ['term',
+                        ['factor', ['power', ['atom', ['NAME', 'b']]]],
+                        ['STAR', '*'],
+                        ['factor', ['power', ['atom', ['NAME', 'c']]]]],
+                       ['PLUS', '+'],
+                       ['term',
+                        ['factor', ['power', ['atom', ['NAME', 'd']]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]],
+           ['NEWLINE', '']]],
+         ['ENDMARKER', '']]
+
+
+Despite its looks, with some tools developed by Jermey H., its possible to
+search these trees for specific patterns (sub-trees), extract the sub-tree,
+manipulate them converting python specific code fragments to blitz code
+fragments, and then re-insert it in the parse tree. The parser module
+documentation has some details on how to do this. Traversing the new
+blitzified tree, writing out the terminal symbols as you go, creates our new
+blitz++ expression string.
+
+Blitz and NumPy
+---------------
+
+The other nice discovery in the project is that the data structure used for
+NumPy arrays and blitz arrays is nearly identical. NumPy stores "strides" as
+byte offsets and blitz stores them as element offsets, but other than that,
+they are the same. Further, most of the concept and capabilities of the two
+libraries are remarkably similar. It is satisfying that two completely
+different implementations solved the problem with similar basic
+architectures. It is also fortuitous. The work involved in converting NumPy
+expressions to blitz expressions was greatly diminished. As an example,
+consider the code for slicing an array in Python with a stride::
+
+        >>> a = b[0:4:2] + c
+        >>> a
+        [0,2,4]
+
+
+In Blitz it is as follows::
+
+        Array<2,int> b(10);
+        Array<2,int> c(3);
+        // ...
+        Array<2,int> a = b(Range(0,3,2)) + c;
+
+
+Here the range object works exactly like Python slice objects with the
+exception that the top index (3) is inclusive where as Python's (4) is
+exclusive. Other differences include the type declaraions in C++ and
+parentheses instead of brackets for indexing arrays. Currently,
+``weave.blitz`` handles the inclusive/exclusive issue by subtracting one from
+upper indices during the translation. An alternative that is likely more
+robust/maintainable in the long run, is to write a PyRange class that behaves
+like Python's range. This is likely very easy.
+
+The stock blitz also doesn't handle negative indices in ranges. The current
+implementation of the ``blitz()`` has a partial solution to this problem. It
+calculates and index that starts with a '-' sign by subtracting it from the
+maximum index in the array so that::
+
+                        upper index limit
+                            /-----\
+        b[:-1] -> b(Range(0,Nb[0]-1-1))
+
+
+This approach fails, however, when the top index is calculated from other
+values. In the following scenario, if ``i+j`` evaluates to a negative value,
+the compiled code will produce incorrect results and could even core- dump.
+Right now, all calculated indices are assumed to be positive.
+
+::
+
+        b[:i-j] -> b(Range(0,i+j))
+
+
+A solution is to calculate all indices up front using if/then to handle the
++/- cases. This is a little work and results in more code, so it hasn't been
+done. I'm holding out to see if blitz++ can be modified to handle negative
+indexing, but haven't looked into how much effort is involved yet. While it
+needs fixin', I don't think there is a ton of code where this is an issue.
+
+The actual translation of the Python expressions to blitz expressions is
+currently a two part process. First, all x:y:z slicing expression are removed
+from the AST, converted to slice(x,y,z) and re-inserted into the tree. Any
+math needed on these expressions (subtracting from the maximum index, etc.)
+are also preformed here. _beg and _end are used as special variables that are
+defined as blitz::fromBegin and blitz::toEnd.
+
+::
+
+        a[i+j:i+j+1,:] = b[2:3,:]
+
+
+becomes a more verbose::
+
+        a[slice(i+j,i+j+1),slice(_beg,_end)] = b[slice(2,3),slice(_beg,_end)]
+
+
+The second part does a simple string search/replace to convert to a blitz
+expression with the following translations::
+
+        slice(_beg,_end) -> _all  # not strictly needed, but cuts down on code.
+        slice            -> blitz::Range
+        [                -> (
+        ]                -> )
+        _stp             -> 1
+
+
+``_all`` is defined in the compiled function as ``blitz::Range.all()``. These
+translations could of course happen directly in the syntax tree. But the
+string replacement is slightly easier. Note that name spaces are maintained
+in the C++ code to lessen the likelyhood of name clashes. Currently no effort
+is made to detect name clashes. A good rule of thumb is don't use values that
+start with '_' or 'py\_' in compiled expressions and you'll be fine.
