[Scipy-svn] r6652 - in trunk/scipy/spatial: . qhull qhull/src

scipy-svn@scip... scipy-svn@scip...
Tue Aug 31 16:54:55 CDT 2010


Author: ptvirtan
Date: 2010-08-31 16:54:55 -0500 (Tue, 31 Aug 2010)
New Revision: 6652

Added:
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/Announce.txt
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/COPYING.txt
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/README.txt
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/REGISTER.txt
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/index.htm
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/Changes.txt
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/geom.c
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/geom.h
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/geom2.c
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/global.c
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/io.c
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/io.h
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/mem.c
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/mem.h
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/merge.c
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/merge.h
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/poly.c
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/poly.h
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/poly2.c
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qconvex.c
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qdelaun.c
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qhalf.c
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qhull.c
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qhull.h
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qhull_a.h
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qhull_interface.cpp
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qset.c
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qset.h
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qvoronoi.c
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/rbox.c
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/stat.c
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/stat.h
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/unix.c
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/user.c
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/user.h
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/user_eg.c
   trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/user_eg2.c
Log:
spatial: Import qhull 2003.1 source code

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/Announce.txt
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/Announce.txt	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/Announce.txt	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,50 @@
+
+ Qhull 2003.1 2003/12/30
+
+        http://www.qhull.org
+        http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/qhull/
+        http://www6.uniovi.es/ftp/pub/mirrors/geom.umn.edu/software/ghindex.html
+        http://www.geomview.org
+        http://www.geom.uiuc.edu
+
+Qhull computes convex hulls, Delaunay triangulations, Voronoi diagrams, 
+furthest-site Voronoi diagrams, and halfspace intersections about a point. 
+It runs in 2-d, 3-d, 4-d, or higher.  It implements the Quickhull algorithm 
+for computing convex hulls.   Qhull handles round-off errors from floating 
+point arithmetic.  It can approximate a convex hull.
+
+The program includes options for hull volume, facet area, partial hulls,
+input transformations, randomization, tracing, multiple output formats, and
+execution statistics.  The program can be called from within your application.
+You can view the results in 2-d, 3-d and 4-d with Geomview.
+
+To download Qhull:
+        http://www.qhull.org/download
+        http://savannah.nongnu.org/files/?group=qhull
+
+Download qhull-96.ps for:
+
+        Barber, C. B., D.P. Dobkin, and H.T. Huhdanpaa, "The
+        Quickhull Algorithm for Convex Hulls," ACM Trans. on
+        Mathematical Software, 22(4):469-483, Dec. 1996.
+        http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/toms/1996-22-4/p469-barber/
+        http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/83502.html
+
+Abstract:
+
+The convex hull of a set of points is the smallest convex set that contains
+the points.  This article presents a practical convex hull algorithm that
+combines the two-dimensional Quickhull Algorithm with  the general dimension
+Beneath-Beyond Algorithm.  It is similar to the randomized, incremental
+algorithms for convex hull and Delaunay triangulation.  We provide empirical
+evidence that the algorithm runs faster when the input contains non-extreme
+points, and that it uses less memory. 
+
+Computational geometry algorithms have traditionally assumed that input sets
+are well behaved.  When an algorithm is implemented with floating point
+arithmetic, this assumption can lead to serious errors.  We briefly describe
+a solution to this problem when computing the convex hull in two, three, or
+four dimensions.  The output is a set of "thick" facets that contain all
+possible exact convex hulls of the input.   A variation is effective in five
+or more dimensions.  
+

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/COPYING.txt
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/COPYING.txt	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/COPYING.txt	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,34 @@
+                    Qhull, Copyright (c) 1993-2003
+
+       The National Science and Technology Research Center for
+        Computation and Visualization of Geometric Structures
+                        (The Geometry Center)
+                       University of Minnesota
+
+                       email: qhull@qhull.org
+
+This software includes Qhull from The Geometry Center.  Qhull is 
+copyrighted as noted above.  Qhull is free software and may be obtained 
+via http from www.qhull.org.  It may be freely copied, modified, 
+and redistributed under the following conditions:
+
+1. All copyright notices must remain intact in all files.
+
+2. A copy of this text file must be distributed along with any copies 
+   of Qhull that you redistribute; this includes copies that you have 
+   modified, or copies of programs or other software products that 
+   include Qhull.
+
+3. If you modify Qhull, you must include a notice giving the
+   name of the person performing the modification, the date of
+   modification, and the reason for such modification.
+
+4. When distributing modified versions of Qhull, or other software 
+   products that include Qhull, you must provide notice that the original 
+   source code may be obtained as noted above.
+
+5. There is no warranty or other guarantee of fitness for Qhull, it is 
+   provided solely "as is".  Bug reports or fixes may be sent to 
+   qhull_bug@qhull.org; the authors may or may not act on them as 
+   they desire.
+

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/README.txt
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/README.txt	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/README.txt	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,328 @@
+Name
+
+      qhull, rbox         2003.1           2003/12/30
+  
+Convex hull, Delaunay triangulation, Voronoi diagrams, Halfspace intersection
+ 
+      Documentation:
+        html/index.htm
+
+      Available from:
+        <http://www.qhull.org>
+	<http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/qhull>
+ 
+     Version 1 (simplicial only):
+        <http://www.qhull.org/download/qhull-1.0.tar.gz>
+        <http://www.qhull.org/download/qhull.sit.hqx>
+       
+      News and a paper:
+        <http://www.qhull.org/news>
+        <http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/83502.html>
+
+Purpose
+
+  Qhull is a general dimension convex hull program that reads a set 
+  of points from stdin, and outputs the smallest convex set that contains 
+  the points to stdout.  It also generates Delaunay triangulations, Voronoi 
+  diagrams, furthest-site Voronoi diagrams, and halfspace intersections
+  about a point.  
+
+  Rbox is a useful tool in generating input for Qhull; it generates 
+  hypercubes, diamonds, cones, circles, simplices, spirals, 
+  lattices, and random points.
+  
+  Qhull produces graphical output for Geomview.  This helps with
+  understanding the output. <http://www.geomview.org>
+
+    
+Environment requirements
+
+  Qhull and rbox should run on all 32-bit and 64-bit computers.  Use
+  an ANSI C or C++ compiler to compile the program.  The software is 
+  self-contained.  
+  
+  Qhull is copyrighted software.  Please read COPYING.txt and REGISTER.txt
+  before using or distributing Qhull.
+
+To cite Qhull, please use
+
+  Barber, C.B., Dobkin, D.P., and Huhdanpaa, H.T., "The Quickhull 
+  algorithm for convex hulls," ACM Trans. on Mathematical Software,
+  22(4):469-483, Dec 1996, http://www.qhull.org.
+
+To contribute to Qhull
+
+  Qhull is on Savannah at http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/qhull/
+
+Qhull on Windows 95, 98, ME, NT, 2000, XP
+
+  The zip file contains rbox.exe, qhull.exe, qconvex.exe, qdelaunay.exe, 
+  qhalf.exe, qvoronoi.exe, documentation files, and source files.
+  
+  To install Qhull:
+  - Unzip the files into a directory.  You may use WinZip32 <www.hotfiles.com>
+  - Click on QHULL-GO
+    
+  - In Windows 95, the DOS window needs improvement.
+      - Increase the size of the screen font to 8x12.
+      - If the text is too dim, fix the screen colors with shareware (e.g., crt.exe)
+  - If you use qhull a lot, consider using the Cygwin Unix shell (www.cygwin.com),
+
+  To learn about Qhull:
+  - Execute 'qconvex' for a synopsis and examples.
+  - Execute 'rbox 10 | qconvex' to compute the convex hull of 10 random points.
+  - Execute 'rbox 10 | qconvex i TO file' to write results to 'file'. 
+  - If an error occurs, Windows 95 sends the error to stdout instead of stderr 
+      - use 'TO xxx' to send normal output to xxx and error output to stdout
+  - Browse the documentation: qhull\html\index.htm
+
+Compiling with cygwin on Windows NT, 2000, XP
+  - install cygwin [www.cygwin.com] with gcc, make, ar, and ln
+  - cd qhull/src
+  - make -f Makefile.txt
+
+Qhull on Unix (Debian)
+
+  The gzip file, qhull.tar.gz, contains documentation and source files for
+  qhull and rbox.  It should compile on all Unix systems, including Debian.
+  You may also use the source instructions below.
+  
+  To unpack the gzip file
+  - tar zxf qhull.tar.gz
+  - cd qhull
+  
+  Compile with the configure Makefile [R. Laboissiere]:
+  - ./configure
+  - make
+
+Compiling the source distribution
+
+  The gzip file, qhull-src.tgz, contains documentation and source files for
+  qhull and rbox.  
+  
+  To unpack the gzip file
+  - tar zxf qhull-src.tgz
+  - cd qhull
+  
+  Compiling with Makefile (i.e., Makefile.txt)   
+  - cd src
+  - in Makefile, check the CC, CCOPTS1, PRINTMAN, and PRINTC defines
+      - the defaults are gcc and enscript
+      - CCOPTS1 should include the ANSI flag.  It defines __STDC__
+  - in user.h, check the definitions of qh_SECticks and qh_CPUclock.
+      - use '#define qh_CLOCKtype 2' for timing runs longer than 1 hour
+  - type: make 
+      - this builds: qhull qconvex qdelaunay qhalf qvoronoi rbox libqhull.a
+  - type: make doc
+      - this prints the man page
+      - See also qhull/html/index.htm
+  - if your compiler reports many errors, it is probably not a ANSI C compiler
+      - you will need to set the -ansi switch or find another compiler
+  - if your compiler warns about missing prototypes for fprintf() etc.
+      - this is ok, your compiler should have these in stdio.h
+  - if your compiler warns about missing prototypes for memset() etc.
+      - include memory.h in qhull_a.h
+  - if your compiler is gcc-2.95.1, you need to set flag -fno-strict-aliasing.  
+      - This flag is set by default for other versions [Karas, Krishnaswami]
+  - if your compiler reports "global.c: storage size of 'qh_qh' isn't known"
+      - delete the initializer "={0}" in global.c, stat.c and mem.c
+  - if your compiler warns about "stat.c: improper initializer"
+      - this is ok, the initializer is not used
+  - if you have trouble building libqhull.a with 'ar'
+      - try 'make -f Makefile.txt qhullx' 
+  - if the code compiles, the qhull test case will automatically execute
+  - if an error occurs, there's an incompatibility between machines
+      - For gcc-2.95.1, you need to set flag -fno-strict-aliasing.
+	    It is set by default for other versions of gcc [Karas, Krishnaswami]
+      - If you can, try a different compiler 
+      - You can turn off the Qhull memory manager with qh_NOmem in mem.h
+      - You can turn off compiler optimization (-O2 in Makefile)
+      - If you find the source of the problem, please let us know
+  - if you have Geomview (www.geomview.org)
+       - try  'rbox 100 | qconvex G >a' and load 'a' into Geomview
+       - run 'q_eg' for Geomview examples of Qhull output (see qh-eg.htm)
+  - to install the programs and their man pages:
+      - define MANDIR and BINDIR
+      - type 'make install'
+
+Compiling on Windows 95, 98, NT, 2000, XP
+
+  Qhull compiles as a console application in Visual C++ 5.0 at warning 
+  level 3.
+
+  Visual C++ quickstart for qhull.exe only:
+    - create a "Win32 console application" called "qhull"
+	- add the following files:
+	    geom.c geom2.c global.c io.c mem.c merge.c poly.c poly2.c qhull.c
+		qset.c stat.c unix.c user.c
+    - create a "Win32 console application" called "rbox" 
+	- add rbox.c
+
+  Visual C++ quickstart for qhull library, qhull.exe, qconvex.exe, etc.
+    - To simplify setting up lots of projects, 
+	- create a temporary "Win32 console application" called "source"
+	- add all .c files from .../src/...
+	- In Tools::Options::Tab
+	  Set tab size to 8 and indent size to 2
+
+    - create a "Win32 console application" called "rbox"
+	- move rbox.c from "qhull source"
+	- for Project:Settings..., Link
+	  you only need the default libraries
+	- build the project
+
+    - create a "Win32 static library" called "library"
+	- move these files from "qhull source"
+	    geom.c geom2.c global.c io.c mem.c merge.c poly.c poly2.c qhull.c
+		qset.c stat.c user.c
+	- set the library file (use the same for debug and release)
+	- build the project
+
+    - create a "Win32 console application" called "qhull"
+	- Move unix.c from "qhull source"
+	- Add the library file created by "library"
+	- Qhull does not use other libraries
+
+    - create a "Win32 console application" called "qconvex"
+	- Move qconvex.c from "qhull source"
+	- Copy the library file from "qhull"
+
+    - do the same for qdelaun.c, qhalf, qvoronoi.c, user_eg.c, user_eg2.c
+	- delete "qhull sources" since it is no longer needed
+	- use Project:Settings to make any changes
+	- use batch build to rebuild everything
+  
+  Qhull compiles with Borland C++ 5.0 bcc32.  A Makefile is included.
+  Execute 'make -f Mborland'.  If you use the Borland IDE, set the ANSI
+  option in Options:Project:Compiler:Source:Language-compliance.
+  
+  Qhull compiles with Borland C++ 4.02 for Win32 and DOS Power Pack.  
+  Use 'make -f Mborland -D_DPMI'.  Qhull 1.0 compiles with Borland 
+  C++ 4.02.  For rbox 1.0, use "bcc32 -WX -w- -O2-e -erbox -lc rbox.c".  
+  Use the same options for Qhull 1.0. [D. Zwick]
+  
+  Qhull compiles with Metrowerks C++ 1.7 with the ANSI option.
+
+  If you turn on full warnings, the compiler will report a number of 
+  unused variables, variables set but not used, and dead code.  These are
+  intentional.  For example, variables may be initialized (unnecessarily)
+  to prevent warnings about possible use of uninitialized variables.  
+
+Compiling on the Power Macintosh
+
+  Qhull compiles on the Power Macintosh with Metrowerk's C compiler.
+  It uses the SIOUX interface to read point coordinates and return output.
+  There is no graphical output.  For project files, see 'Compiling for
+  Windows 95'.  Instead of using SIOUX, Qhull may be embedded within an 
+  application.  
+
+  Version 1 is available for Macintosh computers by download of qhull.sit.hqx
+  It reads point coordinates from a standard file and returns output
+  to a standard file.  There is no graphical output.
+
+
+Compiling on other machines
+ 
+  Some users have reported problems with compiling Qhull under Irix 5.1.  It
+  compiles under other versions of Irix. 
+  
+  If you have troubles with the memory manager, you can turn it off by
+  defining qh_NOmem in mem.h.
+
+  You may compile Qhull with a C++ compiler.  
+
+
+Distributed files
+
+  README.txt           // instructions for installing Qhull 
+  REGISTER.txt         // Qhull registration 
+  COPYING.txt          // copyright notice 
+  QHULL-GO.pif	       // Windows icon for qhull-go.bat
+  Announce.txt         // announcement 
+  Changes.txt          // change history for Qhull and rbox 
+  File_id.diz	       // package descriptor
+  index.htm            // Home page 
+  html/qh-faq.htm      // Frequently asked questions
+  html/qh-get.htm      // Download page
+  html/index.htm       // Manual
+  src/Makefile.txt     // Makefile for Unix or cygwin 'make' 
+  src/Mborland         // Makefile for Borland C++/Win32
+  src/Make-config.sh   // Create Debian configure and automake
+ 
+src/      
+  rbox consists of:
+     rbox.exe          // Win32 executable (.zip only) 
+     rbox.htm          // html manual 
+     rbox.man          // Unix man page 
+     rbox.txt
+     rbox.c            // source program 
+     
+  qhull consists of:
+     qhull.exe         // Win32 executables (.zip only) 
+     qconvex.exe
+     qdelaunay.exe
+     qhalf.exe
+     qvoronoi.exe
+     qhull-go.bat      // DOS window
+     qconvex.htm       // html manuals
+     qdelaun.htm
+     qdelau_f.htm        
+     qhalf.htm
+     qvoronoi.htm
+     qvoron_f.htm
+     qh-eg.htm
+     qh-impre.htm
+     qh-in.htm
+     index.htm
+     qh-opt*.htm
+     qh-quick.htm
+     qh--4d.gif,etc.   // images for manual 
+     qhull.man         // Unix man page 
+     qhull.txt
+     q_eg              // shell script for Geomview examples
+     q_egtest          // shell script for Geomview test examples
+     q_test            // shell script to test qhull
+  
+  top-level source files:
+     src/index.htm     // index to source files 
+     qh-...htm         //   specific files
+     user.h            // header file of user definable constants 
+     qhull.h           // header file for qhull 
+     unix.c            // Unix front end to qhull 
+     qhull.c           // Quickhull algorithm with partitioning 
+     user.c            // user re-definable functions 
+     user_eg.c         // example of incorporating qhull into a user program 
+     user_eg2.c        // more complex example 
+     qhull_interface.cpp // call Qhull from C++
+
+  other source files:
+     qhull_a.h         // include file for *.c 
+     geom.c            // geometric routines 
+     geom2.c
+     geom.h	
+     global.c          // global variables 
+     io.c              // input-output routines 
+     io.h
+     mem.c             // memory routines, this is stand-alone code 
+     mem.h
+     merge.c           // merging of non-convex facets 
+     merge.h
+     poly.c            // polyhedron routines 
+     poly2.c
+     poly.h 
+     qset.c            // set routines, this only depends on mem.c 
+     qset.h
+     stat.c            // statistics 
+     stat.h
+
+Authors:
+
+  C. Bradford Barber                    Hannu Huhdanpaa
+  bradb@qhull.org                       hannu@qhull.org
+  
+                    The Geometry Center
+                    University of Minnesota
+  
+  Qhull 1.0 and 2.0 were developed under NSF grants NSF/DMS-8920161 
+  and NSF-CCR-91-15793 750-7504 at the Geometry Center and Harvard 
+  University.  If you find Qhull useful, please let us know.

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/REGISTER.txt
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/REGISTER.txt	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/REGISTER.txt	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,37 @@
+Dear User of Geometry Center Software:
+
+We would like to find out how you are using our software.  Think of
+Geometry Center software as a new kind of shareware: you share your
+science and successes with us, and we share our software and support
+with you. 
+
+If you use Geometry Center software, please send us a note telling
+us what you are doing with it.
+
+We need to know:
+
+  (1) What you are working on - an abstract of your work would be
+      fine.
+
+  (2) What Geometry Center software you use.
+
+  (3) How that software has helped you, for example, by increasing
+      your productivity or allowing you to do things you could not do
+      before.  In particular, if you feel that Geometry Center
+      software has had a direct bearing on your work, please tell us
+      about this.
+
+We encourage you to cite the use of any Geometry Center software you
+have used in your publications.  
+
+To cite Qhull, please use
+
+        Barber, C.B., Dobkin, D.P., and Huhdanpaa, H.T., "The Quickhull 
+	algorithm for convex hulls," ACM Trans. on Mathematical Software,
+	22(4):469-483, Dec 1996, http://www.qhull.org.
+
+Please send e-mail to
+
+    qhull@qhull.org
+
+Thank you!

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/index.htm
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/index.htm	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/index.htm	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,252 @@
+<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML//EN">
+<html>
+
+<head>
+<title>Qhull for Convex Hull, Delaunay Triangulation, Voronoi Diagram, and Halfspace Intersection about a Point</title>
+</head>
+
+<body>
+<!-- Navigation links -->
+<b>URL:</b> <a href="http://www.qhull.org">http://www.qhull.org</a>
+<br><b>To:</b>
+<a href="http://www.qhull.org/news">News</a>
+&#149; <a href="http://www.qhull.org/download">Download</a>
+&#149; <a href="http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/83502.html">CiteSeer</a>
+&#149; <a href=http://images.google.com/images?q=qhull&num=100>Images</a>
+&#149; <a href="html/index.htm#TOC">Manual</a>
+&#149; <a href="http://www.qhull.org/html/qh-faq.htm">FAQ</a>
+&#149; <a href="html/qh-quick.htm#programs">Programs</a>
+&#149; <a href="html/qh-quick.htm#options">Options</a> 
+</p>
+
+<hr>
+<!-- Main text of document -->
+<table>
+<tr><td valign=top>
+	<h1>Qhull</h1>
+	<a
+	href="http://www.geom.uiuc.edu/graphics/pix/Special_Topics/Computational_Geometry/cone.html"><img
+	src="html/qh--cone.gif" alt="[CONE]" align="middle" width="100"
+	height="100"></a>
+</td><td>
+Qhull computes convex hulls, Delaunay triangulations,
+halfspace intersections about a point, Voronoi diagrams, furthest-site Delaunay
+triangulations, and furthest-site Voronoi diagrams. It runs in
+2-d, 3-d, 4-d, and higher dimensions. It implements the Quickhull
+algorithm for computing the convex hull. Qhull handles roundoff
+errors from floating point arithmetic. It computes volumes,
+surface areas, and approximations to the convex hull.</p>
+
+<!-- duplicated in index.htm and html/index.htm -->
+<p>Qhull does <i>not</i> support constrained Delaunay
+triangulations, triangulation of non-convex surfaces, mesh
+generation of non-convex objects, or medium-sized inputs in 9-D
+and higher. </p>
+</td></tr></table>
+
+<hr>
+<form method=get action=http://www.google.com/search>
+<input type=hidden name=as_q value=site:www.qhull.org>
+<input type=hidden name=num value=100>
+<ul>
+    <li><a href="http://www.qhull.org/news">News</a> and
+	<a href="http://www.qhull.org/news/qhull-news.html#bugs">Bugs</a>
+	about Qhull 2003.1 2003/12/30</li>
+    <li><a href="http://www.qhull.org/download">Download</a>
+        Qhull</li>
+    <li><a
+        href="http://www.geom.uiuc.edu/graphics/pix/Special_Topics/Computational_Geometry/welcome.html">Examples
+        </a>of Qhull output </li>
+	<li><a href=http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/qhull/>Development</a> at Savannah
+	<li><input name=as_q size=10> search www.qhull.org 
+	<p>
+    <li><a href="http://www.qhull.org/news/qhull-news.html#users">How</a> is Qhull used?</li>
+	<li><a href="http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/context/86585/83502">CiteSeer</a> references to Qhull
+</p>
+ 	<li><a href=http://www.google.com/search?as_q=qhull+-debian+-cvs+-gentoo+-pool+-mirrors&num=100>Google</a> Qhull, 
+	Qhull <a href=http://images.google.com/images?q=qhull&num=100>Images</a>,
+	Qhull in <a href=http://groups.google.com/groups?as_q=qhull&num=100&as_scoring=d>Newsgroups</a>,
+	and <a href=http://www.googlism.com/who_is/q/qhull/>Who is</a> Qhull?
+
+	<p>
+	<li><a href=http://www.mathworks.com/>MATLAB</a> uses Qhull for their computational geometry functions: <a href=http://www.mathworks.com/access/helpdesk/help/techdoc/ref/convhulln.shtml>convhulln</a>
+	<a href=http://www.mathworks.com/access/helpdesk/help/techdoc/ref/delaunayn.shtml>delaunayn</a>
+	<a href=http://www.mathworks.com/access/helpdesk/help/techdoc/ref/griddata3.shtml>griddata3</a>
+	<a href=http://www.mathworks.com/access/helpdesk/help/techdoc/ref/griddatan.shtml>griddatan</a>
+	<a href=http://www.mathworks.com/access/helpdesk/help/techdoc/ref/tsearch.shtml>tsearch</a>
+	<a href=http://www.mathworks.com/access/helpdesk/help/techdoc/ref/tsearchn.shtml>tsearchn</a>
+    <a href=http://www.mathworks.com/access/helpdesk/help/techdoc/ref/voronoin.shtml>voronoin</a>.  MATLAB R14 will upgrade to
+	Qhull 2003.1 and triangulated output ('Qt').
+    </li>
+	<li><a href=http://www.octave.org/>GNU Octave</a> uses Qhull for their
+	<a href=http://octave.sourceforge.net/index/analysis.html#Geometry>computational geometry functions</a>.  Octave has partially upgraded
+	to Qhull 2002.1 and triangulated output ('Qt').
+	<li><a href=http://www.wolfram.com/products/mathematica/>Mathematica</a>'s Delaunay interface: <a href=http://www.mathsource.com/Content/Enhancements/Geometry/0211-251>qh-math</a>
+	<li><a href=http://www.geomview.org>Geomview</a> for 3-D and 4-D visualization of Qhull output
+</ul>
+</form>
+
+<p><b>Introduction</b>
+<ul>
+    <li><a
+        href="http://www.ifor.math.ethz.ch/staff/fukuda/polyfaq/polyfaq.html">Fukuda's
+        introduction</a> to convex hulls, Delaunay
+        triangulations, Voronoi diagrams, and linear programming</li>
+    <li><a
+        href="http://www.cse.unsw.edu.au/~lambert/java/3d/hull.html">Lambert's
+        Java</a> visualization of convex hull algorithms </li>
+    <li><a
+        href="http://www.cs.sunysb.edu/~algorith/major_section/1.6.shtml">Stony
+        Brook</a> Algorithm Repository, computational geometry</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p><b>Qhull Documentation and Support</b>
+<ul>
+   <li><a href="html/index.htm">Manual</a> for Qhull and rbox
+	<ul>
+		<li><a href="html/qconvex.htm">qconvex</a> -- convex hull
+		<li><a href="html/qdelaun.htm">qdelaunay</a> -- Delaunay triangulation
+		<li><a href="html/qvoronoi.htm">qvoronoi</a> -- Voronoi diagram
+		<li><a href="html/qhalf.htm">qhalf</a> -- halfspace intersection about a point
+		<li><a href="html/rbox.htm">rbox</a> -- generate point distributions
+	    <li><a href=src/index.htm>Qhull functions</a>, macros, and data structures with source
+	</ul>
+    <li><a href="http://www.qhull.org/html/qh-faq.htm">Frequently</a> asked
+        questions about Qhull</li>
+    <li>Send e-mail to <a href=mailto:qhull@qhull.org>qhull@qhull.org</a> </li>
+    <li>Report bugs to <a
+        href="mailto:qhull_bug@qhull.org">qhull_bug@qhull.org</a>
+</ul>
+
+<p><b>Related URLs</b>
+<ul>
+    <li><a href="http://www.geom.uiuc.edu/software/cglist">Amenta's directory</a> of
+        computational geometry software </li>
+
+	<li><a href=http://www.boost.org/libs/graph/doc/table_of_contents.html>BGL</a> 
+	Boost Graph Library provides C++ classes for graph data structures
+and algorithms,
+    <li><a
+        href="http://netlib.bell-labs.com/netlib/voronoi/hull.html">Clarkson's
+        hull </a>program with exact arithmetic for convex hulls, Delaunay triangulations,
+		Voronoi volumes, and alpha shapes. </li>
+	<li><a href="http://compgeom.cs.uiuc.edu/~jeffe/compgeom/compgeom.html">Erickson's 
+	    Computational</a> Geometry Pages and 
+		<a href="http://compgeom.cs.uiuc.edu/~jeffe/compgeom/code.html">Software</a>
+    <li><a
+        href="http://www.cs.mcgill.ca/~fukuda/soft/cdd_home/cdd.html">Fukuda's
+        cdd</a> program for halfspace intersection and convex hulls</li>
+	<li><a href="http://www.inf.ethz.ch/personal/gaertner/miniball.html">Gartner's 
+	Miniball</a> for fast and robust smallest enclosing balls (up to 20-d)
+
+	<li><a href=http://directory.google.com/Top/Science/Math/Geometry/Computational_Geometry/Software/>Google's directory</a> for 
+	Science > Math > Geometry > Computational Geometry > Software
+    <li><a href=http://www.algorithmic-solutions.com/enleda.htm>Leda</a>  
+and <a href=http://www.cgal.org/>CGAL</a> libraries for writing computational
+geometry programs and other combinatorial algorithms
+	<li><a href=http://www.magic-software.com>Magic Software</a> source code for computer
+	graphics, image analysis, and numerical methods
+	<li><a href=http://www.mathtools.net/>Mathtools.net</a> of scientific and engineering
+	software
+    <li><a href="http://www.andrew.cmu.edu/user/sowen/mesh.html">Owen's Meshing</a> Research Corner
+    <li><a
+        href="http://www-users.informatik.rwth-aachen.de/~roberts/meshgeneration.html">Schneiders'
+        Finite Element</a> Mesh Generation page</li>
+    <li><a href="http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~quake/triangle.html">Shewchuk's
+        triangle </a>program for 2-d Delaunay</li>
+	<li><a href=ftp://ftp.zib.de/pub/Packages/mathprog/index.html>Skorobohatyj's Mathprog@ZIB</a> for  
+	mathematical software
+	<li><a href=http://www.voronoi.com>Voronoi Web Site</a> for all things Voronoi
+</ul>
+
+<p><b>FAQs and Newsgroups</b>
+<ul>
+    <li><a
+        href="http://exaflop.org/docs/cgafaq/">FAQ</a>
+        for computer graphics algorithms 
+		(<a href="http://exaflop.org/docs/cgafaq/cga6.html">geometric</a> structures)
+ </li>
+    <li><a
+        href="http://www-unix.mcs.anl.gov/otc/Guide/faq/linear-programming-faq.html">FAQ
+        </a>for linear programming </li>
+    <li><a href="news:comp.graphics.algorithms">Newsgroup</a>:
+        comp.graphics.algorithms </li>
+	<li><a href="news:comp.soft-sys.matlab">Newsgroup</a>:
+	    comp.soft-sys.matlab</li>
+    <li><a href="news:sci.math.num-analysis">Newsgroup</a>:
+        sci.math.num-analysis </li>
+    <li><a href="news:sci.op-research">Newsgroup</a>:
+        sci.op-research </li>
+</ul>
+</blockquote>
+<hr>
+
+<p>The program includes options for input transformations,
+randomization, tracing, multiple output formats, and execution
+statistics. The program can be called from within your
+application. </p>
+
+<p>You can view the results in 2-d, 3-d and 4-d with <a
+href="http://www.geomview.org">Geomview</a>.   An alternative
+is <a href=http://www.kitware.com/vtk.html>VTK</a>.</p>
+
+<p>For an article about Qhull, download from <a
+href="http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/83502.html">CiteSeer</a> or <a
+    href="http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/toms/1996-22-4/p469-barber/">www.acm.org</a>:
+</p>
+
+<blockquote>
+    <p>Barber, C.B., Dobkin, D.P., and Huhdanpaa, H.T., &quot;The
+    Quickhull algorithm for convex hulls,&quot; <i>ACM Trans. on
+    Mathematical Software</i>, 22(4):469-483, Dec 1996, http://www.qhull.org. </p>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>Abstract: </p>
+
+<blockquote>
+    <p>The convex hull of a set of points is the smallest convex
+    set that contains the points. This article presents a
+    practical convex hull algorithm that combines the
+    two-dimensional Quickhull Algorithm with the general
+    dimension Beneath-Beyond Algorithm. It is similar to the
+    randomized, incremental algorithms for convex hull and
+    Delaunay triangulation. We provide empirical evidence that
+    the algorithm runs faster when the input contains non-extreme
+    points, and that it uses less memory. </p>
+    <p>Computational geometry algorithms have traditionally
+    assumed that input sets are well behaved. When an algorithm
+    is implemented with floating point arithmetic, this
+    assumption can lead to serious errors. We briefly describe a
+    solution to this problem when computing the convex hull in
+    two, three, or four dimensions. The output is a set of
+    "thick" facets that contain all possible exact convex hulls
+    of the input. A variation is effective in five or more
+    dimensions. </p>
+</blockquote>
+<!-- Navigation links -->
+<hr>
+
+<p><b>Up:</b> <a href="http://www.geom.uiuc.edu/software/past-projects.html"><i>Past Software
+Projects of the Geometry Center</i></a> <br>
+<b>URL:</b> <a href="http://www.qhull.org">http://www.qhull.org</a>
+<br><b>To:</b> 
+<a href="http://www.qhull.org/news">News</a>
+&#149; <a href="http://www.qhull.org/download">Download</a>
+&#149; <a href="http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/83502.html">CiteSeer</a>
+&#149; <a href=http://images.google.com/images?q=qhull&num=100>Images</a>
+&#149; <a href="html/index.htm#TOC">Manual</a>
+&#149; <a href="http://www.qhull.org/html/qh-faq.htm">FAQ</a>
+&#149; <a href="html/qh-quick.htm#programs">Programs</a>
+&#149; <a href="html/qh-quick.htm#options">Options</a> 
+<!-- GC common information --></p>
+
+<hr>
+
+<p><a href="http://www.geom.uiuc.edu/"><img src="html/qh--geom.gif" alt="[HOME]"
+align="middle"></a> <i>The Geometry Center Home Page</i> </p>
+
+<p>Comments to: <a href="mailto:qhull@qhull.org">qhull@qhull.org</a>
+<br>
+Created: May 17 1995 --- <!-- hhmts start --> 
+</body>
+</html>

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/Changes.txt
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/Changes.txt	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/Changes.txt	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,1071 @@
+
+.............This file lists all changes to qhull and rbox.....................
+
+ - Updated Qhull citation with page numbers.
+ - Project: constructing Voronoi diagram
+ - Project: computing Voronoi volumes
+ - identity function may drop points.  The following lens distribution drops 52 of 102 points of its points
+     rbox 100 L1e5 | tee r | qconvex FV n | qhalf Fp | cat - r | /bin/sort -n > x
+ - offsetted points will add intersection points
+     rbox 1000 s O2 t | tee r | qconvex FV n | qhalf Fp | cat - r | /bin/sort -n | tail
+
+qhull 2003.1  2003/12/30
+
+New Features:
+ - Add Maple output ('FM') for 2-d and 3-d convex hulls [T. Abraham]
+
+Bug Fixes and Code Changes:
+ - Fixed qh_findbest() for upperdelaunay facets w/o better, lower neighbors
+     For library users and some qhull users [A. Cutti, E. Milloti, K. Sun]
+ - Preserved qhmem.ferr in qh_memfreeshort() for library users
+ - Removed 'static' from qh_compare... for io.h and merge.h [V. Brumberg]
+
+Documentation:
+ - Add warning to findDelaunay() and qh_in.htm about tricoplanar facets
+ - Noted Edelsbrunner's Geometry & Topology for Mesh Generation [qh-impre.htm]
+ - Noted Gartner's Miniball algorithm [qh_impre.htm]
+ - Noted Veron and Leon's shape preserving simplification [qh_impre.htm]
+
+qhull 2003.1  2003/12/19
+
+Bug Fixes:
+ - Reversed coordinate order for qh.ATinfinity in qh_projectinput [V. Brumberg]
+   This effects:
+     Qhull library 'd' or 'v' users with 'Qz' and unequal coordinate ranges.
+     qdelaunay/qvoronoi users with 'Qbk:0Bk:0', 'Qz', and unequal coordinate ranges
+
+Changes to code:
+ - Replaced qh_VERSION with qh_version in global.c [B. Pearlmutter]
+    The previous techniques were either clumsy or caused compiler errors
+ - Removed unused variables from qh_findbest and qh_findbestnew [B. Pearlmutter]
+ - Note that qh.TESTpoints was added in 2002.1 for tsearch implementation
+
+Changes to distribution:
+ - Added Unix distribution including Debian files [R. Laboissiere]
+    The previous Unix distribution is now the source distribution
+ - Added rpm distribution [L. Mazet]
+ - Investigated generation of Win32 dll.  Need to define a C++ interface.
+
+Changes to documentation:
+ - Moved Qhull to www.qhull.org (geom.umn.edu is not available)
+ - The Geometry Center is archived at http://www.geom.uiuc.edu
+ - Reviewed introduction to each program
+    Triangulated output ('Qt') is more accurate than joggled input ('QJ')
+    qdelaunay is 'qhull d Qbb' [C. Ulbrich]
+    qvoronoi is 'qhull v Qbb'
+    Added example of non-simplicial intersection to halfspace intersections
+ - Added warning about using the Qhull library.
+ - Added qhull timings to When to use Qhull [C. Ulbrich]
+ - Reorganized the home page index and the manual index
+ - Moved qh-home.htm to index.htm
+
+Changes to examples
+ - Fixed options for eg/eg.t23.voronoi.imprecise [B. Pearlmutter]
+
+
+qhull 2002.1  2002/8/20
+
+Changes to distribution:
+ - Set up savannah.nongnu.org/projects/qhull/ [R. Laboissiere]
+ - Set up www.thesa.com as a backup
+ - Added qh-get.htm, a local copy of the download page
+ - Added Visual C++ interface to Qhull, qhull_interface.cpp [K. Erleben]
+ - Use HTTP instead of FTP for downloading Qhull
+ - Renamed qhull-1.0.sit.hqx
+
+Bug fixes:
+ - Fixed sign of coefficients for cdd halfspaces ('FD','Fd')  [T. Abraham]
+
+Changes to code:
+ - Replace qh_version with qh_VERSION in qhull.h.
+   Allows shared libraries and single point of definition
+ - Added qh.TESTpoints for future implementation of tsearch
+
+Changes to build
+ - Makefile.txt works under cygwin
+ - Added Make-config.sh to create a Debian build [R. Laboissiere]
+ - Added .exe to Makefile.txt#clean.  
+ - In README, use -fno-strict-aliasing with gcc-2.95.1 [Karas, Krishnaswami]
+ - Fixed chmod in Makefile.txt [B. Karas]
+
+Documentation updates
+ - Documented input options for each program [A. Montesinos]
+ - FAQ: "How to get the radii of the empty spheres for Voronoi vertices"
+
+URL updates:
+ - Changed official URL from locate/qhull to software/qhull
+ - Changed URLs from relative to absolute in qh-home.htm and qh-get.htm
+ - Added URL for Newsgroup: comp.soft-sys.matlab
+ - Added URL for GNU Octave
+ - Added URLs for Google and Google Groups
+ - Replaced qhull_mail.html and qhull_bug.html with mailto links.
+ - Removed URL for Computational Geometry Tribune
+ - Changed URL for locate/cglist to software/cglist
+ - Used site relative links for qh-home.htm
+
+qhull 3.1 2001/10/04
+
+New features
+ - Added option 'Qt' to triangulate non-simplicial facets
+ - Added option 'TI file' to input data from file
+ - Added option 'Q10' to prevent special processing for narrow distributions
+        e.g., RBOX 1000 L100000 s G1e-6 t1001803691 | QHULL Tv Q10
+ - Tried to compute Voronoi volumes ('Pv'). Requires dual face graph--not easy
+        See Clarkson's hull program for code.
+
+Changes to options
+ - Added numtricoplanars to 'Fs'. Number of good, triangulated facets for 'Qt'
+ - Added Zdelvertextot to 'Fs'.  If non-zero and Delaunay, input is degenerate
+ - Qhull command ('FQ') may be repeated.
+ - If 'TPn' and 'TWn' defined, trace the addition of point 'n'
+     otherwise continue tracing (previously it stopped in 4-d)
+ - Removed 'Ft' from qdelaunay.  Use 'Qt o' or 'qhull d QJ Qt' instead.
+     For non-simplicial regions, 'Ft' does not satisify the Delaunay property.
+ - If 'Po' or 'TVn', qhull checks outer planes.  Use 'Q5' to turn off.
+ - If 'T4', print facet lists and check polygon after adding each point
+ 
+Corrections to code
+ - rbox: allow 'c' and 'd' with 's r', meshes, etc.