+
+Type definitions and coersion
+=============================
+
+So far we've glossed over the dynamic vs. static typing issue between Python
+and C++. In Python, the type of value that a variable holds can change
+through the course of program execution. C/C++, on the other hand, forces you
+to declare the type of value a variables will hold prior at compile time.
+``weave.blitz`` handles this issue by examining the types of the variables in
+the expression being executed, and compiling a function for those explicit
+types. For example::
+
+        a = ones((5,5),Float32)
+        b = ones((5,5),Float32)
+        weave.blitz("a = a + b")
+
+
+When compiling this expression to C++, ``weave.blitz`` sees that the values
+for a and b in the local scope have type ``Float32``, or 'float' on a 32 bit
+architecture. As a result, it compiles the function using the float type (no
+attempt has been made to deal with 64 bit issues).
+
+What happens if you call a compiled function with array types that are
+different than the ones for which it was originally compiled? No biggie,
+you'll just have to wait on it to compile a new version for your new types.
+This doesn't overwrite the old functions, as they are still accessible. See
+the catalog section in the inline() documentation to see how this is handled.
+Suffice to say, the mechanism is transparent to the user and behaves like
+dynamic typing with the occasional wait for compiling newly typed functions.
+
+When working with combined scalar/array operations, the type of the array is
+*always* used. This is similar to the savespace flag that was recently added
+to NumPy. This prevents issues with the following expression perhaps
+unexpectedly being calculated at a higher (more expensive) precision that can
+occur in Python::
+
+        >>> a = array((1,2,3),typecode = Float32)
+        >>> b = a * 2.1 # results in b being a Float64 array.
+
+In this example,
+
+::
+
+        >>> a = ones((5,5),Float32)
+        >>> b = ones((5,5),Float32)
+        >>> weave.blitz("b = a * 2.1")
+
+
+the ``2.1`` is cast down to a ``float`` before carrying out the operation. If
+you really want to force the calculation to be a ``double``, define ``a`` and
+``b`` as ``double`` arrays.
+
+One other point of note. Currently, you must include both the right hand side
+and left hand side (assignment side) of your equation in the compiled
+expression. Also, the array being assigned to must be created prior to
+calling ``weave.blitz``. I'm pretty sure this is easily changed so that a
+compiled_eval expression can be defined, but no effort has been made to
+allocate new arrays (and decern their type) on the fly.
+
+
+Cataloging Compiled Functions
+=============================
+
+See `The Catalog`_ section in the ``weave.inline()``
+documentation.
+
+Checking Array Sizes
+====================
+
+Surprisingly, one of the big initial problems with compiled code was making
+sure all the arrays in an operation were of compatible type. The following
+case is trivially easy::
+
+        a = b + c
+
+
+It only requires that arrays ``a``, ``b``, and ``c`` have the same shape.
+However, expressions like::
+
+        a[i+j:i+j+1,:] = b[2:3,:] + c
+
+
+are not so trivial. Since slicing is involved, the size of the slices, not
+the input arrays must be checked. Broadcasting complicates things further
+because arrays and slices with different dimensions and shapes may be
+compatible for math operations (broadcasting isn't yet supported by
+``weave.blitz``). Reductions have a similar effect as their results are
+different shapes than their input operand. The binary operators in NumPy
+compare the shapes of their two operands just before they operate on them.
+This is possible because NumPy treats each operation independently. The
+intermediate (temporary) arrays created during sub-operations in an
+expression are tested for the correct shape before they are combined by
+another operation. Because ``weave.blitz`` fuses all operations into a single
+loop, this isn't possible. The shape comparisons must be done and guaranteed
+compatible before evaluating the expression.
+
+The solution chosen converts input arrays to "dummy arrays" that only
+represent the dimensions of the arrays, not the data. Binary operations on
+dummy arrays check that input array sizes are comptible and return a dummy
+array with the size correct size. Evaluating an expression of dummy arrays
+traces the changing array sizes through all operations and fails if
+incompatible array sizes are ever found.
+
+The machinery for this is housed in ``weave.size_check``. It basically
+involves writing a new class (dummy array) and overloading it math operators
+to calculate the new sizes correctly. All the code is in Python and there is
+a fair amount of logic (mainly to handle indexing and slicing) so the
+operation does impose some overhead. For large arrays (ie. 50x50x50), the
+overhead is negligible compared to evaluating the actual expression. For
+small arrays (ie. 16x16), the overhead imposed for checking the shapes with
+this method can cause the ``weave.blitz`` to be slower than evaluating the
+expression in Python.