+ - qh_findbest: redesigned as directed search. qh_findbesthorizon for coplanar
+      qh_findbest is faster for many distributions
+ - qh_findbestnew: redesigned to search horizon of coplanar best newfacets
+      needed for distributions with a sharp edge, 
+	  e.g., rbox 1000 s Z1 G1e-13 | qhull Tv
+ - qh_findbest/qh_findbestnew: search neighbors of better horizon facets
+      was needed for RBOX 1000 s Z1 G1e-13 t996564279 | qhull Tv  
+      and RBOX 1000 s W1e-13 P0 t996547055 | QHULL d Qbb Qc Tv
+ - qh_findbest with noupper: could return an upperdelaunay facet if dist>qh.MINoutside.
+ - qh_findbestnew: allow facet->upperdelaunay if dist > qh.MINoutside
+ - qh_partitioncoplanar: call qh_partitionpoint if outside and perpendicular
+      for distributions with a sharp edge
+ - qh_partitionvisible: report precision error if all newfacets degenerate.
+      was needed for RBOX 1000 s W1e-13 t995138628 | QHULL d
+ - qh_createsimplex: clears qh.num_visible, may be non-zero with 'TRn QJ'
+
+Changes to prompts, warnings, and statistics
+ - For Delaunay & Voronoi, 's' reports deleted vertices due to facet merging.
+   They were incorrectly reported as nearly incident points.
+ - Warn if recompute centrum after constructing hull
+ - Simplified narrow hull warning and print all digits of cosine.  
+     A narrow hull may lead to a point outside of the hull.
+ - Print total vertices deleted instead of ave. per iteration (Zdelvertextot)
+ - Improved tracing for qh_partitionpoint and qh_partitioncoplanar
+ - Added number of distance tests for checking outer planes (qh_check_maxout)
+ - Simplified "qhull precision error: Only n facets remain."
+ - Included 'TRn' in the causes of a premature exit
+
+Changes to documentation
+ - README.txt: Added quickstart instructions for Visual C++
+ - rbox: Added example of edge of narrow lens, rbox 1000 L100000 s G1e-6
+ - Added cross references between options 'o' and 'p'.
+ - qh-eg.html: added examples comparing 'Qt', 'QJ', and neither 'Qt' nor 'QJ' 
+	eg.15a.surface, eg.15b.triangle, eg.17a.delaunay.2, etc.
+ - Reorganized and enhanced discussion of precision problems in qh_impre.htm
+ - Fixed spelling errors [K. Briggs]
+ - Fixed link errors, validated HTML, and spell checked [HomeSite]
+ - Removed unnecessary #TOP links
+ - Added source links to the qh-quick.htm's header and footer
+ - qh-geom.htm, qh-poly.htm: add links to Voronoi functions in io.c
+ - src/index.htm: Added how to search qhull.h for qhull options
+ - qvoronoi.htm/qdelaun.htm: 'Fc' and 'FN' includes deleted vertices
+
+Changes to URLs
+ - Added http://www.voronoi.com and http://www.magic-software.com
+
+Changes to code
+ - qh_qhull: if 'TVn' or 'TCn' do not call qh_check_maxout and qh_nearcoplanar
+ - reviewed time profile.  Qhull is slower.  Optimized qh_findbestnew()
+ - qh_addpoint: Added warning note about avoiding a local minimum
+ - qh_checkpolygon: report qh.facet_next error if NARROWhull & dist>MINoutside
+ - qh_findbest: renamed "newfacets" parameter to "isnewfacets" since it is boolT
+ - qh_findbest/qh_findbestnew: testhorizon even if !MERGING
+        Otherwise qhull c D6 | qhull Q0 Tv assigns coplanar points 
+ - qh_resetlists: add qh_RESETvisible for qh_triangulate
+ - qh_findbest: search better facets first.  Rewritten.
+ - qh_findbest: increased minminsearch, always check coplanar facets.  
+        See: RBOX 1000 s Z1 G1e-13 t996564279 | QHULL Tv
+ - qh_findbestnew: report precision error for deleted cones [rare event]
+        e.g.:  RBOX 1000 s W1e-13 P0 t1001034076 | QHULL d Qbb Qc Tv
+ - qh_findbesthorizon: search horizon of qh.coplanarset.  New.
+ - qh_findbestsharp: replaced with qh_sharpnewfacets followed by qh_findbestnew
+ - qh_partitionpoint, Delaunay sites can not be inside.  Otherwise points may
+       be outside upperDelaunay facets yet not near-inside Delaunay facets
+       See: RBOX s 1000 t993602376 | QHULL C-1e-3 d  Qbb FA Tv
+ - qh_partitioncoplanar: call qh_findbest/qh_findbestnew with qh DELAUNAY 
+ - qh_printlists: format long lines 
+ - qh_printvertex: format long lines
+ - user.h: tightened qh_WARNnarrow and qh_MAXnarrow.  Do not see problems 
+       until they are -1.0.
+ - user.h: defined qh_DISToutside, qh_SEARCHdist, and qh_USEfindbestnew 
+ - qh_checkfacet: in 3-d, allow #ridges > #vertices.  Can get a vertex twice
+   in a ridge list, e.g,  RBOX 1000 s W1e-13 t995849315 D2 | QHULL d Tc Tv 
+
+Changes to FAQ
+ - Recommended use of triangulated output ('Qt')
+
+Changes to distribution
+ - Recompiled in Visual C++ 5.0 with optimization (as was version 2.6)
+ - q_test: Added bad cases for Qhull and tests for new features
+
+Changes to Qhull library
+ - Added qh_triangulate() to poly2.c.  It triangulates the output.
+ - Added option 'Q11' to copy normals and recompute centrums for tricoplanar facets 
+        'FP' may not print the nearest vertex for coplanar points
+        Use option 'Q11' when adding points after qh_triangulate()
+
+qhull 3.0 2001/02/11
+
+Changes to distribution
+ - added qconvex, qdelaunay, qhalf, and qvoronoi
+ - added qhull-interface.cpp on calling Qhull from C++ [K. Erleben]
+ - renamed to qhull3.0/.   
+ - added eg/, html/, and src/ directories 
+
+Changes to URLs
+ - MathLab6 qhull: convhulln, delaunayn, griddatan, tsearchn, vororoin [Z. You]
+ - Wolfram Research wrote a Mathematica interface for qdelaunay [Hinton]
+ - Geomview moved from www.geom.umn.edu to www.geomview.org [M. Phillips}
+ - added URLs for tcsh and cygwin to README.txt
+
+Changes to documentation
+ - reorganized table of contents and renamed qh-man.htm to index.htm
+ - wrote program documentation, dropped qh-opt.htm and qh-optv.htm
+ - added quick reference, qh-quick.htm
+ - reorganized qh-rbox.htm and renamed it to rbox.htm
+ - split up qh-c.htm for quick navigation
+
+Corrections to code
+ - fixed type of arg for error message in qh_initqhull_globals [N. Max]
+ - fixed incorrect initialization of qh MINdenom_1 for scalepoints
+ - fixed drop dim for 'H Qbk:0Bk:0'.  Added qh.feasible_point to qh_projectinput 
+ - qh_WARNnarrow is angle between facet normals.  Negate for warning message.
+ -   statistics for Wangle/etc. concerns facet normals.  Reworded [E. Voth]
+ - fixed error message for 'FC v'
+ - report cospherical points if Delaunay and error in qh_scalelast()
+
+Changes to code
+ - turn on Pg if (QVn or QGn) and not (Qg or PG)
+ - turn on Qc if format option 'Fc', 'FP', or 'Gp' (removes warning)
+ - removed last good facet unless ONLYgood ('Qg').
+ - added count of non-simplicial or merged facets to 'FS'
+ - added count of non-simplicial facets to 's' (OK if #vertices==dim)
+ - added Znonsimplicial and Znowsimplicial to 'Ts'
+ - allow Mathematica output of dual polytope for halfspace intersection
+ - added qh_checkflags to globals.c for multiple front ends
+ - qh_initqhull_globals sets qh.MERGING if qh.MERGEexact
+ - removed hashentryT.  It is no longer used.
+
+Changes to prompts and warnings
+ - reorganized prompts
+ - reorganized synopsis for rbox.c
+ - print warning if 'Fc' or 'FP' with 'd QJ'.  Coincident points are unlikely.
+ - ignore warning if options 'v i Pp'.  qvoronoi users may need Delaunay tri.
+ - reworded warning if 'Pg' and 'QVn' is not a vertex.
+ - reworded warning for 'Qx Tv', qh_check_points() in poly2.c
+ - if 'Pp', turn off warning for 'Qbb' without 'd' or 'v' 
+ - in qh_printsummary() of Voronoi and Delaunay, distinguish QVn, QGn, Pdn, PDn 
+
+Changes to FAQ
+ - added FAQ item for nearly flat Delaunay triangles [Z. You]
+ - added FAQ item for area and volume [R. Konatham]
+ - added FAQ item for Voronoi diagram of a square [J. Yong]
+ - edited FAQ item on point location in Delaunay triangles [Z. You]
+ - added FAQ item on nearly flat Delaunay triangles [Dehghani]
+ - added FAQ item about halfspace intersection [V. Tyberghein]
+ - added FAQ item for missing ridges [M. Schmidt]
+ - added FAQ item about qh_call_qhull [R. Snyder]
+ - added FAQ item about memory statistics [Masi]
+ - added FAQ item on meshing non-convex objects
+ - added FAQ item on MATLAB and Mathematica interface
+
+qhull 2.6 1999/04/19
+ - fixed memory overwrite (no effect) in qh_initstatistics() [K. Ford]
+ - added zdoc11 to qh-stat.h#ZZdef for !qh_KEEPstatistics [K. Ford]
+ - enhanced qh_initqhull_globals() test of qh_RANDOMint and qh_RANDOMmax
+ - added debugging option to always return qh_RANDOMmax from qh_rand()
+ - fixed option 'Qr', qh_initialvertices(), to allow a broken qh_rand() 
+   fixed option 'Qr', qh_nextfurthest(), to allow narrow hulls  
+     Option 'Qr' simulates the random incremental algorithm for convex hulls
+ - added note that qh.num_outside includes coplanar points for narrow hulls
+ - added FAQ items for triangles/ridges of 3-d Delaunay triangulation[P. Kumar]
+ - added FAQ item about on-line processing with the Qhull library [O. Skare]
+ - changed name of option 'Error-roundoff' to 'Distance-roundoff'
+
+qhull 2.6 1998/12/30
+ - for the unbounded rays of the Voronoi diagram, use a large box [Schmidt]
+     e.g., 'rbox P4,4,4 P4,2,4 P2,4,4 P4,4,2 10 | qhull v Fv' fails for point 0
+     while 'rbox P4,4,4 P4,2,4 P2,4,4 P4,4,2 10 c G5 | qhull v Fv' is OK.
+ - fixed qh_new_qhull() to use outfile/errfile instead of stdout/stderr [Ford]
+ - clarified COPYING.txt for use in other programs [Archer]
+ - improved qh_readpoints() error message for incorrect point count.
+ - added FAQ item for closest triangle to a point [Sminchisescu & Heijting]
+ - added FAQ item for is a point outside of a facet [Beardsley]
+ - added FAQ item for visiting facets of the Delaunay triangulation [Heijting]
+ - added link to Erickson's Computational Geometry Software
+ - added link to Sharman's HTML version of the comp.graphics.algorithms FAQ
+ - added link to Owen's Meshing Research Corner
+ - added note to 'd' about quadratic size of 'rbox 100 l | qhull d' [Kumar]
+ - added 'about a point' to mentions of halfspace intersection
+ - added request to qh-in.htm to compute largest empty circle [Hase]
+ - the DOS window in Windows NT is better than the DOS window in Windows 95
+ - removed obsolete qh_findfacet() from qh-c.htm [Sminchisescu]
+
+qhull 2.6 1998/8/12
+ new and modified features
+ - rbox: added option Mn,m,r to generate a rotated lattice or mesh
+ - rbox: report error if more than one of 'l', 'x', 'L', 's', or 'M'
+
+ Qhull library changes
+ - added qh_new_qhull() to user.c for calling qhull() from a program [D. Zwick]
+   rewrote user_eg.c to use qh_new_qhull().  Added qh_QHpointer example.
+ - added qh_CLOCKtype 2 in user.h to call times() for CPU time [B. Hemkemeier]
+ - renamed set.c/set.h to avoid conflict with STL's set.h [G. van den Bergen] 
+   can also use '#include <qhull/qhull_a.h>' for Qhull library
+
+ fixed errors
+ - fixed qh_init_B() to call qh_initqhull_mem() once only [D. Zwick]
+   This only effects Qhull library users of qh_QHpointer.
+ - fixed qh_mergecycle_all() to check for redundant vertices [J. Nagle]
+   e.g., 'rbox M3,4 64 | qhull Qc' should report 8 vertices & 48 coplanars
+ - fixed gmcoord initialization in qh_setfacetplane() for qh.RANDOMdist
+ - turn off qh.RANDOMdist during qh_printfacetheader()
+ - fixed error messages for unknown option flags
+
+ documentation changes
+ - added note to FAQ on the Voronoi diagram of cospherical points [H. Hase]
+ - added note to 'Qu' on furthest-site Delaunay triangulation via convex hull
+ - added note to 'QJ' about coplanar points on the convex hull of the input
+ - added note that 'o' and 'FN' list Voronoi regions in site id order [Arvind]
+ - added links to Fukuda's introduction to convex hulls, etc. [H. Hase]
+ - added .c and .h source files to web distribution and qh-c.htm [J. Sands]
+ - documented qh_ZEROdelaunay.  Delaunay and Voronoi diagrams do not include
+   facets that are coplanar with the convex hull of the input sites.
+  
+ modified code
+ - replaced computed minnorm in qh_sethyperplane_det with distance test
+ - removed 'qh rand_seed' since random number generator is independent of qhull
+ - dropt 'qhull-PPC.sit.bin' from the distribution (out-of-date) [M. Harris]
+
+qhull 2.5 1998/5/4
+
+ fixed errors
+ - removed zero-area Delaunay triangles and furthest-site triangles [I. Beichl]
+   Zero-area triangles occur for points coplanar with the input's convex hull.
+ - replaced qh.MINnorm with computed minnorm in qh_sethyperplane_det [J. Nagle]
+   qh.MINnorm was incorrect for the convex hull of the "teapot" example.
+   Qhull runs 0-20% slower in 3-d and 4-d.
+ - allow 'Qg' with furthest-site Delaunay triangulation (may be faster)
+ - removed extra space in definition of FOREACHmerge_() for Alpha cc [R. LeRoy]
+ - fixed innerouter type in qh_printvdiagram2 [does not effect code, R. Adams]
+
+ documentation changes
+ - to browse qh-c.htm, set MIME type of .c and .h files to text/html
+ - added example of 3-d Delaunay triangulation to q-faq.htm
+ - added Delaunay and Voronoi examples to qh-optv.htm
+ 
+qhull 2.5 1998/2/4
+ - added option 'v Fi' for separating hyperplanes of bounded Voronoi regions
+ - added option 'v Fo' for separating hyperplanes of unbounded Voronoi regions
+ - option 'Pp' turns off the warning, "initial hull is narrow"
+ - fixed partial, 3-d Voronoi diagrams (i.e., 'v Fv QVn Tc')
+ - fixed missing statistics in qh_allstat* [T. Johnson]
+ - rearranged qh_printvdiagram.  Use qh_eachvoronoi to iterate Voronoi ridges.
+ - added qh_check_points to qh-math.c
+ 
+qhull 2.5 1998/1/28
+ - added option 'Fv' to print the Voronoi diagram
+ - added rbox option 'x' to generate random points in a simplex
+ - added rbox option 'y' to generate a simplex and random points
+ - added rbox option 'On' to offset the output 
+ - add unpacking instructions to README.txt
+ - updated discussion of forced output, 'Po'
+ - sorted the options alphabetically
+ - removed __STDC__ check from qhull.h for VisualC++
+ - moved qh_markvoronoi from qh_printvoronoi and cleared facet->seen flags
+ - added facet->seen2 flag for 'Fv'
+
+qhull 2.5 1998/1/16
+ - fixed initialization of qh.last_low on restart of 'd QJ' 
+ - renamed qh_JOGGLEmax to qh_JOGGLEmaxincrease
+ - updated URL for Fukuda's cdd program
+  
+qhull 2.5 1998/1/12
+
+New or modified features
+ - added option 'Fx' to print vertices by point id [G. Harris, T. McClendon]
+     in 2-d, the vertices are printed in counter-clockwise order
+     for Delaunay triangl., 'Fx' lists the extreme points of the input sites
+ - added option 'QJ' to randomly joggle input instead of merging facets
+ - added option 'TO file' to output results to a file.  Needed for Windows95.
+ - added option 'TRn' to rerun Qhull n times. Use to collect joggle statistics
+
+Corrections
+ - fixed 2-d facet orientation for 'i' and 'o' outputs
+ - for Mathematica 2.2 ('m') changed %10.8g to %16.8f [A. Zhaxybayev]
+ - fixed incorrect warning for 'QV0 Qg' in qh_initbuild [B. Wythoff]
+ - fixed unaccessible statistic if !qh_KEEPstatistics for Wnewvertexmax
+ - fixed overestimate of qh ONEmerge for point sets outside of 
+     first quadrant and far from the origin
+ - fixed overestimate of 'Qbb' for point sets far from the origin
+ - fixed potential overestimate of qh DISTround under 'Qbb'
+ - fixed 'p' printing coplanar points of unselected facets
+ - fixed 'Ft' printing centrums unnecessarily in 2-d
+  
+Changes to documentation 
+ - wrote internal design documentation (qh-c.htm)
+ - started frequently asked questions (qh-faq.htm)
+ - added a section on joggled input to qh-impre.htm
+ -   added joggle example to qh-eg.htm (eg.15.joggle)
+ -   changed q_eg to use 'QJ' instead of 'Q0' were appropriate
+ - added an example to each of the main options
+ - added examples to rbox.htm
+ - added examples to the synopsis
+ - added a reference to Mucke, et al ['96], Fast randomized point location ...
+ - added code for printing Delaunay triangles to qh-in.htm [A. Tsui]
+ - options 'Pdk' and 'PDk' do not drop on equality
+
+Improvements to the code 
+ - reviewed warning messages for Qhull options in qh_initflags
+ - added warning to 's' if premature exit from 'TCn' or 'TVn'
+ - 's' prints max distance above/below only if qh.MERGING
+ - reduced maxoutside in qh_check_bestdist/qh_check_points for 'Rn'
+ - in post-merging, rebuild centrums of large facets that become small
+ - lowered cutoff for coplanar facets for ischeckmax/qh_findbest
+ - removed qh_check_maxout for 'Wn Q0'
+ - reset tracing after 'TPn' adds point in 4-d and higher
+
+Changes for the Qhull library 
+ - changed qh_setdelaunay to call qh_scalelast if used with 'Qbb' or 'QJ'
+     Delaunay callers to qh_findbestfacet, qh_addpoint, or qh_findfacet_all
+     should always use qh_setdelaunay as in user_eg.c
+ - defined qh.outside_err to check points against a given epsilon [E. Voth]
+ - added header to user_eg.c to avoid its incorporation into qhull [C. Begnis]
+ - added qh_nearcoplanar() calls to user_eg.c
+     only needed if use 'QJ'
+ - expanded __STDC__ warning message in qhull.h [C. Begnis]
+ - renamed qh maxmaxcoord to qh MAXabs_coord
+ - replaced qh MAXlowcoord with qh MAXabs_coord
+ - random seed ('QR-n') is reset in qh_initqhull_globals after testing
+ - replaced 'FO' options "_max-coord/_min-coord" with "_max-width"/qh.MAXwidth
+
+Other changes to Qhull functions
+ - report error for !bestfacet in qh_findbest (it shouldn't happen) [H. Meuret]
+ - set newbest in qh_findbest only if bestfacet updated 
+ - renamed facet parameter for qh_findbest
+ - added maxdist argument to qh_checkpoint
+ - moved 'FO' output after qh_partitionall
+ - separated qh_initbuild from qh_qhull
+ -   reinitialize globals modified by qh_buildhull
+ -   moved initialization of qh.GOODvertexp & qh.GOODpointp to qh_initbuild
+ - separated qh_nearcoplanar from qh_check_maxout
+ - separated qh_geomplanes from qh_printfacet2geom, etc.
+ - separated qh_freebuild from qh_freeqhull
+ - separated qh_outerinner from io.c to return outer and inner planes
+ - separated qh_distround and qh_detroundoff from qh_maxmin
+
+
+qhull 2.4 97/4/2
+
+New or modified features
+ - made 'C-0' and 'Qx' default options.  Use 'Q0' to not handle roundoff errors
+ - removed point-at-infinity from Delaunay/Voronoi.  
+     you no longer need to use 'Qu PDk'
+ - added 'Qz' to add a point-at-infinity to Delaunay and Voronoi constructions
+ - added published version of qhull article in ACM Trans Math Software
+ - ported qhull to Windows95 under Visual C++ and Borland C++
+ - added 'Ft' for triangulation by adding the centrums of non-simplicial facets
+ - added 'Gt' to display 3-d Delaunay triangulations with a transparent hull
+ - changed definition of coplanar point in output to qh min_vertex (see 'Qc')
+     it was qh MAXcoplanar ('Un') [could make vertices non-coplanar]
+ - automatically set 'Qi' for options 'd Qc' and 'v Qc'.
+ - reworded summary ('s') for Delaunay/Voronoi/halfspace.  
+     use 'Fs' and 'FS' for summary statistics.
+ - for summary 's' of Delaunay/Voronoi, display number of coplanars for facets
+     if none, display total number of coplanars (i.e., non-vertices)
+ - input comment is first non-numeric text (previously limited to header)
+ - added input warning if use 'Qbb' without 'd' or 'v'
+ - 'Q3' can not be followed with a numeric option
+
+Corrections
+ - fixed qh_partitioncoplanar() to not drop interior points if 'Qi' is used
+ - fixed 'FP d' to report distance in point set instead of paraboloid
+ - fixed qh_findbest() to search all coplanar facets for qh_check_maxout()
+  
+Changes to documentation 
+ - added example eg.17f.delaunay.3 to show a triangulation of cospherical sites
+ - split up qh-opt.htm into multiple pieces
+ - split off qh-in.htm for Qhull internals
+ - renamed .html files to .htm for Windows95
+ - rewrote qh-optv.htm on Delaunay triangulation and Voronoi vertices
+ - added 'man' pages qhull.txt and rbox.txt.  These list all the options
+ - removed 'txt' versions of html files
+ - added note to 'PDk' about avoiding a 'd' option immediately after a float
+ - under option 'd', display the triangulation with 'GrD3', not 'GnrD3'
+ 
+Changes to the Qhull library
+ - added 'format' argument to qh_printfacetNvertex_nonsimplicial() in io.c
+ - removed C++ type errors [J. Stern, S. Marino]
+ -  created SETelemt, SETfirstt, etc. for specifying data types.  
+ -  use SETelem,etc. for assignments. 
+ -  changed setT.maxsize to 'int' to prevent type conversion warnings
+ -  changed FOREACH.. to a comma expression for better code and less warning
+ -  changed qh.vertex_visit and .visit_id to unsigned int to prevent warnings
+ - changed clock() to qh_CPUclock (user.h)
+ - qh_init_B() and qh_readpoints() do not set qh.ATinfinity for Delaunay tri.
+ - qh_setvoronoi_all() sets upper Delaunay facets if qh.UPPERdelaunay is set
+ - qh_nearvertex() returns distance in dim-1 for qh.DELAUNAY
+ - removed MSDOS path from qhull_command.  Spaces in Win95 tripped qh_setflags
+ - removed memory.h from qhull_a.h.  memset,etc. should be in strings.h
+ - split qh_prompt into pieces for Visual C++
+ - added note to qh_addpoint that coordinates can not be deallocated
+ - added Baker '89 to constrained Delaunay diagrams under Enhancements
+    please let me know if you try this
+ - added request for unbounded Voronoi rays to Enhancements
+    please let me know if you try this
+
+qhull V2.3 96/6/5
+ - fixed total area of Delaunay triangulation. [A. Enge]  
+      It should ignore facets on the upper-envelope.
+ - if 'd Qu FA', the total area is summed over the upper-Delaunay triangles
+ - fixed sign of area for Delaunay triangulations. 
+ - fixed cdd input format for Delaunay triangulation. [A. Enge]
+ - for cdd input, allow feasible point for halfspaces.
+ - warning if cdd output format for centrums, halfspace intersections, or OFF.
+ - print '0' for area ('Fa') if area is not computed for a facet
+ - option 'QR-n' sets random number seed to n without rotating input
+ - fixed qh_findbest() to retest coplanar and flipped facets after a restart
+ - for 'd Qu Ts' collects angle statistics for upper Delaunay facets
+ 
+ Changes to the Qhull library
+ - expanded user_eg.c for incremental constructions and Delaunay triangulation
+ - added discussion of incremental construction to qh_man.html#library
+ - WARNING: The default value of qh ATinfinity was changed from True to False.
+            A new flag, qh UPPERdelaunay, was defined for 'Qu'.
+         Please set qh ATinfinity if you explicitly add the point "at-infinity"
+         Please set qh ATinfinity if you explicitly call qh_projectinput.
+         Please set qh UPPERdelaunay if you explicitly cleared qh ATinfinity.
+	 Other users do not need to change their code.         
+   Now you can build a Delaunay triangulation without creating a point 
+   "at-infinity".  This removes a potential, hard-to-understand error.  
+   qh_readpoints sets qh ATinfinity for options 'd' or 'v' without 'Qu'.
+   qh_initB sets qh ATinfinity for qh PROJECTdelaunay w/o qh UPPERdelaunay.
+   qh_projectinput adds a point "at-infinity" only if qh ATinfinity is set.
+ - added qh_setdelaunay to geom2.c to project points to paraboloid
+ - added qh_findbestfacet() to poly2.c to replace qh_findfacet()
+ - removed procedure qh_findfacet().  It does not always work.
+ - removed NULL option for facet in qh_addpoint().  It does not always work.
+ - added noupper parameter to qh_findbest.
+ - added search of upperdelaunay facets to qh_findbest()
+ - allowed qh_findbest() to start with a flipped or upperdelaunay facet
+ - removed qh_nonupper() -- it is no longer needed
+ - allow space at end of options
+ - fixed qh_projectinput for furthest-site Delaunay (qh PROJECTdelaunay 'd Qu')
+ - added voids to procedure declarations with empty parameter lists
+
+qhull V2.3 96/3/25
+ - fixed missing qh_check_maxout when coplanar points and no merged facets.
+ - fixed qh_freeqhull/allmem (e.g., if qh_NOmem) [only custom code] [E. Voth]
+ - fixed qh_freeqhull to free qh interior_point [E. Voth]
+ - fixed main() to free all of memory if qh_NOmem.  Include "mem.h" [E. Voth]
+ - reset f.newcycle link in qh_mergecycle_all [E. Voth]
+ - fixed false error if 'Tc', coplanar points, and a narrow hull
+ - turn off 'Rn' when computing statistics, checking code, or tracing code
+ - removed ={0} from global.c and stat.c to reduce compiler warnings
+ - changed Makefile dependences to $(HFILES) for all but unix.o, set.o, mem.o
+ - pulled out qh_printpointid and reordered qh_pointid [E. Voth]
+ - removed some compiler warnings
+ - moved 'FO' print of options to just before qh_buildhull
+ - changed 'FO' to list difference from -1 for _narrow-hull
+
+qhull V2.2 96/2/15
+ - detect narrow initial hulls (cosine of min angle < qh_MAXnarrow in user.h).
+   Write warning if cosine < qh_WARNnarrow in user.h.  If narrow (qh NARROWhull), 
+   partition coplanar points as outside points and delay coplanar test to end.
+   Needed for  RBOX 1000 L100000 s G1e-6 t995127886 | QHULL Tv
+   See 'limitations' in qh-impre.html for further discussion.
+ - corrected some confusions between 'FV' and 'Fv' in qh-opt.html
+ - fixed initialization error for small Voronoi diagrams (e.g., [0,0], [1,0], [0,1]) [J. Velez]
+  - fixed bad return from qh_mindiff in geom2.c
+ - for initial hull, first process facet with furthest outside point (qh_furthestnext)
+ - added facet->notfurthest flag for recomputing furthest point
+ - added check for __STDC__ (needs ANSI C) [E. Voth]
+ - reduced warning messages from [E. Voth].  e[1] in setT still reports a warning.
+ - added a cube to the discussion of option 'v' (Voronoi) in qh-opt.html [J. Velez]
+ - added notes about adjacent vertices to "Calling Qhull" in qh-man.html [R. Lewis & J. Velez]
+ - added note about 'lines closer' when viewing 3-d Delaunay triangulations [P. Kallberg]
+ - added option 'Q9' to always process furthest of furthest outside points.
+ - removed option 'Pp' from q_eg and qh-eg.html.
+
+qhull V2.2 95/12/28
+ - added option 'Qbb' to scale the last coordinate to [0,m] (max prev coord).
+   This reduces roundoff errors for Delaunay triangulations with integer coordinates.
+ - changed option 'Qu d' to print out the furthest-site Delaunay triangulation
+   Use options 'Qu d PD2' to compute the normal 2-d Delaunay triangulation without
+   the point at infinity. 
+ - added notes to the documentation of option 'd'
+ - added notes to limitations of how Qhull handles imprecision
+ - added warning if options 'FP', 'Fc', or 'Gp' without option 'Qc' or 'Qi'
+ - added note to options 'PDk:n' and 'Pdk:n' that closest facet is returned if none match
+ - added check that 'Qbk' and 'QBk' does not invert paraboloid for 'd'
+ - added notes that qh_findfacet and qh_addpoint require lifted points for Delaunay triangulations
+ - fixed 'rbox s 5000 W1e-13 D2 | qhull d Qcu C-0 Qbb'
+ - fixed option 'QbB' (qh SCALEpoints was not set)
+ - fixed minor confusion between 'Gc' (print centrums) and 'Gp' (print points)
+ - rewrote qh_findbestnew for upper convex hull, Delaunay facets
+ - changed option name for 'Gp' from 'Gcoplanar' to 'Gpoints' 
+ - changed "nearest" facet for 'Pdk' to threshold - normal
+ - reworked qh GOODclosest for 'Qg'
+ - added note that 'Qg' does not always work
+ - recorded option 'C-0' as "_zero-merge" in option 'FO'
+ - refined qh DISTround in qh_maxmin/geom2.c for Delaunay triangulations
+
+qhull V2.2 95/12/4
+ - Version 2.2 fixes an important bug in computing Delaunay triangulations 
+   and convex hulls with edges sharper than ninety degrees.  The problem 
+   occurs when processing a point at a sharp edge.  A directed search can 
+   not be used for partitioning because one side may hide facets from the 
+   other side.  The new lens-shaped distribution for rbox demonstrates the 
+   problem.  For example, 'rbox 100 L3 G0.5 s | qhull Tv' fails for Version 2.1.
+   O. Schramm found the bug when computing the Delaunay triangulation of points
+   near an outside edge.  
+
+   I rewrote qh_findbest and related functions.  Qh_findbest 
+   uses an exhaustive test for sharp edges (qh_findbest_sharp).  
+   Qh_findbest avoids the upper convex hull of Delaunay triangulations.
+
+   Options 'd' and 'v' no longer assign coplanar points to the upper convex hull.
+    
+   Qh_check_maxout tests near-inside points.  It ignores fully inside points.
+   When done, it removes near-inside points from the coplanar sets.
+
+   If you use qh_addpoint or qh_findbest, please review the function headers.  
+   They do not work for lens-shaped hulls for arbitrary facets.  They do work for 
+   Delaunay triangulations.
+
+ Changes to options for V2.2
+ - added 'Qu' for computing the furthest-site Delaunay triangulation (upper hull)
+   and furthest-site Voronoi vertices.
+ - added 'FP' to print nearest vertex for coplanar points
+ - added coplanar count to 'Fs' and 's'
+ - added number of similar points to summary for Delaunay/Voronoi
+ - Option 'Qc' is no longer necessary when merging.  
+ - 'o' format for Voronoi vertices ('v') generates "0" lines for similar points
+ - 'QRn' for Delaunay ('d' or 'v') now rotates about the Z axis (see qh_init_B).
+   Otherwise Qhull does not identify the upper hull
+ - removed option 'Qa' for "all points outside".  In V2.1 it was automatically
+   set for 'd'.  Even though it was a bad idea, it revealed the above bug.
+ - for option list ('FO'), added version, values for one-merge, maxpos, maxneg,
+   and near-inside, and flags for zero-centrum
+ - optimized 'C-0' and 'Qx'.  These options ("zero-centrum") test vertices 
+   instead of centrums for adjacent simplicial facets.
+ - if 'Tv', report number of points that are not verified due to qh_findbest
+ - Option 'Q8' ignores near-inside points.
+
+ rbox 95/12/3
+ - added lens distribution ('Ln')  It may be used with 's', 'r', 'Wn', and 'Gn'
+ - removed default point count except for the test case, 'Dn'
+ - divided main() of rbox.c into sections
+
+ Documentation changes for V2.2
+ - added examples for lens distribution and furthest-site Delaunay triangulation
+   and renumbered the examples for q_eg
+ - described facet orientation in 'data structure' section [P. Soikkonen]
+ - added notes to qh-man.html/"What to do if something goes wrong"
+ - added note about using 'Tv' to verify the results [O. Schramm] 
+ - expanded definition of f_r in Performance section [S. Grundmann]
+ - noted that Geomview display of a Voronoi diagram adds extra edges 
+   for unbounded Voronoi cells
+ - rewrote error "convexity constraints may be too strong" [D. Newland]
+ - added limitations section to "Imprecision in Qhull"
+ - added note about zero-area facets to 'Imprecise convex hulls' in qh-impre.html
+ - added note to 'Qi' that it does not retain coplanar points
+ - added note that option 'Q5' may be used if outer planes are not needed
+ - added note to README.txt about Irix 5.1 [C. Goudeseune]
+ - added code fragment for visiting Voronoi vertices to "Calling Qhull" [M. Downes]
+ - added note about qh_addpoint() to "Calling Qhull" [M. Downes]
+
+ Errors fixed for V2.2
+ - use qh_sethyperplane_gauss if 3-d or 4-d norm is less than qh MINnorm
+ - count Zcentrumtests if qh_NOstat
+ - reversed sign convention for qh_sethyperplane_gauss
+   it was opposite to qh_sethyperplane_det
+   this effects qh_determinant and qh_detsimplex
+ - fixed error in qh_findgood_all with multiple restrictions, e.g., 'QVn Pdk'
+ - fixed call to qh_clearcenters for qh_produce_output
+ - in qh_errexit, report p0 if last furthest point
+
+ Changes for users of the Qhull library
+ - user code needs to define qh_version (see user_eg.c)
+ - merged initialization code into qh_init_A and qh_init_B [M. Mazzario] 
+   old code works as before.
+   qh_initflags also sets qh qhull_command for qh_initthresholds
+   redid initialization for user_eg.c
+ - simplified user_eg.c.  It computes the convex hull of a cube.
+ - added qh_setvoronoi_all in poly2.c to compute Voronoi centers
+   added related note to call_qhull
+ - added qh_findfacet to use in place of qh_findbest
+ - added qh_nearvertex to return nearest vertex in facet to point
+ - redid notes on multiple, concurrent calls in call_qhull/user.c
+ - changed BoolT to unsigned int (prevent implicit enum conversion warnings)
+ - added upperdelaunay to facetT.  It indicates a facet of the upper convex hull.
+ - converted qhull-PPC.sit for CodeWarrior 7
+
+ Code changes for V2.2
+ - simplified calls to setjmp() for Cray J916 [Salazar & Velez]
+ - replaced fprintf(fp,string) with fputs in io.c
+ - 'qh num_coplanar' removed (too expensive and not used).
+ - added numcoplanars to qh_countfacets()
+ - added min norm to qh_normalize2().  qh_normalize() wasn't changed
+ - removed type casts from qh_point and qh_pointid [Salazar & Velez]
+ - account for roundoff error in detecting upper convex hull (qh ANGLEround).
+ - post merging uses qh_findbestnew for partitioning
+ - qh_findbestnew for qh_partitioncoplanar goes to best facet
+ - 'Qm' always processes points above the upper hull of a Delaunay triangulation
+ - GOODvertex initialized with qh_findbestnew instead of qh_findbest
+ - for 'v', qh_facetcenter returns furthest-neighbor vertex if 'Qu'
+ - added test for qh feasible_point if use 'Fp' and qh_sethalfspace_all
+ - reviewed Sugihara's algorithm for topologically robust beneath-beyond
+ - on error, report if qhull in post-merging or has completed
+ - if tracing, option 'FO' and qhull command always printed
+ - added current furthest point ("during p%d") to 'T-1' events
+ - added 'TWn' tracing for vertices of new facets (qh_setfacetplane)
+ - added 'TWn' tracing for vertices in an output facet (qh_check_maxout)
+ - reorganized split between poly/poly2.c and geom/geom2.c
+ - reordered object files in Makefile
+
+qhull V2.1 95/9/25
+ - converted qhull.man to html format, many edits
+ - referenced Shewchuk's triangle program and Schneiders' Mesh Generation page
+ - added option 'Qa' to force all points outside 
+     automatically set for "precise" Delaunay or Voronoi [Salazar & Velez]
+     it is turned off by merging, 'Wn', 'Qc' or 'Qi'
+ - added coplanar points to option 'FN'
+ - moved option 'FO' to include default precision options
+ - changed default random number generator to qh_rand in geom2.c (user.h)
+
+ other code changes
+ - fixed option comment Pdrop-facets-dim-less, Qbound-dim-low, QbBound-unit-box
+ - defined ptr_intT for converting 64-bit ptrs to 'unsigned long' [D. Bremner]
+ - defined setelemT to distinguish actual size from pointers [D. Bremner]
+     use either e[...].p or e[...].i (user-level code should use set.h macros)
+ - changed %x to %p in format statements for pointers [D. Bremner]
+ - added test of REALmax,etc. to qh_maxmin [H. Poulard]
+ - added type parameter to qh_memalloc_() macro for type conversion
+ - added type conversion to qh_memalloc() calls where missing
+ - added type conversion to calls into set.c that return void*
+
+ other documentation changes:
+ - new URLs for graphics images
+ - fixed comment for facetT.neighbors in qhull.h [P. Soikkonen]
+ - changed recommendations for precision errors in qh_printhelp_degenerate()
+ -  added recommendation for 'V0' (facet is visible if distance >= 0)
+ - added note about 'long double' to user.h [S. Grundmann]
+ - added note about zero area Delaunay triangles for the 'v' option
+ - added note about locating Delaunay triangles to option 'd' [A. Curtis]
+ - added note that coplanar vertices correspond to duplicate points for 'd'
+ - added note about option 'd' automatically setting 'PDk' (lower convex hull)
+ - added note about precision errors to option 'd' [many users] 
+ - added note about qh_findbest() to the Qhull library section [L. Lai]
+ - 'make install' renames qhull.man to qhull.1 for Unix [M. Phillips]
+ - renamed README, etc. to *.txt to match WWW conventions [D. Cervone]
+
+qhull V2.1 7/10/95
+  - in 2-d, 'v o' lists the vertex at infinity in order [R. Critchlow]
+  -   it used to always list the vertex at infinity ("0") first
+  - rewrote description of 'v' option (Voronoi vertices and 2-d diagrams)
+  - added 'PFn' for printing facets whose area is at least 'n' [D. Holland]
+  - prefixed 'Q',etc. to the 'Q',etc. options in the long help prompt
+  - fixed references to 'Fv' and 'FV' options under option 'Hn,n,n'
+  - updated reference to cdd, <ftp://ifor13.ethz.ch/pub/fukuda/cdd/>
+  - in set.c, added some missing type coercions for qhmem.tempstack
+
+qhull V2.1 6/12/95
+  - replaced qhull.ps with qhull-2.ps (paper submitted to ACM TOMS)
+  - use BUFSIZ for setvbuf for Power Macintosh
+  - number of good facets printed if QVn, QGn, Pd, or PD
+  - added Makefile for Borland C++ 4.02 with Win32 [D. Zwick]
+  - added note to Enhancements section of qhull.1 about constrained
+       Delaunay triangulations [T. Rasanen]
+
+qhull V2.1 6/7/95
+  - fixed qh_facetarea_simplex() for non-simplicial facets [L. Schramm]
+  - fixed cast in qh_point and qh_pointid for 64-bit architectures
+  - fixed URL for Amenta's list of computational geometry software
+  - fixed cast in qh_meminitbuffers for qhmem.freelists
+  - added test for !qh half_space in qh readpoints 
+  - clarified options for qh_printhelp_singular()
+  - discussed non-simplicial facet area under option 'Fa' in qhull.1
+
+qhull V2.1 6/3/95
+  - home page for Qhull and new descriptions for the Qhull examples
+      http://www.qhull.org
+  - changed SIOUX buffering for Power Macintosh.   It runs fast now.