+
+What can be done to reduce the overhead? (1) The size checking code could be
+moved into C. This would likely remove most of the overhead penalty compared
+to NumPy (although there is also some calling overhead), but no effort has
+been made to do this. (2) You can also call ``weave.blitz`` with
+``check_size=0`` and the size checking isn't done. However, if the sizes
+aren't compatible, it can cause a core-dump. So, foregoing size_checking
+isn't advisable until your code is well debugged.
+
+
+Creating the Extension Module
+=============================
+
+``weave.blitz`` uses the same machinery as ``weave.inline`` to build the
+extension module. The only difference is the code included in the function is
+automatically generated from the NumPy array expression instead of supplied
+by the user.
+
+===================
+ Extension Modules
+===================
+
+``weave.inline`` and ``weave.blitz`` are high level tools that generate
+extension modules automatically. Under the covers, they use several classes
+from ``weave.ext_tools`` to help generate the extension module. The main two
+classes are ``ext_module`` and ``ext_function`` (I'd like to add
+``ext_class`` and ``ext_method`` also). These classes simplify the process of
+generating extension modules by handling most of the "boiler plate" code
+automatically.
+
+.. note::
+  ``inline`` actually sub-classes ``weave.ext_tools.ext_function`` to
+  generate slightly different code than the standard ``ext_function``.
+  The main difference is that the standard class converts function
+  arguments to C types, while inline always has two arguments, the
+  local and global dicts, and the grabs the variables that need to be
+  convereted to C from these.
+
+A Simple Example
+================
+
+The following simple example demonstrates how to build an extension module
+within a Python function::
+
+        # examples/increment_example.py
+        from weave import ext_tools
+
+        def build_increment_ext():
+            """ Build a simple extension with functions that increment numbers.
+                The extension will be built in the local directory.
+            """
+            mod = ext_tools.ext_module('increment_ext')
+
+            a = 1 # effectively a type declaration for 'a' in the
+                  # following functions.
+
+            ext_code = "return_val = Py::new_reference_to(Py::Int(a+1));"
+            func = ext_tools.ext_function('increment',ext_code,['a'])
+            mod.add_function(func)
+
+            ext_code = "return_val = Py::new_reference_to(Py::Int(a+2));"
+            func = ext_tools.ext_function('increment_by_2',ext_code,['a'])
+            mod.add_function(func)
+
+            mod.compile()
+
+The function ``build_increment_ext()`` creates an extension module named
+``increment_ext`` and compiles it to a shared library (.so or .pyd) that can
+be loaded into Python.. ``increment_ext`` contains two functions,
+``increment`` and ``increment_by_2``. The first line of
+``build_increment_ext()``,
+
+            mod = ext_tools.ext_module('increment_ext')
+
+
+creates an ``ext_module`` instance that is ready to have ``ext_function``
+instances added to it. ``ext_function`` instances are created much with a
+calling convention similar to ``weave.inline()``. The most common call
+includes a C/C++ code snippet and a list of the arguments for the function.
+The following
+
+            ext_code = "return_val = Py::new_reference_to(Py::Int(a+1));"
+            func = ext_tools.ext_function('increment',ext_code,['a'])
+
+
+creates a C/C++ extension function that is equivalent to the following Python
+function::
+
+            def increment(a):
+                return a + 1
+
+
+A second method is also added to the module and then,
+
+::
+
+            mod.compile()
+
+
+is called to build the extension module. By default, the module is created in
+the current working directory. This example is available in the
+``examples/increment_example.py`` file found in the ``weave`` directory. At
+the bottom of the file in the module's "main" program, an attempt to import
+``increment_ext`` without building it is made. If this fails (the module
+doesn't exist in the PYTHONPATH), the module is built by calling
+``build_increment_ext()``. This approach only takes the time consuming ( a
+few seconds for this example) process of building the module if it hasn't
+been built before.