+      added a project file for Metrowerk's C
+  - note in README about compiling qhull on the PC
+
+qhull V2.1 beta 5/15/95
+
+		======= main changes ========
+  - added halfspace intersection ('Hn,n,n')
+  - facet merging is better, especially for high dimensions 
+  -   added 'Qx' for exact merges of coplanar points and precision faults
+  - facet merging is faster, especially for high dimensions.
+      e.g., convex hull of the 8-d hypercube is seven times faster
+  - added 'F' output formats for printing each aspect of the convex hull
+  - format 'Fa' computes facet areas, total area, and total volume
+  - format 'FO' writes a descriptive list of selected options to stderr
+  - moved all customization options to user.h
+  - changed the default precision to 'double' since it's needed for Delaunay.
+      using 'float' is faster and takes less space (REALfloat in user.h)
+  - option 'Qm' is no longer important for facet merging
+  - removed need for 'Qs' by selecting initial simplex with pos. determinants
+  - renamed 'Qv' to 'Q7' since virtual memory does not work well for qhull
+  - Qhull is available for the Power Mac (no graphical output)
+
+                 ====== other new and modified options ===========
+  - changed default MINvisible ('Vn') to a multiple of premerge_centrum ('C-n')
+  - added 'Un' option to set width of facet for coplanar points.
+       This replaces the previous rules for determining coplanar points.
+  - changed default MINoutside ('Wn') to twice MINvisible ('Vn')
+  - Geomview output adjusts point radii for MINvisible 'Vn' 
+  - the input format allows the number of points to precede the dimension
+  - options 'v' 'd' 'FAn' and 'FMn' record good facets ('Pg')
+  - added 'Fd' and 'FD' options for homogeneous coordinates in cdd format
+  -   in rbox, added 'h' flag to generate homogeneous coordinates in cdd format
+  - option 'PAn' prints out the n facets with the largest area 
+  - option 'PMn' prints out the n facets with the most merges
+  - option 'Po' under tracing ('Tn') no longer tries to write erroneous facets
+  - option 'TCn' only prints the old 'visible' facets for 'f'
+  - 'TFn' reports intermediate results when post-merging
+  -   option 'Ts' with option 'TFn' prints intermediate statistics
+  - the message for 'Tv' reports if it is checking outer planes
+  - 'Tz' sends stderr output to stdout
+  - added 'Q1' to ignore angle when sorting merges (merges are worse)
+  - added 'Q2' to not perform merges in independent sets (merges are worse)
+  - added 'Q3' to not remove redundant vertices (faster)
+  - added 'Q4' to avoid merges of old facets into new facets (does worse)
+  - added 'Q5' to skip qh_check_maxout (faster, but less accurate)
+  - added 'Q6' to skip pre-merge of concave and coplanar facets
+  - added 'Qv' for testing vertex neighbors for convexity (needs merge option) 
+  - added warning if mix Geomview output with other outputs ('Po' turns off)
+  - options 'o v' for 3-d and higher sort the Voronoi vertices by index
+
+		======= documentation =======
+  - rewrote the introduction and precision sections 
+  - added a section on performance
+  - added an example on halfspace intersection
+  - installed examples of Qhull in
+    <http://www.geom.uiuc.edu/graphics/pix/Special_Topics/Computational_Geometry/>
+
+		======= Makefile, user.h, and messages =======
+  - Makefile calls ./qhull, ./rbox, and prints short prompt for qhull
+  - added new statistics, e.g., for buildhull
+  - changed default qh_RANDOMtype to RAND_MAX with rand()
+  - added comment about numeric overflow to printhelp_singular
+  - reorganized the code to improve locality of reference
+  - option in mem.h (qh_NOmem) to turn off memory management in qhull
+  - option in user.h (qh_NOtrace) to turn off tracing in qhull
+  - option in user.h (qh_NOmerge) to turn off merging in qhull.
+  -   use this instead of redefining qh_merge_nonconvex in user.c
+  - simplified user_eg.c.  See qh_call_qhull() in user.c for the full version
+  
+		======== bug fixes ============
+  - fixed error in number of points for 'rbox 100 r' (odd distribution)
+  - fixed performance error in qh_degen_redundant_neighbors
+  - qh_partitionpoint now sets facet->maxoutside for first outside point
+  - fixed performance error in partitioning when merging a large, regular cone
+  - removed memory leak in qh_appendmergeset
+  - removed double free of qh line under errors in qh_readinput()
+  - forcing output on error ('Po') fixed for options 'n' 'o' 'i' 's'
+  - fixed optimization error on HP machines [fprintf(... *p++)]
+
+                ======== changes to qhull.h for user code =======
+  - qh_collectstatistics and qh_printstatistics removed from qhull.h.
+      should use qh_printallstatistics instead
+  - qh_findbest uses boolT for newfacets
+  - added qh_findbestnew for non-simplicial facets.  qh_findbest is
+    too slow in this case since it needs to look at many nearly coplanar
+    facets.
+  - renamed qh_voronoi/qh_centrum to qh_ASvoronoi, qh_AScentrum
+  - changed facet->id to 32-bits, added new flags for merging
+  - added facet->f for facet pointers while merging and for facet area
+  - added dfacet/dvertex for printing facets/vertices while debugging
+  - added qh_produce_output and qh_printsummary
+   
+		======== changes to code ==========
+  - moved qh_setfacetplane from qh_makenewfacets to qh_makenewplanes
+  - added qh_setfree2, qh_setcompact, and qh_setduplicate to set.c
+  - qh_findgooddist returns list of visible facets instead of setting global
+  - in qh_check_maxout, inside points may be added to coplanar list.
+  - qh_findbestnew used for qh_partitionall.  It is faster.
+  - in qh_findbest, changed searchdist to MINvisible+max_outside+DISTround.
+      MINvisible is the default MAXcoplanar.
+  - cleaned up list management via qh_resetlists
+  - uses facet->dupridge to indicate duplicated ridges instead of ->seen
+  - qh_buildtracing records CPU time relative to qh hulltime instead of 0
+
+		========== changes to merging =======
+  - many performance improvements, especially in high-d.
+  - when merging, qh_findbest and qh_findbestnew stops search at qh_DISToutside
+  - vertex neighbors delayed until first merge
+  - post merges reported every TFn/2 merges
+  - vertex merging turned off in 7-d and higher (lots of work, no benefit).
+      vertex merging moved to qh_qhull_postmerging in 6-d.
+  - replaced qh min_vertex with MAXcoplanar for determining coplanarity
+  - pick closest facets to merge in duplicate ridge instead of flip/flip
+      (see qh_matchduplicates in poly2.c)
+  - optimize merge of simplex into a facet
+  - optimize merge of a "samecycle" of facets into a coplanar horizon facet
+  - cleaned up qh_forcedmerges/qh_flippedmerges and removed facet->newmerge
+  - rewrote qh_merge_degenredundant with separate queue
+  - qh_facetdegen replaced by facet->degenredun
+  - flipped neighbors no longer merged in preference to flip/non-flip pairs
+  - removed angle argument from qh_merge_degenredundant and qh_mergefacet
+       only used for tracing
+  - getmergeset_initial had extra test of neighbor->simplicial
+  - ridge->nonconvex is now set on only one ridge between non-convex facets 
+  - moved centrum deletion to qh_updatetested
+  - qh_isnewmerge(facet) changed to facet->newmerge (removed NEWmerges)
+  - qh_findbestneighbor reports correct distance even if testcentrum
+  - added hull_dim factor to qh_BESTcentrum
+  - removed horizon preference in qh_merge_nonconvex (qh AVOIDold)
+  - facet->keepcentrum if qh WIDEfacet or qh_MAXnewcentrum extra vertices
+
+qhull V2.02 1/25/95
+  - rbox 'z' prints integer coordinates, use 'Bn' to change range
+  - fixed rare bug in qh_check_maxout when qh_bestfacet returns NULL
+  - fixed performance bug in findbestneighbor, should be + BESTnonconvex
+  - renamed 'notgood' flag in 'f' option to 'notG' flag (caused confusion)
+  - changed qh.hulltime to (unsigned) to prevent negative CPU times
+  - added random perturbations to qh_getangle under the 'Rn' option
+  - reviewed the documentation and enhancement list
+  - added discussion of how to intersect halfspaces using qhull
+  - replaced expression that caused incorrect code under an old version of gcc
+  - added buffer after qh.errexit in case 'jmp_buf' has the wrong size
+  - rewrote qh_printhelp_singular for lower-dimensional inputs
+  - rewrote qh_printhelp_degenerate
+  - added options for qh_RANDOMint in qhull_a.h
+  - changed time format for 'TFn' to %02d
+
+qhull V2.01 6/20/94
+  - fixed bug in qh_matchnewfacets that occured when memory alignment makes
+    facet->neighbors larger than necessary.
+  - fixed bug in computing worst-case simplicial merge of angle coplanar
+    facets (ONEmerge).  This decreases (...x) in printsummary.
+
+qhull V2.01 6/17/94
+  - added recommendation for 'Qcm' to documentation and help prompts
+  - added an input warning to qh_check_points ('Tv') if coplanars and no 'Qc'
+  - qh_partitionpoint: always counts coplanar partitions (Zcoplanarpart)
+  - rewrote qh_printhelp_degenerate to emphasize option 'C-0'
+  - For Geomview output, roundoff is not needed when printing the inner and 
+    outer planes.  This improves Geomview output for the 'Rn' option.
+  - For Geomview output without coplanar points or vertices, qh_GEOMepislon 
+    is not needed.  This removes the edge gap when displaying a Voronoi cell.
+  - For Geomview output 'Gp', direct vertices to the interior point 
+    instead of the arithmetic center of the displayed vertices.
+    
+qhull V2.01 6/11/94
+  - if pre-merge, 'Qf' is automatically set.  Otherwise an outside point may 
+        be dropt by qh_findbest().  This slows down partitioning.
+  - always use 'Qc' if merging and all facet->maxoutside's must be right.
+        Otherwise distributions with many coplanar points may occassionally
+	miss a coplanar point for a facet.  This is because qh_findbest, when 
+	called by qh_check_maxout, can become stuck at a local maximum if 
+	the search is started at an arbitrary facet.  With 'Qc', the search 
+	is started from a coplanar facet.  For example,
+		rbox 1000 W8e-6 t | qhull C-0 Tv
+	will (rarely) report that a facet->minoutside is incorrect
+  - option 'Pp' turns off "Verifying" message for 'Tv'
+  - added qh_copynonconvex to qh_renameridgevertex (fixes rare error)
+  - 'rbox tn' sets random seed to n
+  - 'rbox t' reports random seed in comment line
+  - qh_errexit reports rbox_command | qhull_command and 'QR' random seed
+  - added additional tracing to bestdist and setfacetplane
+  - in qh_checkconvex, need to test coplanar against 0 instead of -DISTround 
+  - in qh_checkconvex, always test centrums if merging.  The opposite
+    vertex of a simplicial facet may be coplanar since a vertex of
+    a simplicial facet may be above the facet's hyperplane.
+  - fixed error handling in qh_checkconvex when merging
+  - in qh_printsummary, one merge ratio not printed if less than 'Wn'
+  - documented that 'Tv' verifies all facet->maxoutside
+
+qhull V2.01 6/2/94
+  - 's' prints summary to stderr
+  - multiple output formats printed in order to stdout
+  - added statistic for worst-case distance for merging simplicial facets 
+       	can not hope for a better "max distance above/below facet"
+        print factor for "max distance.."/"merge simplicial" in printsummary
+  - fixed error in scaling input with min/max reversed ('Qb0:1B0:-1')
+  - fixed error in scaling if project & Delaunay & scale ('d Qb0:0B1:0b2:0')
+  - user_eg.c: qh_delpoint removed since it does not always work
+  - user_eg.c now works for either convex hull or Delaunay triangulation
+  - added PROJECTdelaunay for Delaunay triangulations and Voronoi diagrams
+	with libqhull.a and user_eg.c
+  - user_eg.c: if project or scale input, need to copy points
+  - user_eg.c: default just defines main, added fprintf's for qh_errprint etc.
+  - qh_gausselim: a 0 pivot no longer zeros the rest of the array,
+	  need the remaining elements for area computation
+  - qh_qhull: restore cos_max, centrum_radius at end of POSTmerging
+  - qh_checkflipped with !allerror is >=0.0 instead of >0.0
+  - removed -Wall from gcc due to unnecesssary "warning: implicit declaration"
+  - renamed 'new' variables and fields to allow compilation by g++
+  - added README notes on C++, and "size isn't known"
+  - updated manual on 'Qg' with coplanar facets and no merging ('rbox c D7')
+      'Qg Pg' and 'Pg' produce different results because of precision problems
+
+Converting from qhull 1.01 to qhull 2.00
+  - 'qhull An' is now 'qhull Wn'
+	option 'Wn Po' is faster but it doesn't check coplanars
+  - 'qhull g' is now 'qhull G', and the output formats are different
+  - 'qhull c' is now 'qhull Tc'
+  - 'qhull f' is now 'qhull Qf'
+  - 'qhull o' is now 'qhull Po'
+  - 'qhull b' is now always done
+  - qhull and rbox now use floats, change REALfloat in qhull.h for doubles
+  - qhull 2.00 fixes several initialization errors and performanace errors
+	e.g., "singular input" on data with lots of 0 coordinates
+  - 'rbox b' is now 'rbox c G0.48'
+  - all rbox distributions are now scaled to a 0.5 box (use 'Bn' to change)
+  - rbox now adds a comment line.  This may be removed by 'rbox n'
+  - 'rbox r s Z G' no longer includes the positive pole
+  - no changes to the Macintosh version 
+
+qhull V2.00 5/23/94
+  - if force output ('Po'), facet->maxoutside= 'Wn' since coplanars not updated
+        convexity checked if precision problems or verify ('Tv')
+  - if merging, new facets always checked for flipped orientation
+  - a facet is visible (findhorizon) under 'Qm' if distance > max_vertex
+  - if using 'Qm' then min. outside is max_vertex instead of max_outside
+  - default is random()/srandom() in qhull_a.h, checked in initqhull_globals
+  - created internal strtod since strtod may skip spacing after number
+  - removed lower bound (1.0) for qh maxmaxcoord
+  - divzero needs to handle 0/0 and large/small
+  - decreased size of precise vertices
+  - need to initialize qh MINdenom_1 for scalepoints
+  - added factor of qh maxmaxcoord into DISTround (needed for offset)
+  - 'Rn' perturbs distance computations by random +/-n
+  - check_points needs an extra DISTround to get from precise point to computed
+  - rewrote some of the IMPRECISION section in qhull.man
+  - added the input format to the qhull prompt
+  - moved include files to qhull_a.h since some compilers do not use float.h
+  - added qhull.1 and rbox.1 since SGI does not ship nroff
+  - reduced cutoff for printpointvect
+  - use time for qhull random seed only if QR0 or QR-1
+  - radius of vertices and coplanar points determined by pre-merge values
+
+qhull V2.00 5/12/94
+  - facet2point (io.c) used vertex0 instead of vertex1
+  - can't print visible facets after cone is attached
+  - shouldn't check output after STOPcone (TCn)
+  - statistic 'Wminvertex' and 'Wmaxoutside' only if MERGING or APPROXhull
+  - 'make doc' uses lineprinter format for paging
+  - warning if Gpv in 4-d
+
+qhull V2.b05 5/9/94
+  - decreased size of precise vertices
+  - precise facets in 2-d print hyperplanes
+  - accounted for GOODpoint in printsummary
+  - added IMPRECISION section to qhull.man
+  - 'Qg' does work in 7-d unless there's many coplanar facets
+

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/geom.c
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/geom.c	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/geom.c	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,1229 @@
+/*<html><pre>  -<a                             href="qh-geom.htm"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="TOP">-</a>
+
+   geom.c 
+   geometric routines of qhull
+
+   see qh-geom.htm and geom.h
+
+   copyright (c) 1993-2003 The Geometry Center        
+
+   infrequent code goes into geom2.c
+*/
+   
+#include "qhull_a.h"
+   
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="distplane">-</a>
+  
+  qh_distplane( point, facet, dist )
+    return distance from point to facet
+
+  returns:
+    dist
+    if qh.RANDOMdist, joggles result
+  
+  notes:  
+    dist > 0 if point is above facet (i.e., outside)
+    does not error (for sortfacets)
+    
+  see:
+    qh_distnorm in geom2.c
+*/
+void qh_distplane (pointT *point, facetT *facet, realT *dist) {
+  coordT *normal= facet->normal, *coordp, randr;
+  int k;
+  
+  switch(qh hull_dim){
+  case 2:
+    *dist= facet->offset + point[0] * normal[0] + point[1] * normal[1];
+    break;
+  case 3:
+    *dist= facet->offset + point[0] * normal[0] + point[1] * normal[1] + point[2] * normal[2];
+    break;
+  case 4:
+    *dist= facet->offset+point[0]*normal[0]+point[1]*normal[1]+point[2]*normal[2]+point[3]*normal[3];
+    break;
+  case 5:
+    *dist= facet->offset+point[0]*normal[0]+point[1]*normal[1]+point[2]*normal[2]+point[3]*normal[3]+point[4]*normal[4];
+    break;
+  case 6:
+    *dist= facet->offset+point[0]*normal[0]+point[1]*normal[1]+point[2]*normal[2]+point[3]*normal[3]+point[4]*normal[4]+point[5]*normal[5];
+    break;
+  case 7:  
+    *dist= facet->offset+point[0]*normal[0]+point[1]*normal[1]+point[2]*normal[2]+point[3]*normal[3]+point[4]*normal[4]+point[5]*normal[5]+point[6]*normal[6];
+    break;
+  case 8:
+    *dist= facet->offset+point[0]*normal[0]+point[1]*normal[1]+point[2]*normal[2]+point[3]*normal[3]+point[4]*normal[4]+point[5]*normal[5]+point[6]*normal[6]+point[7]*normal[7];
+    break;
+  default:
+    *dist= facet->offset;
+    coordp= point;
+    for (k= qh hull_dim; k--; )
+      *dist += *coordp++ * *normal++;
+    break;
+  }
+  zinc_(Zdistplane);
+  if (!qh RANDOMdist && qh IStracing < 4)
+    return;
+  if (qh RANDOMdist) {
+    randr= qh_RANDOMint;
+    *dist += (2.0 * randr / qh_RANDOMmax - 1.0) *
+      qh RANDOMfactor * qh MAXabs_coord;
+  }
+  if (qh IStracing >= 4) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_distplane: ");
+    fprintf (qh ferr, qh_REAL_1, *dist);
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "from p%d to f%d\n", qh_pointid(point), facet->id);
+  }
+  return;
+} /* distplane */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="findbest">-</a>
+  
+  qh_findbest( point, startfacet, bestoutside, qh_ISnewfacets, qh_NOupper, dist, isoutside, numpart )
+    find facet that is furthest below a point 
+    for upperDelaunay facets
+      returns facet only if !qh_NOupper and clearly above
+
+  input:
+    starts search at 'startfacet' (can not be flipped)
+    if !bestoutside (qh_ALL), stops at qh.MINoutside
+
+  returns:
+    best facet (reports error if NULL)
+    early out if isoutside defined and bestdist > qh.MINoutside
+    dist is distance to facet
+    isoutside is true if point is outside of facet
+    numpart counts the number of distance tests
+
+  see also:
+    qh_findbestnew()
+    
+  notes:
+    If merging (testhorizon), searches horizon facets of coplanar best facets because
+    after qh_distplane, this and qh_partitionpoint are the most expensive in 3-d
+      avoid calls to distplane, function calls, and real number operations.
+    caller traces result
+    Optimized for outside points.   Tried recording a search set for qh_findhorizon.
+    Made code more complicated.
+
+  when called by qh_partitionvisible():
+    indicated by qh_ISnewfacets
+    qh.newfacet_list is list of simplicial, new facets
+    qh_findbestnew set if qh_sharpnewfacets returns True (to use qh_findbestnew)
+    qh.bestfacet_notsharp set if qh_sharpnewfacets returns False
+
+  when called by qh_findfacet(), qh_partitionpoint(), qh_partitioncoplanar(), 
+                 qh_check_bestdist(), qh_addpoint()
+    indicated by !qh_ISnewfacets
+    returns best facet in neighborhood of given facet
+      this is best facet overall if dist > -   qh.MAXcoplanar 
+        or hull has at least a "spherical" curvature
+
+  design:
+    initialize and test for early exit
+    repeat while there are better facets
+      for each neighbor of facet
+        exit if outside facet found
+	test for better facet
+    if point is inside and partitioning
+      test for new facets with a "sharp" intersection
+      if so, future calls go to qh_findbestnew()
+    test horizon facets
+*/
+facetT *qh_findbest (pointT *point, facetT *startfacet, 
+		     boolT bestoutside, boolT isnewfacets, boolT noupper,
+		     realT *dist, boolT *isoutside, int *numpart) {
+  realT bestdist= -REALmax/2 /* avoid underflow */;
+  facetT *facet, *neighbor, **neighborp;
+  facetT *bestfacet= NULL, *lastfacet= NULL;
+  int oldtrace= qh IStracing;
+  unsigned int visitid= ++qh visit_id;
+  int numpartnew=0;
+  boolT testhorizon = True; /* needed if precise, e.g., rbox c D6 | qhull Q0 Tv */
+
+  zinc_(Zfindbest);
+  if (qh IStracing >= 3 || (qh TRACElevel && qh TRACEpoint >= 0 && qh TRACEpoint == qh_pointid (point))) {
+    if (qh TRACElevel > qh IStracing)
+      qh IStracing= qh TRACElevel;
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_findbest: point p%d starting at f%d isnewfacets? %d, unless %d exit if > %2.2g\n",
+	     qh_pointid(point), startfacet->id, isnewfacets, bestoutside, qh MINoutside);
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "  testhorizon? %d noupper? %d", testhorizon, noupper);
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "  Last point added was p%d.", qh furthest_id);
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "  Last merge was #%d.  max_outside %2.2g\n", zzval_(Ztotmerge), qh max_outside);
+  }
+  if (isoutside)
+    *isoutside= True;
+  if (!startfacet->flipped) {  /* test startfacet */
+    *numpart= 1;
+    qh_distplane (point, startfacet, dist);  /* this code is duplicated below */
+    if (!bestoutside && *dist >= qh MINoutside 
+    && (!startfacet->upperdelaunay || !noupper)) {
+      bestfacet= startfacet;
+      goto LABELreturn_best;
+    }
+    bestdist= *dist;
+    if (!startfacet->upperdelaunay) {
+      bestfacet= startfacet;
+    } 
+  }else 
+    *numpart= 0;
+  startfacet->visitid= visitid;
+  facet= startfacet;
+  while (facet) {
+    trace4((qh ferr, "qh_findbest: neighbors of f%d, bestdist %2.2g f%d\n", 
+                facet->id, bestdist, getid_(bestfacet)));
+    lastfacet= facet;
+    FOREACHneighbor_(facet) {
+      if (!neighbor->newfacet && isnewfacets)
+        continue;
+      if (neighbor->visitid == visitid)
+	continue;
+      neighbor->visitid= visitid;
+      if (!neighbor->flipped) {  /* code duplicated above */
+	(*numpart)++;
+	qh_distplane (point, neighbor, dist);
+	if (*dist > bestdist) {
+	  if (!bestoutside && *dist >= qh MINoutside 
+	  && (!neighbor->upperdelaunay || !noupper)) {
+	    bestfacet= neighbor;
+	    goto LABELreturn_best;
+	  }
+	  if (!neighbor->upperdelaunay) {
+	    bestfacet= neighbor;
+	    bestdist= *dist;
+	    break; /* switch to neighbor */
+	  }else if (!bestfacet) { 
+	    bestdist= *dist;
+	    break; /* switch to neighbor */
+	  }
+	} /* end of *dist>bestdist */
+      } /* end of !flipped */
+    } /* end of FOREACHneighbor */
+    facet= neighbor;  /* non-NULL only if *dist>bestdist */
+  } /* end of while facet (directed search) */
+  if (isnewfacets) { 
+    if (!bestfacet) {
+      bestdist= -REALmax/2; 
+      bestfacet= qh_findbestnew (point, startfacet->next, &bestdist, bestoutside, isoutside, &numpartnew);
+      testhorizon= False; /* qh_findbestnew calls qh_findbesthorizon */
+    }else if (!qh findbest_notsharp && bestdist < - qh DISTround) {
+      if (qh_sharpnewfacets()) { 
+	/* seldom used, qh_findbestnew will retest all facets */
+	zinc_(Zfindnewsharp);
+	bestfacet= qh_findbestnew (point, bestfacet, &bestdist, bestoutside, isoutside, &numpartnew);
+	testhorizon= False; /* qh_findbestnew calls qh_findbesthorizon */
+	qh findbestnew= True;
+      }else
+	qh findbest_notsharp= True;
+    }
+  }
+  if (!bestfacet) 
+    bestfacet= qh_findbestlower (lastfacet, point, &bestdist, numpart);
+  if (testhorizon) 
+    bestfacet= qh_findbesthorizon (!qh_IScheckmax, point, bestfacet, noupper, &bestdist, &numpartnew);
+  *dist= bestdist;
+  if (isoutside && bestdist < qh MINoutside)
+    *isoutside= False;
+LABELreturn_best:
+  zadd_(Zfindbesttot, *numpart);
+  zmax_(Zfindbestmax, *numpart);
+  (*numpart) += numpartnew;
+  qh IStracing= oldtrace;
+  return bestfacet;
+}  /* findbest */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="findbesthorizon">-</a>
+  
+  qh_findbesthorizon( qh_IScheckmax, point, startfacet, qh_NOupper, &bestdist, &numpart )
+    search coplanar and better horizon facets from startfacet/bestdist
+    ischeckmax turns off statistics and minsearch update
+    all arguments must be initialized
+  returns (ischeckmax):
+    best facet
+  returns (!ischeckmax):
+    best facet that is not upperdelaunay
+    allows upperdelaunay that is clearly outside
+  returns:
+    bestdist is distance to bestfacet
+    numpart -- updates number of distance tests
+
+  notes:
+    no early out -- use qh_findbest() or qh_findbestnew()
+    Searches coplanar or better horizon facets
+
+  when called by qh_check_maxout() (qh_IScheckmax)
+    startfacet must be closest to the point
+      Otherwise, if point is beyond and below startfacet, startfacet may be a local minimum
+      even though other facets are below the point.
+    updates facet->maxoutside for good, visited facets
+    may return NULL
+
+    searchdist is qh.max_outside + 2 * DISTround
+      + max( MINvisible('Vn'), MAXcoplanar('Un'));
+    This setting is a guess.  It must be at least max_outside + 2*DISTround 
+    because a facet may have a geometric neighbor across a vertex
+
+  design:
+    for each horizon facet of coplanar best facets
+      continue if clearly inside
+      unless upperdelaunay or clearly outside
+         update best facet
+*/
+facetT *qh_findbesthorizon (boolT ischeckmax, pointT* point, facetT *startfacet, boolT noupper, realT *bestdist, int *numpart) {
+  facetT *bestfacet= startfacet;
+  realT dist;
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp, *facet;
+  facetT *nextfacet= NULL; /* optimize last facet of coplanarset */
+  int numpartinit= *numpart, coplanarset_size;
+  unsigned int visitid= ++qh visit_id;
+  boolT newbest= False; /* for tracing */
+  realT minsearch, searchdist;  /* skip facets that are too far from point */
+
+  if (!ischeckmax) {
+    zinc_(Zfindhorizon);
+  }else {
+#if qh_MAXoutside
+    if ((!qh ONLYgood || startfacet->good) && *bestdist > startfacet->maxoutside)
+      startfacet->maxoutside= *bestdist;
+#endif
+  }
+  searchdist= qh_SEARCHdist; /* multiple of qh.max_outside and precision constants */
+  minsearch= *bestdist - searchdist;
+  if (ischeckmax) {
+    /* Always check coplanar facets.  Needed for RBOX 1000 s Z1 G1e-13 t996564279 | QHULL Tv */
+    minimize_(minsearch, -searchdist);
+  }
+  coplanarset_size= 0;
+  facet= startfacet;
+  while (True) {
+    trace4((qh ferr, "qh_findbesthorizon: neighbors of f%d bestdist %2.2g f%d ischeckmax? %d noupper? %d minsearch %2.2g searchdist %2.2g\n", 
+		facet->id, *bestdist, getid_(bestfacet), ischeckmax, noupper,
+		minsearch, searchdist));
+    FOREACHneighbor_(facet) {
+      if (neighbor->visitid == visitid) 
+	continue;
+      neighbor->visitid= visitid;
+      if (!neighbor->flipped) { 
+	qh_distplane (point, neighbor, &dist);
+	(*numpart)++;
+	if (dist > *bestdist) {
+	  if (!neighbor->upperdelaunay || ischeckmax || (!noupper && dist >= qh MINoutside)) {
+	    bestfacet= neighbor;
+	    *bestdist= dist;
+	    newbest= True;
+	    if (!ischeckmax) {
+	      minsearch= dist - searchdist;
+	      if (dist > *bestdist + searchdist) {
+		zinc_(Zfindjump);  /* everything in qh.coplanarset at least searchdist below */
+		coplanarset_size= 0;
+	      }
+	    }
+	  }
+	}else if (dist < minsearch) 
+	  continue;  /* if ischeckmax, dist can't be positive */
+#if qh_MAXoutside
+	if (ischeckmax && dist > neighbor->maxoutside)
+	  neighbor->maxoutside= dist;
+#endif      
+      } /* end of !flipped */
+      if (nextfacet) {
+	if (!coplanarset_size++) {
+	  SETfirst_(qh coplanarset)= nextfacet;
+	  SETtruncate_(qh coplanarset, 1);
+	}else
+  	  qh_setappend (&qh coplanarset, nextfacet); /* Was needed for RBOX 1000 s W1e-13 P0 t996547055 | QHULL d Qbb Qc Tv
+						 and RBOX 1000 s Z1 G1e-13 t996564279 | qhull Tv  */
+      }
+      nextfacet= neighbor;
+    } /* end of EACHneighbor */
+    facet= nextfacet;
+    if (facet) 
+      nextfacet= NULL;
+    else if (!coplanarset_size)
+      break; 
+    else if (!--coplanarset_size) {
+      facet= SETfirst_(qh coplanarset);
+      SETtruncate_(qh coplanarset, 0);
+    }else
+      facet= (facetT*)qh_setdellast (qh coplanarset);
+  } /* while True, for each facet in qh.coplanarset */
+  if (!ischeckmax) {
+    zadd_(Zfindhorizontot, *numpart - numpartinit);
+    zmax_(Zfindhorizonmax, *numpart - numpartinit);
+    if (newbest)
+      zinc_(Zparthorizon);
+  }
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_findbesthorizon: newbest? %d bestfacet f%d bestdist %2.2g\n", newbest, getid_(bestfacet), *bestdist));
+  return bestfacet;
+}  /* findbesthorizon */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="findbestnew">-</a>
+  
+  qh_findbestnew( point, startfacet, dist, isoutside, numpart )
+    find best newfacet for point
+    searches all of qh.newfacet_list starting at startfacet
+    searches horizon facets of coplanar best newfacets
+    searches all facets if startfacet == qh.facet_list
+  returns:
+    best new or horizon facet that is not upperdelaunay
+    early out if isoutside and not 'Qf'
+    dist is distance to facet
+    isoutside is true if point is outside of facet
+    numpart is number of distance tests
+
+  notes:
+    Always used for merged new facets (see qh_USEfindbestnew)
+    Avoids upperdelaunay facet unless (isoutside and outside)
+
+    Uses qh.visit_id, qh.coplanarset.  
+    If share visit_id with qh_findbest, coplanarset is incorrect.
+
+    If merging (testhorizon), searches horizon facets of coplanar best facets because
+    a point maybe coplanar to the bestfacet, below its horizon facet,
+    and above a horizon facet of a coplanar newfacet.  For example,
+      rbox 1000 s Z1 G1e-13 | qhull
+      rbox 1000 s W1e-13 P0 t992110337 | QHULL d Qbb Qc
+
+    qh_findbestnew() used if
+       qh_sharpnewfacets -- newfacets contains a sharp angle
+       if many merges, qh_premerge found a merge, or 'Qf' (qh.findbestnew)
+
+  see also:
+    qh_partitionall() and qh_findbest()
+
+  design:
+    for each new facet starting from startfacet
+      test distance from point to facet
+      return facet if clearly outside
+      unless upperdelaunay and a lowerdelaunay exists
+         update best facet
+    test horizon facets
+*/
+facetT *qh_findbestnew (pointT *point, facetT *startfacet,
+	   realT *dist, boolT bestoutside, boolT *isoutside, int *numpart) {
+  realT bestdist= -REALmax/2;
+  facetT *bestfacet= NULL, *facet;
+  int oldtrace= qh IStracing, i;
+  unsigned int visitid= ++qh visit_id;
+  realT distoutside= 0.0;
+  boolT isdistoutside; /* True if distoutside is defined */
+  boolT testhorizon = True; /* needed if precise, e.g., rbox c D6 | qhull Q0 Tv */
+
+  if (!startfacet) {
+    if (qh MERGING)
+      fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull precision error (qh_findbestnew): merging has formed and deleted a cone of new facets.  Can not continue.\n");
+    else
+      fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_findbestnew): no new facets for point p%d\n",
+      	      qh furthest_id);      
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  zinc_(Zfindnew);
+  if (qh BESToutside || bestoutside)
+    isdistoutside= False;
+  else {
+    isdistoutside= True;
+    distoutside= qh_DISToutside; /* multiple of qh.MINoutside & qh.max_outside, see user.h */
+  }
+  if (isoutside)
+    *isoutside= True;
+  *numpart= 0;
+  if (qh IStracing >= 3 || (qh TRACElevel && qh TRACEpoint >= 0 && qh TRACEpoint == qh_pointid (point))) {
+    if (qh TRACElevel > qh IStracing)
+      qh IStracing= qh TRACElevel;
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "qh_findbestnew: point p%d facet f%d. Stop? %d if dist > %2.2g\n",
+	     qh_pointid(point), startfacet->id, isdistoutside, distoutside);
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "  Last point added p%d visitid %d.",  qh furthest_id, visitid);
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "  Last merge was #%d.\n", zzval_(Ztotmerge));
+  }
+  /* visit all new facets starting with startfacet, maybe qh facet_list */
+  for (i= 0, facet= startfacet; i < 2; i++, facet= qh newfacet_list) {
+    FORALLfacet_(facet) {
+      if (facet == startfacet && i)
+	break;
+      facet->visitid= visitid;
+      if (!facet->flipped) {
+	qh_distplane (point, facet, dist);
+	(*numpart)++;
+	if (*dist > bestdist) {
+	  if (!facet->upperdelaunay || *dist >= qh MINoutside) {
+	    bestfacet= facet;
+	    if (isdistoutside && *dist >= distoutside)
+	      goto LABELreturn_bestnew;
+	    bestdist= *dist;
+  	  }
+	}
+      } /* end of !flipped */
+    } /* FORALLfacet from startfacet or qh newfacet_list */
+  }
+  if (testhorizon || !bestfacet)
+    bestfacet= qh_findbesthorizon (!qh_IScheckmax, point, bestfacet ? bestfacet : startfacet, 
+	                                !qh_NOupper, &bestdist, numpart);  
+  *dist= bestdist;
+  if (isoutside && *dist < qh MINoutside)
+    *isoutside= False;
+LABELreturn_bestnew:
+  zadd_(Zfindnewtot, *numpart);
+  zmax_(Zfindnewmax, *numpart);
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_findbestnew: bestfacet f%d bestdist %2.2g\n", getid_(bestfacet), *dist));
+  qh IStracing= oldtrace;
+  return bestfacet;
+}  /* findbestnew */
+
+/* ============ hyperplane functions -- keep code together [?] ============ */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="backnormal">-</a>
+  
+  qh_backnormal( rows, numrow, numcol, sign, normal, nearzero )
+    given an upper-triangular rows array and a sign,
+    solve for normal equation x using back substitution over rows U
+
+  returns:
+     normal= x
+      
+     if will not be able to divzero() when normalized (qh.MINdenom_2 and qh.MINdenom_1_2),
+       if fails on last row
+         this means that the hyperplane intersects [0,..,1]
+         sets last coordinate of normal to sign
+       otherwise
+         sets tail of normal to [...,sign,0,...], i.e., solves for b= [0...0]
+         sets nearzero
+
+  notes:
+     assumes numrow == numcol-1
+
+     see Golub & van Loan 4.4-9 for back substitution
+
+     solves Ux=b where Ax=b and PA=LU
+     b= [0,...,0,sign or 0]  (sign is either -1 or +1)
+     last row of A= [0,...,0,1]
+
+     1) Ly=Pb == y=b since P only permutes the 0's of   b
+     
+  design:
+    for each row from end
+      perform back substitution
+      if near zero
+        use qh_divzero for division
+        if zero divide and not last row
+          set tail of normal to 0
+*/
+void qh_backnormal (realT **rows, int numrow, int numcol, boolT sign,
+  	coordT *normal, boolT *nearzero) {
+  int i, j;
+  coordT *normalp, *normal_tail, *ai, *ak;
+  realT diagonal;
+  boolT waszero;
+  int zerocol= -1;
+  
+  normalp= normal + numcol - 1;
+  *normalp--= (sign ? -1.0 : 1.0);
+  for(i= numrow; i--; ) {
+    *normalp= 0.0;
+    ai= rows[i] + i + 1;
+    ak= normalp+1;
+    for(j= i+1; j < numcol; j++)
+      *normalp -= *ai++ * *ak++;
+    diagonal= (rows[i])[i];
+    if (fabs_(diagonal) > qh MINdenom_2)
+      *(normalp--) /= diagonal;
+    else {
+      waszero= False;
+      *normalp= qh_divzero (*normalp, diagonal, qh MINdenom_1_2, &waszero);
+      if (waszero) {
+        zerocol= i;
+	*(normalp--)= (sign ? -1.0 : 1.0);
+	for (normal_tail= normalp+2; normal_tail < normal + numcol; normal_tail++)
+	  *normal_tail= 0.0;
+      }else
+	normalp--;
+    }
+  }
+  if (zerocol != -1) {
+    zzinc_(Zback0);
+    *nearzero= True;
+    trace4((qh ferr, "qh_backnormal: zero diagonal at column %d.\n", i));
+    qh_precision ("zero diagonal on back substitution");
+  }
+} /* backnormal */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="gausselim">-</a>
+  
+  qh_gausselim( rows, numrow, numcol, sign )
+    Gaussian elimination with partial pivoting
+
+  returns:
+    rows is upper triangular (includes row exchanges)
+    flips sign for each row exchange
+    sets nearzero if pivot[k] < qh.NEARzero[k], else clears it
+
+  notes:
+    if nearzero, the determinant's sign may be incorrect.