+
+::
+
+        if __name__ == "__main__":
+            try:
+                import increment_ext
+            except ImportError:
+                build_increment_ext()
+                import increment_ext
+            a = 1
+            print 'a, a+1:', a, increment_ext.increment(a)
+            print 'a, a+2:', a, increment_ext.increment_by_2(a)
+
+.. note::
+  If we were willing to always pay the penalty of building the C++
+  code for a module, we could store the md5 checksum of the C++ code
+  along with some information about the compiler, platform, etc. Then,
+  ``ext_module.compile()`` could try importing the module before it
+  actually compiles it, check the md5 checksum and other meta-data in
+  the imported module with the meta-data of the code it just produced
+  and only compile the code if the module didn't exist or the
+  meta-data didn't match. This would reduce the above code to::
+
+        if __name__ == "__main__":
+            build_increment_ext()
+
+            a = 1
+            print 'a, a+1:', a, increment_ext.increment(a)
+            print 'a, a+2:', a, increment_ext.increment_by_2(a)
+
+.. note::
+  There would always be the overhead of building the C++ code, but it
+  would only actually compile the code once. You pay a little in overhead and
+  get cleaner "import" code. Needs some thought.
+
+If you run ``increment_example.py`` from the command line, you get the
+following::
+
+        [eric@n0]$ python increment_example.py
+        a, a+1: 1 2
+        a, a+2: 1 3
+
+
+If the module didn't exist before it was run, the module is created. If it
+did exist, it is just imported and used.
+
+Fibonacci Example
+=================
+
+``examples/fibonacci.py`` provides a little more complex example of how to
+use ``ext_tools``. Fibonacci numbers are a series of numbers where each
+number in the series is the sum of the previous two: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, etc.
+Here, the first two numbers in the series are taken to be 1. One approach to
+calculating Fibonacci numbers uses recursive function calls. In Python, it
+might be written as::
+
+        def fib(a):
+            if a <= 2:
+                return 1
+            else:
+                return fib(a-2) + fib(a-1)
+
+
+In C, the same function would look something like this::
+
+         int fib(int a)
+         {
+             if(a <= 2)
+                 return 1;
+             else
+                 return fib(a-2) + fib(a-1);
+         }
+
+
+Recursion is much faster in C than in Python, so it would be beneficial to
+use the C version for fibonacci number calculations instead of the Python
+version. We need an extension function that calls this C function to do this.
+This is possible by including the above code snippet as "support code" and
+then calling it from the extension function. Support code snippets (usually
+structure definitions, helper functions and the like) are inserted into the
+extension module C/C++ file before the extension function code. Here is how
+to build the C version of the fibonacci number generator::
+
+    def build_fibonacci():
+        """ Builds an extension module with fibonacci calculators.
+        """
+        mod = ext_tools.ext_module('fibonacci_ext')
+        a = 1 # this is effectively a type declaration
+
+        # recursive fibonacci in C
+        fib_code = """
+                       int fib1(int a)
+                       {
+                           if(a <= 2)
+                               return 1;
+                           else
+                               return fib1(a-2) + fib1(a-1);
+                       }
+                   """
+        ext_code = """
+                       int val = fib1(a);
+                       return_val = Py::new_reference_to(Py::Int(val));
+                   """
+        fib = ext_tools.ext_function('fib',ext_code,['a'])
+        fib.customize.add_support_code(fib_code)
+        mod.add_function(fib)
+
+        mod.compile()
+
+XXX More about custom_info, and what xxx_info instances are good for.
+
+.. note::
+   recursion is not the fastest way to calculate fibonacci numbers, but
+   this approach serves nicely for this example.
+
+
+================================================
+ Customizing Type Conversions -- Type Factories
+================================================
+
+not written
+
+=============================
+ Things I wish ``weave`` did
+=============================
+
+It is possible to get name clashes if you uses a variable name that is
+already defined in a header automatically included (such as ``stdio.h``) For
+instance, if you try to pass in a variable named ``stdout``, you'll get a
+cryptic error report due to the fact that ``stdio.h`` also defines the name.
+``weave`` should probably try and handle this in some way. Other things...
+
+.. _PyInline: http://pyinline.sourceforge.net/
+.. _SciPy: http://www.scipy.org
+.. _mingw32: http://www.mingw.org%3Ewww.mingw.org
+.. _NumPy: http://numeric.scipy.org/
+.. _here: http://www.scipy.org/Weave
+.. _Python Cookbook: http://aspn.activestate.com/ASPN/Cookbook/Python
+.. _binary_search():
+    http://aspn.activestate.com/ASPN/Cookbook/Python/Recipe/81188
+.. _website: http://cxx.sourceforge.net/
+.. _This submission:
+    http://aspn.activestate.com/ASPN/Cookbook/Python/Recipe/52306
+.. _blitz++ home page: http://www.oonumerics.org/blitz/
+
+..
+    Local Variables:
+    mode: rst
+    End:

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