+    assumes numrow <= numcol
+
+  design:
+    for each row
+      determine pivot and exchange rows if necessary
+      test for near zero
+      perform gaussian elimination step
+*/
+void qh_gausselim(realT **rows, int numrow, int numcol, boolT *sign, boolT *nearzero) {
+  realT *ai, *ak, *rowp, *pivotrow;
+  realT n, pivot, pivot_abs= 0.0, temp;
+  int i, j, k, pivoti, flip=0;
+  
+  *nearzero= False;
+  for(k= 0; k < numrow; k++) {
+    pivot_abs= fabs_((rows[k])[k]);
+    pivoti= k;
+    for(i= k+1; i < numrow; i++) {
+      if ((temp= fabs_((rows[i])[k])) > pivot_abs) {
+	pivot_abs= temp;
+	pivoti= i;
+      }
+    }
+    if (pivoti != k) {
+      rowp= rows[pivoti]; 
+      rows[pivoti]= rows[k]; 
+      rows[k]= rowp; 
+      *sign ^= 1;
+      flip ^= 1;
+    }
+    if (pivot_abs <= qh NEARzero[k]) {
+      *nearzero= True;
+      if (pivot_abs == 0.0) {   /* remainder of column == 0 */
+	if (qh IStracing >= 4) {
+	  fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_gausselim: 0 pivot at column %d. (%2.2g < %2.2g)\n", k, pivot_abs, qh DISTround);
+	  qh_printmatrix (qh ferr, "Matrix:", rows, numrow, numcol);
+	}
+	zzinc_(Zgauss0);
+        qh_precision ("zero pivot for Gaussian elimination");
+	goto LABELnextcol;
+      }
+    }
+    pivotrow= rows[k] + k;
+    pivot= *pivotrow++;  /* signed value of pivot, and remainder of row */
+    for(i= k+1; i < numrow; i++) {
+      ai= rows[i] + k;
+      ak= pivotrow;
+      n= (*ai++)/pivot;   /* divzero() not needed since |pivot| >= |*ai| */
+      for(j= numcol - (k+1); j--; )
+	*ai++ -= n * *ak++;
+    }
+  LABELnextcol:
+    ;
+  }
+  wmin_(Wmindenom, pivot_abs);  /* last pivot element */
+  if (qh IStracing >= 5)
+    qh_printmatrix (qh ferr, "qh_gausselem: result", rows, numrow, numcol);
+} /* gausselim */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="getangle">-</a>
+  
+  qh_getangle( vect1, vect2 )
+    returns the dot product of two vectors
+    if qh.RANDOMdist, joggles result
+
+  notes:
+    the angle may be > 1.0 or < -1.0 because of roundoff errors
+
+*/
+realT qh_getangle(pointT *vect1, pointT *vect2) {
+  realT angle= 0, randr;
+  int k;
+
+  for(k= qh hull_dim; k--; )
+    angle += *vect1++ * *vect2++;
+  if (qh RANDOMdist) {
+    randr= qh_RANDOMint;
+    angle += (2.0 * randr / qh_RANDOMmax - 1.0) *
+      qh RANDOMfactor;
+  }
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_getangle: %2.2g\n", angle));
+  return(angle);
+} /* getangle */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="getcenter">-</a>
+  
+  qh_getcenter( vertices )
+    returns arithmetic center of a set of vertices as a new point
+
+  notes:
+    allocates point array for center
+*/
+pointT *qh_getcenter(setT *vertices) {
+  int k;
+  pointT *center, *coord;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  int count= qh_setsize(vertices);
+
+  if (count < 2) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_getcenter): not defined for %d points\n", count);
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  center= (pointT *)qh_memalloc(qh normal_size);
+  for (k=0; k < qh hull_dim; k++) {
+    coord= center+k;
+    *coord= 0.0;
+    FOREACHvertex_(vertices)
+      *coord += vertex->point[k];
+    *coord /= count;
+  }
+  return(center);
+} /* getcenter */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="getcentrum">-</a>
+  
+  qh_getcentrum( facet )
+    returns the centrum for a facet as a new point
+
+  notes:
+    allocates the centrum
+*/
+pointT *qh_getcentrum(facetT *facet) {
+  realT dist;
+  pointT *centrum, *point;
+
+  point= qh_getcenter(facet->vertices);
+  zzinc_(Zcentrumtests);
+  qh_distplane (point, facet, &dist);
+  centrum= qh_projectpoint(point, facet, dist);
+  qh_memfree(point, qh normal_size);
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_getcentrum: for f%d, %d vertices dist= %2.2g\n",
+	  facet->id, qh_setsize(facet->vertices), dist));
+  return centrum;
+} /* getcentrum */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="getdistance">-</a>
+  
+  qh_getdistance( facet, neighbor, mindist, maxdist )
+    returns the maxdist and mindist distance of any vertex from neighbor
+
+  returns:
+    the max absolute value
+
+  design:
+    for each vertex of facet that is not in neighbor
+      test the distance from vertex to neighbor
+*/
+realT qh_getdistance(facetT *facet, facetT *neighbor, realT *mindist, realT *maxdist) {
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  realT dist, maxd, mind;
+  
+  FOREACHvertex_(facet->vertices)
+    vertex->seen= False;
+  FOREACHvertex_(neighbor->vertices)
+    vertex->seen= True;
+  mind= 0.0;
+  maxd= 0.0;
+  FOREACHvertex_(facet->vertices) {
+    if (!vertex->seen) {
+      zzinc_(Zbestdist);
+      qh_distplane(vertex->point, neighbor, &dist);
+      if (dist < mind)
+	mind= dist;
+      else if (dist > maxd)
+	maxd= dist;
+    }
+  }
+  *mindist= mind;
+  *maxdist= maxd;
+  mind= -mind;
+  if (maxd > mind)
+    return maxd;
+  else
+    return mind;
+} /* getdistance */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="normalize">-</a>
+
+  qh_normalize( normal, dim, toporient )
+    normalize a vector and report if too small
+    does not use min norm
+  
+  see:
+    qh_normalize2
+*/
+void qh_normalize (coordT *normal, int dim, boolT toporient) {
+  qh_normalize2( normal, dim, toporient, NULL, NULL);
+} /* normalize */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="normalize2">-</a>
+  
+  qh_normalize2( normal, dim, toporient, minnorm, ismin )
+    normalize a vector and report if too small
+    qh.MINdenom/MINdenom1 are the upper limits for divide overflow
+
+  returns:
+    normalized vector
+    flips sign if !toporient
+    if minnorm non-NULL, 
+      sets ismin if normal < minnorm
+
+  notes:
+    if zero norm
+       sets all elements to sqrt(1.0/dim)
+    if divide by zero (divzero ())
+       sets largest element to   +/-1
+       bumps Znearlysingular
+      
+  design:
+    computes norm
+    test for minnorm
+    if not near zero
+      normalizes normal
+    else if zero norm
+      sets normal to standard value
+    else
+      uses qh_divzero to normalize
+      if nearzero
+        sets norm to direction of maximum value
+*/
+void qh_normalize2 (coordT *normal, int dim, boolT toporient, 
+            realT *minnorm, boolT *ismin) {
+  int k;
+  realT *colp, *maxp, norm= 0, temp, *norm1, *norm2, *norm3;
+  boolT zerodiv;
+
+  norm1= normal+1;
+  norm2= normal+2;
+  norm3= normal+3;
+  if (dim == 2)
+    norm= sqrt((*normal)*(*normal) + (*norm1)*(*norm1));
+  else if (dim == 3)
+    norm= sqrt((*normal)*(*normal) + (*norm1)*(*norm1) + (*norm2)*(*norm2));
+  else if (dim == 4) {
+    norm= sqrt((*normal)*(*normal) + (*norm1)*(*norm1) + (*norm2)*(*norm2) 
+               + (*norm3)*(*norm3));
+  }else if (dim > 4) {
+    norm= (*normal)*(*normal) + (*norm1)*(*norm1) + (*norm2)*(*norm2) 
+               + (*norm3)*(*norm3);
+    for (k= dim-4, colp= normal+4; k--; colp++)
+      norm += (*colp) * (*colp);
+    norm= sqrt(norm);
+  }
+  if (minnorm) {
+    if (norm < *minnorm) 
+      *ismin= True;
+    else
+      *ismin= False;
+  }
+  wmin_(Wmindenom, norm);
+  if (norm > qh MINdenom) {
+    if (!toporient)
+      norm= -norm;
+    *normal /= norm;
+    *norm1 /= norm;
+    if (dim == 2)
+      ; /* all done */
+    else if (dim == 3)
+      *norm2 /= norm;
+    else if (dim == 4) {
+      *norm2 /= norm;
+      *norm3 /= norm;
+    }else if (dim >4) {
+      *norm2 /= norm;
+      *norm3 /= norm;
+      for (k= dim-4, colp= normal+4; k--; )
+        *colp++ /= norm;
+    }
+  }else if (norm == 0.0) {
+    temp= sqrt (1.0/dim);
+    for (k= dim, colp= normal; k--; )
+      *colp++ = temp;
+  }else {
+    if (!toporient)
+      norm= -norm;
+    for (k= dim, colp= normal; k--; colp++) { /* k used below */
+      temp= qh_divzero (*colp, norm, qh MINdenom_1, &zerodiv);
+      if (!zerodiv)
+	*colp= temp;
+      else {
+	maxp= qh_maxabsval(normal, dim);
+	temp= ((*maxp * norm >= 0.0) ? 1.0 : -1.0);
+	for (k= dim, colp= normal; k--; colp++)
+	  *colp= 0.0;
+	*maxp= temp;
+	zzinc_(Znearlysingular);
+	trace0((qh ferr, "qh_normalize: norm=%2.2g too small during p%d\n", 
+	       norm, qh furthest_id));
+	return;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+} /* normalize */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="projectpoint">-</a>
+  
+  qh_projectpoint( point, facet, dist )
+    project point onto a facet by dist
+
+  returns:
+    returns a new point
+    
+  notes:
+    if dist= distplane(point,facet)
+      this projects point to hyperplane
+    assumes qh_memfree_() is valid for normal_size
+*/
+pointT *qh_projectpoint(pointT *point, facetT *facet, realT dist) {
+  pointT *newpoint, *np, *normal;
+  int normsize= qh normal_size,k;
+  void **freelistp; /* used !qh_NOmem */
+  
+  qh_memalloc_(normsize, freelistp, newpoint, pointT);
+  np= newpoint;
+  normal= facet->normal;
+  for(k= qh hull_dim; k--; )
+    *(np++)= *point++ - dist * *normal++;
+  return(newpoint);
+} /* projectpoint */
+
+  
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="setfacetplane">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setfacetplane( facet )
+    sets the hyperplane for a facet
+    if qh.RANDOMdist, joggles hyperplane
+
+  notes:
+    uses global buffers qh.gm_matrix and qh.gm_row
+    overwrites facet->normal if already defined
+    updates Wnewvertex if PRINTstatistics
+    sets facet->upperdelaunay if upper envelope of Delaunay triangulation
+
+  design:
+    copy vertex coordinates to qh.gm_matrix/gm_row
+    compute determinate
+    if nearzero
+      recompute determinate with gaussian elimination
+      if nearzero
+        force outside orientation by testing interior point
+*/
+void qh_setfacetplane(facetT *facet) {
+  pointT *point;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  int k,i, normsize= qh normal_size, oldtrace= 0;
+  realT dist;
+  void **freelistp; /* used !qh_NOmem */
+  coordT *coord, *gmcoord;
+  pointT *point0= SETfirstt_(facet->vertices, vertexT)->point;
+  boolT nearzero= False;
+
+  zzinc_(Zsetplane);
+  if (!facet->normal)
+    qh_memalloc_(normsize, freelistp, facet->normal, coordT);
+  if (facet == qh tracefacet) {
+    oldtrace= qh IStracing;
+    qh IStracing= 5;
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_setfacetplane: facet f%d created.\n", facet->id);
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "  Last point added to hull was p%d.", qh furthest_id);
+    if (zzval_(Ztotmerge))
+      fprintf(qh ferr, "  Last merge was #%d.", zzval_(Ztotmerge));
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "\n\nCurrent summary is:\n");
+      qh_printsummary (qh ferr);
+  }
+  if (qh hull_dim <= 4) {
+    i= 0;
+    if (qh RANDOMdist) {
+      gmcoord= qh gm_matrix;
+      FOREACHvertex_(facet->vertices) {
+        qh gm_row[i++]= gmcoord;
+	coord= vertex->point;
+	for (k= qh hull_dim; k--; )
+	  *(gmcoord++)= *coord++ * qh_randomfactor();
+      }	  
+    }else {
+      FOREACHvertex_(facet->vertices)
+       qh gm_row[i++]= vertex->point;
+    }
+    qh_sethyperplane_det(qh hull_dim, qh gm_row, point0, facet->toporient,
+                facet->normal, &facet->offset, &nearzero);
+  }
+  if (qh hull_dim > 4 || nearzero) {
+    i= 0;
+    gmcoord= qh gm_matrix;
+    FOREACHvertex_(facet->vertices) {
+      if (vertex->point != point0) {
+	qh gm_row[i++]= gmcoord;
+	coord= vertex->point;
+	point= point0;
+	for(k= qh hull_dim; k--; )
+	  *(gmcoord++)= *coord++ - *point++;
+      }
+    }
+    qh gm_row[i]= gmcoord;  /* for areasimplex */
+    if (qh RANDOMdist) {
+      gmcoord= qh gm_matrix;
+      for (i= qh hull_dim-1; i--; ) {
+	for (k= qh hull_dim; k--; )
+	  *(gmcoord++) *= qh_randomfactor();
+      }
+    }
+    qh_sethyperplane_gauss(qh hull_dim, qh gm_row, point0, facet->toporient,
+           	facet->normal, &facet->offset, &nearzero);
+    if (nearzero) { 
+      if (qh_orientoutside (facet)) {
+	trace0((qh ferr, "qh_setfacetplane: flipped orientation after testing interior_point during p%d\n", qh furthest_id));
+      /* this is part of using Gaussian Elimination.  For example in 5-d
+	   1 1 1 1 0
+	   1 1 1 1 1
+	   0 0 0 1 0
+	   0 1 0 0 0
+	   1 0 0 0 0
+	   norm= 0.38 0.38 -0.76 0.38 0
+	 has a determinate of 1, but g.e. after subtracting pt. 0 has
+	 0's in the diagonal, even with full pivoting.  It does work
+	 if you subtract pt. 4 instead. */
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  facet->upperdelaunay= False;
+  if (qh DELAUNAY) {
+    if (qh UPPERdelaunay) {     /* matches qh_triangulate_facet and qh.lower_threshold in qh_initbuild */
+      if (facet->normal[qh hull_dim -1] >= qh ANGLEround * qh_ZEROdelaunay)
+        facet->upperdelaunay= True;
+    }else {
+      if (facet->normal[qh hull_dim -1] > -qh ANGLEround * qh_ZEROdelaunay)
+        facet->upperdelaunay= True;
+    }
+  }
+  if (qh PRINTstatistics || qh IStracing || qh TRACElevel || qh JOGGLEmax < REALmax) {
+    qh old_randomdist= qh RANDOMdist;
+    qh RANDOMdist= False;
+    FOREACHvertex_(facet->vertices) {
+      if (vertex->point != point0) {
+	boolT istrace= False;
+	zinc_(Zdiststat);
+        qh_distplane(vertex->point, facet, &dist);
+        dist= fabs_(dist);
+        zinc_(Znewvertex);
+        wadd_(Wnewvertex, dist);
+        if (dist > wwval_(Wnewvertexmax)) {
+          wwval_(Wnewvertexmax)= dist;
+	  if (dist > qh max_outside) {
+	    qh max_outside= dist;  /* used by qh_maxouter() */
+	    if (dist > qh TRACEdist) 
+	      istrace= True;
+	  }
+	}else if (-dist > qh TRACEdist)
+	  istrace= True;
+	if (istrace) {
+	  fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_setfacetplane: ====== vertex p%d (v%d) increases max_outside to %2.2g for new facet f%d last p%d\n",
+	        qh_pointid(vertex->point), vertex->id, dist, facet->id, qh furthest_id);
+	  qh_errprint ("DISTANT", facet, NULL, NULL, NULL);
+	}
+      }
+    }
+    qh RANDOMdist= qh old_randomdist;
+  }
+  if (qh IStracing >= 3) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_setfacetplane: f%d offset %2.2g normal: ",
+	     facet->id, facet->offset);
+    for (k=0; k < qh hull_dim; k++)
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "%2.2g ", facet->normal[k]);
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "\n");
+  }
+  if (facet == qh tracefacet)
+    qh IStracing= oldtrace;
+} /* setfacetplane */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="sethyperplane_det">-</a>
+  
+  qh_sethyperplane_det( dim, rows, point0, toporient, normal, offset, nearzero )
+    given dim X dim array indexed by rows[], one row per point, 
+        toporient (flips all signs),
+        and point0 (any row)
+    set normalized hyperplane equation from oriented simplex
+
+  returns:
+    normal (normalized)
+    offset (places point0 on the hyperplane)
+    sets nearzero if hyperplane not through points
+
+  notes:
+    only defined for dim == 2..4
+    rows[] is not modified
+    solves det(P-V_0, V_n-V_0, ..., V_1-V_0)=0, i.e. every point is on hyperplane
+    see Bower & Woodworth, A programmer's geometry, Butterworths 1983.
+
+  derivation of 3-d minnorm
+    Goal: all vertices V_i within qh.one_merge of hyperplane
+    Plan: exactly translate the facet so that V_0 is the origin
+          exactly rotate the facet so that V_1 is on the x-axis and y_2=0.
+          exactly rotate the effective perturbation to only effect n_0
+	     this introduces a factor of sqrt(3)
+    n_0 = ((y_2-y_0)*(z_1-z_0) - (z_2-z_0)*(y_1-y_0)) / norm
+    Let M_d be the max coordinate difference
+    Let M_a be the greater of M_d and the max abs. coordinate
+    Let u be machine roundoff and distround be max error for distance computation
+    The max error for n_0 is sqrt(3) u M_a M_d / norm.  n_1 is approx. 1 and n_2 is approx. 0
+    The max error for distance of V_1 is sqrt(3) u M_a M_d M_d / norm.  Offset=0 at origin
+    Then minnorm = 1.8 u M_a M_d M_d / qh.ONEmerge
+    Note that qh.one_merge is approx. 45.5 u M_a and norm is usually about M_d M_d
+
+  derivation of 4-d minnorm
+    same as above except rotate the facet so that V_1 on x-axis and w_2, y_3, w_3=0
+     [if two vertices fixed on x-axis, can rotate the other two in yzw.]
+    n_0 = det3_(...) = y_2 det2_(z_1, w_1, z_3, w_3) = - y_2 w_1 z_3
+     [all other terms contain at least two factors nearly zero.]
+    The max error for n_0 is sqrt(4) u M_a M_d M_d / norm
+    Then minnorm = 2 u M_a M_d M_d M_d / qh.ONEmerge
+    Note that qh.one_merge is approx. 82 u M_a and norm is usually about M_d M_d M_d
+*/
+void qh_sethyperplane_det (int dim, coordT **rows, coordT *point0, 
+          boolT toporient, coordT *normal, realT *offset, boolT *nearzero) {
+  realT maxround, dist;
+  int i;
+  pointT *point;
+
+
+  if (dim == 2) {
+    normal[0]= dY(1,0);
+    normal[1]= dX(0,1);
+    qh_normalize2 (normal, dim, toporient, NULL, NULL);
+    *offset= -(point0[0]*normal[0]+point0[1]*normal[1]);
+    *nearzero= False;  /* since nearzero norm => incident points */
+  }else if (dim == 3) {
+    normal[0]= det2_(dY(2,0), dZ(2,0),
+		     dY(1,0), dZ(1,0));
+    normal[1]= det2_(dX(1,0), dZ(1,0),
+		     dX(2,0), dZ(2,0));
+    normal[2]= det2_(dX(2,0), dY(2,0),
+		     dX(1,0), dY(1,0));
+    qh_normalize2 (normal, dim, toporient, NULL, NULL);
+    *offset= -(point0[0]*normal[0] + point0[1]*normal[1]
+	       + point0[2]*normal[2]);
+    maxround= qh DISTround;
+    for (i=dim; i--; ) {
+      point= rows[i];
+      if (point != point0) {
+        dist= *offset + (point[0]*normal[0] + point[1]*normal[1]
+	       + point[2]*normal[2]);
+        if (dist > maxround || dist < -maxround) {
+  	  *nearzero= True;
+	  break;
+	}
+      }
+    }
+  }else if (dim == 4) {
+    normal[0]= - det3_(dY(2,0), dZ(2,0), dW(2,0),
+			dY(1,0), dZ(1,0), dW(1,0),
+			dY(3,0), dZ(3,0), dW(3,0));
+    normal[1]=   det3_(dX(2,0), dZ(2,0), dW(2,0),
+		        dX(1,0), dZ(1,0), dW(1,0),
+		        dX(3,0), dZ(3,0), dW(3,0));
+    normal[2]= - det3_(dX(2,0), dY(2,0), dW(2,0),
+			dX(1,0), dY(1,0), dW(1,0),
+			dX(3,0), dY(3,0), dW(3,0));
+    normal[3]=   det3_(dX(2,0), dY(2,0), dZ(2,0),
+		        dX(1,0), dY(1,0), dZ(1,0),
+		        dX(3,0), dY(3,0), dZ(3,0));
+    qh_normalize2 (normal, dim, toporient, NULL, NULL);
+    *offset= -(point0[0]*normal[0] + point0[1]*normal[1]
+	       + point0[2]*normal[2] + point0[3]*normal[3]);
+    maxround= qh DISTround;
+    for (i=dim; i--; ) {
+      point= rows[i];
+      if (point != point0) {
+        dist= *offset + (point[0]*normal[0] + point[1]*normal[1]
+	       + point[2]*normal[2] + point[3]*normal[3]);
+        if (dist > maxround || dist < -maxround) {
+  	  *nearzero= True;
+	  break;
+	}
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  if (*nearzero) {
+    zzinc_(Zminnorm);
+    trace0((qh ferr, "qh_sethyperplane_det: degenerate norm during p%d.\n", qh furthest_id));
+    zzinc_(Znearlysingular);
+  }
+} /* sethyperplane_det */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="sethyperplane_gauss">-</a>
+  
+  qh_sethyperplane_gauss( dim, rows, point0, toporient, normal, offset, nearzero )
+    given (dim-1) X dim array of rows[i]= V_{i+1} - V_0 (point0)
+    set normalized hyperplane equation from oriented simplex
+
+  returns:
+    normal (normalized)
+    offset (places point0 on the hyperplane)
+
+  notes:
+    if nearzero
+      orientation may be incorrect because of incorrect sign flips in gausselim
+    solves [V_n-V_0,...,V_1-V_0, 0 .. 0 1] * N == [0 .. 0 1] 
+        or [V_n-V_0,...,V_1-V_0, 0 .. 0 1] * N == [0] 
+    i.e., N is normal to the hyperplane, and the unnormalized
+        distance to [0 .. 1] is either 1 or   0
+
+  design:
+    perform gaussian elimination
+    flip sign for negative values
+    perform back substitution 
+    normalize result
+    compute offset
+*/
+void qh_sethyperplane_gauss (int dim, coordT **rows, pointT *point0, 
+		boolT toporient, coordT *normal, coordT *offset, boolT *nearzero) {
+  coordT *pointcoord, *normalcoef;
+  int k;
+  boolT sign= toporient, nearzero2= False;
+  
+  qh_gausselim(rows, dim-1, dim, &sign, nearzero);
+  for(k= dim-1; k--; ) {
+    if ((rows[k])[k] < 0)
+      sign ^= 1;
+  }
+  if (*nearzero) {
+    zzinc_(Znearlysingular);
+    trace0((qh ferr, "qh_sethyperplane_gauss: nearly singular or axis parallel hyperplane during p%d.\n", qh furthest_id));
+    qh_backnormal(rows, dim-1, dim, sign, normal, &nearzero2);
+  }else {
+    qh_backnormal(rows, dim-1, dim, sign, normal, &nearzero2);
+    if (nearzero2) {
+      zzinc_(Znearlysingular);
+      trace0((qh ferr, "qh_sethyperplane_gauss: singular or axis parallel hyperplane at normalization during p%d.\n", qh furthest_id));
+    }
+  }
+  if (nearzero2)
+    *nearzero= True;
+  qh_normalize2(normal, dim, True, NULL, NULL);
+  pointcoord= point0;
+  normalcoef= normal;
+  *offset= -(*pointcoord++ * *normalcoef++);
+  for(k= dim-1; k--; )
+    *offset -= *pointcoord++ * *normalcoef++;
+} /* sethyperplane_gauss */
+
+  
+

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/geom.h
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/geom.h	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/geom.h	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,177 @@
+/*<html><pre>  -<a                             href="qh-geom.htm"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="TOP">-</a>
+
+  geom.h 
+    header file for geometric routines
+
+   see qh-geom.htm and geom.c
+
+   copyright (c) 1993-2003 The Geometry Center        
+*/
+
+#ifndef qhDEFgeom
+#define qhDEFgeom 1
+
+/* ============ -macros- ======================== */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="fabs_">-</a>
+   
+  fabs_(a)
+    returns the absolute value of a
+*/
+#define fabs_( a ) ((( a ) < 0 ) ? -( a ):( a ))
+               
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="fmax_">-</a>
+  
+  fmax_(a,b)
+    returns the maximum value of a and b
+*/
+#define fmax_( a,b )  ( ( a ) < ( b ) ? ( b ) : ( a ) )
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="fmin_">-</a>
+
+  fmin_(a,b)
+    returns the minimum value of a and b
+*/
+#define fmin_( a,b )  ( ( a ) > ( b ) ? ( b ) : ( a ) )
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="maximize_">-</a>
+
+  maximize_(maxval, val)
+    set maxval to val if val is greater than maxval
+*/
+#define maximize_( maxval, val ) {if (( maxval ) < ( val )) ( maxval )= ( val );}
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="minimize_">-</a>
+
+  minimize_(minval, val)
+    set minval to val if val is less than minval
+*/
+#define minimize_( minval, val ) {if (( minval ) > ( val )) ( minval )= ( val );}
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="det2_">-</a>
+
+  det2_(a1, a2,     
+        b1, b2)
+  
+    compute a 2-d determinate
+*/
+#define det2_( a1,a2,b1,b2 ) (( a1 )*( b2 ) - ( a2 )*( b1 ))
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="det3_">-</a>
+  
+  det3_(a1, a2, a3,    
+       b1, b2, b3,
+       c1, c2, c3)
+  
+    compute a 3-d determinate
+*/
+#define det3_( a1,a2,a3,b1,b2,b3,c1,c2,c3 ) ( ( a1 )*det2_( b2,b3,c2,c3 ) \
+                - ( b1 )*det2_( a2,a3,c2,c3 ) + ( c1 )*det2_( a2,a3,b2,b3 ) )
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="dX">-</a>
+  
+  dX( p1, p2 )
+  dY( p1, p2 )
+  dZ( p1, p2 )
+  
+    given two indices into rows[],
+
+    compute the difference between X, Y, or Z coordinates
+*/
+#define dX( p1,p2 )  ( *( rows[p1] ) - *( rows[p2] ))
+#define dY( p1,p2 )  ( *( rows[p1]+1 ) - *( rows[p2]+1 ))
+#define dZ( p1,p2 )  ( *( rows[p1]+2 ) - *( rows[p2]+2 ))
+#define dW( p1,p2 )  ( *( rows[p1]+3 ) - *( rows[p2]+3 ))
+
+/*============= prototypes in alphabetical order, infrequent at end ======= */
+
+void    qh_backnormal (realT **rows, int numrow, int numcol, boolT sign, coordT *normal, boolT *nearzero);
+void	qh_distplane (pointT *point, facetT *facet, realT *dist);
+facetT *qh_findbest (pointT *point, facetT *startfacet,
+		     boolT bestoutside, boolT isnewfacets, boolT noupper,
+		     realT *dist, boolT *isoutside, int *numpart);
+facetT *qh_findbesthorizon (boolT ischeckmax, pointT *point, 
+	             facetT *startfacet, boolT noupper, realT *bestdist, int *numpart);
+facetT *qh_findbestnew (pointT *point, facetT *startfacet, realT *dist, 
+		     boolT bestoutside, boolT *isoutside, int *numpart);
+void 	qh_gausselim(realT **rows, int numrow, int numcol, boolT *sign, boolT *nearzero);
+realT   qh_getangle(pointT *vect1, pointT *vect2);
+pointT *qh_getcenter(setT *vertices);
+pointT *qh_getcentrum(facetT *facet);
+realT   qh_getdistance(facetT *facet, facetT *neighbor, realT *mindist, realT *maxdist);
+void    qh_normalize (coordT *normal, int dim, boolT toporient);
+void    qh_normalize2 (coordT *normal, int dim, boolT toporient, 
+            realT *minnorm, boolT *ismin);
+pointT *qh_projectpoint(pointT *point, facetT *facet, realT dist);
+
+void    qh_setfacetplane(facetT *newfacets);
+void 	qh_sethyperplane_det (int dim, coordT **rows, coordT *point0, 
+              boolT toporient, coordT *normal, realT *offset, boolT *nearzero);
+void 	qh_sethyperplane_gauss (int dim, coordT **rows, pointT *point0, 
+	     boolT toporient, coordT *normal, coordT *offset, boolT *nearzero);
+boolT   qh_sharpnewfacets (void);
+
+/*========= infrequently used code in geom2.c =============*/
+
+
+coordT *qh_copypoints (coordT *points, int numpoints, int dimension);
+void    qh_crossproduct (int dim, realT vecA[3], realT vecB[3], realT vecC[3]);
+realT 	qh_determinant (realT **rows, int dim, boolT *nearzero);
+realT   qh_detjoggle (pointT *points, int numpoints, int dimension);
+void    qh_detroundoff (void);
+realT   qh_detsimplex(pointT *apex, setT *points, int dim, boolT *nearzero);
+realT   qh_distnorm (int dim, pointT *point, pointT *normal, realT *offsetp);
+realT   qh_distround (int dimension, realT maxabs, realT maxsumabs);
+realT   qh_divzero(realT numer, realT denom, realT mindenom1, boolT *zerodiv);
+realT   qh_facetarea (facetT *facet);
+realT   qh_facetarea_simplex (int dim, coordT *apex, setT *vertices, 
+          vertexT *notvertex,  boolT toporient, coordT *normal, realT *offset);
+pointT *qh_facetcenter (setT *vertices);
+facetT *qh_findgooddist (pointT *point, facetT *facetA, realT *distp, facetT **facetlist);
+void    qh_getarea (facetT *facetlist);
+boolT   qh_gram_schmidt(int dim, realT **rows);
+boolT   qh_inthresholds (coordT *normal, realT *angle);
+void    qh_joggleinput (void);
+realT  *qh_maxabsval (realT *normal, int dim);
+setT   *qh_maxmin(pointT *points, int numpoints, int dimension);
+realT   qh_maxouter (void);
+void    qh_maxsimplex (int dim, setT *maxpoints, pointT *points, int numpoints, setT **simplex);
+realT   qh_minabsval (realT *normal, int dim);
+int     qh_mindiff (realT *vecA, realT *vecB, int dim);
+boolT   qh_orientoutside (facetT *facet);
+void    qh_outerinner (facetT *facet, realT *outerplane, realT *innerplane);
+coordT  qh_pointdist(pointT *point1, pointT *point2, int dim);
+void    qh_printmatrix (FILE *fp, char *string, realT **rows, int numrow, int numcol);
+void    qh_printpoints (FILE *fp, char *string, setT *points);
+void    qh_projectinput (void);
+void 	qh_projectpoints (signed char *project, int n, realT *points, 
+             int numpoints, int dim, realT *newpoints, int newdim);
+int     qh_rand( void);
+void    qh_srand( int seed);
+realT   qh_randomfactor (void);
+void    qh_randommatrix (realT *buffer, int dim, realT **row);
+void    qh_rotateinput (realT **rows);
+void    qh_rotatepoints (realT *points, int numpoints, int dim, realT **rows);
+void    qh_scaleinput (void);
+void    qh_scalelast (coordT *points, int numpoints, int dim, coordT low,
+		   coordT high, coordT newhigh);
+void 	qh_scalepoints (pointT *points, int numpoints, int dim,
+  		realT *newlows, realT *newhighs);
+boolT   qh_sethalfspace (int dim, coordT *coords, coordT **nextp, 
+              coordT *normal, coordT *offset, coordT *feasible);
+coordT *qh_sethalfspace_all (int dim, int count, coordT *halfspaces, pointT *feasible);
+pointT *qh_voronoi_center (int dim, setT *points);
+
+#endif /* qhDEFgeom */
+
+
+

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/geom2.c
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/geom2.c	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/geom2.c	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,2160 @@
+/*<html><pre>  -<a                             href="qh-geom.htm"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="TOP">-</a>
+
+
+   geom2.c 
+   infrequently used geometric routines of qhull
+
+   see qh-geom.htm and geom.h
+
+   copyright (c) 1993-2003 The Geometry Center        
+
+   frequently used code goes into geom.c
+*/
+   
+#include "qhull_a.h"
+   
+/*================== functions in alphabetic order ============*/
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="copypoints">-</a>
+
+  qh_copypoints( points, numpoints, dimension)
+    return malloc'd copy of points
+*/
+coordT *qh_copypoints (coordT *points, int numpoints, int dimension) {
+  int size;
+  coordT *newpoints;
+
+  size= numpoints * dimension * sizeof(coordT);
+  if (!(newpoints=(coordT*)malloc(size))) {
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull error: insufficient memory to copy %d points\n",
+        numpoints);
+    qh_errexit(qh_ERRmem, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  memcpy ((char *)newpoints, (char *)points, size);
+  return newpoints;
+} /* copypoints */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="crossproduct">-</a>
+  
+  qh_crossproduct( dim, vecA, vecB, vecC )
+    crossproduct of 2 dim vectors
+    C= A x B
+  
+  notes:
+    from Glasner, Graphics Gems I, p. 639
+    only defined for dim==3
+*/
+void qh_crossproduct (int dim, realT vecA[3], realT vecB[3], realT vecC[3]){
+
+  if (dim == 3) {
+    vecC[0]=   det2_(vecA[1], vecA[2],
+		     vecB[1], vecB[2]);
+    vecC[1]= - det2_(vecA[0], vecA[2],
+		     vecB[0], vecB[2]);
+    vecC[2]=   det2_(vecA[0], vecA[1],
+		     vecB[0], vecB[1]);
+  }
+} /* vcross */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="determinant">-</a>
+  
+  qh_determinant( rows, dim, nearzero )
+    compute signed determinant of a square matrix
+    uses qh.NEARzero to test for degenerate matrices
+
+  returns:
+    determinant
+    overwrites rows and the matrix
+    if dim == 2 or 3
+      nearzero iff determinant < qh NEARzero[dim-1]
+      (not quite correct, not critical)
+    if dim >= 4
+      nearzero iff diagonal[k] < qh NEARzero[k]
+*/
+realT qh_determinant (realT **rows, int dim, boolT *nearzero) {
+  realT det=0;
+  int i;
+  boolT sign= False;
+
+  *nearzero= False;
+  if (dim < 2) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_determinate): only implemented for dimension >= 2\n");
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }else if (dim == 2) {
+    det= det2_(rows[0][0], rows[0][1],
+		 rows[1][0], rows[1][1]);
+    if (fabs_(det) < qh NEARzero[1])  /* not really correct, what should this be? */
+      *nearzero= True;
+  }else if (dim == 3) {
+    det= det3_(rows[0][0], rows[0][1], rows[0][2],
+		 rows[1][0], rows[1][1], rows[1][2],
+		 rows[2][0], rows[2][1], rows[2][2]);
+    if (fabs_(det) < qh NEARzero[2])  /* not really correct, what should this be? */
+      *nearzero= True;
+  }else {	
+    qh_gausselim(rows, dim, dim, &sign, nearzero);  /* if nearzero, diagonal still ok*/
+    det= 1.0;
+    for (i= dim; i--; )
+      det *= (rows[i])[i];
+    if (sign)
+      det= -det;
+  }
+  return det;
+} /* determinant */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="detjoggle">-</a>
+  
+  qh_detjoggle( points, numpoints, dimension )
+    determine default max joggle for point array
+      as qh_distround * qh_JOGGLEdefault
+
+  returns:
+    initial value for JOGGLEmax from points and REALepsilon
+
+  notes:
+    computes DISTround since qh_maxmin not called yet
+    if qh SCALElast, last dimension will be scaled later to MAXwidth
+
+    loop duplicated from qh_maxmin
+*/
+realT qh_detjoggle (pointT *points, int numpoints, int dimension) {
+  realT abscoord, distround, joggle, maxcoord, mincoord;
+  pointT *point, *pointtemp;
+  realT maxabs= -REALmax;
+  realT sumabs= 0;
+  realT maxwidth= 0;
+  int k;
+
+  for (k= 0; k < dimension; k++) {
+    if (qh SCALElast && k == dimension-1)
+      abscoord= maxwidth;
+    else if (qh DELAUNAY && k == dimension-1) /* will qh_setdelaunay() */
+      abscoord= 2 * maxabs * maxabs;  /* may be low by qh hull_dim/2 */
+    else {
+      maxcoord= -REALmax;
+      mincoord= REALmax;
+      FORALLpoint_(points, numpoints) {
+	maximize_(maxcoord, point[k]);
+        minimize_(mincoord, point[k]);
+      }
+      maximize_(maxwidth, maxcoord-mincoord);
+      abscoord= fmax_(maxcoord, -mincoord);
+    }
+    sumabs += abscoord;
+    maximize_(maxabs, abscoord);
+  } /* for k */
+  distround= qh_distround (qh hull_dim, maxabs, sumabs);
+  joggle= distround * qh_JOGGLEdefault;
+  maximize_(joggle, REALepsilon * qh_JOGGLEdefault);
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_detjoggle: joggle=%2.2g maxwidth=%2.2g\n", joggle, maxwidth));
+  return joggle;
+} /* detjoggle */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="detroundoff">-</a>
+  
+  qh_detroundoff()
+    determine maximum roundoff errors from
+      REALepsilon, REALmax, REALmin, qh.hull_dim, qh.MAXabs_coord, 
+      qh.MAXsumcoord, qh.MAXwidth, qh.MINdenom_1
+
+    accounts for qh.SETroundoff, qh.RANDOMdist, qh MERGEexact
+      qh.premerge_cos, qh.postmerge_cos, qh.premerge_centrum,
+      qh.postmerge_centrum, qh.MINoutside,
+      qh_RATIOnearinside, qh_COPLANARratio, qh_WIDEcoplanar
+
+  returns:
+    sets qh.DISTround, etc. (see below)
+    appends precision constants to qh.qhull_options
+
+  see:
+    qh_maxmin() for qh.NEARzero
+
+  design:
+    determine qh.DISTround for distance computations
+    determine minimum denominators for qh_divzero
+    determine qh.ANGLEround for angle computations
+    adjust qh.premerge_cos,... for roundoff error
+    determine qh.ONEmerge for maximum error due to a single merge
+    determine qh.NEARinside, qh.MAXcoplanar, qh.MINvisible,
+      qh.MINoutside, qh.WIDEfacet
+    initialize qh.max_vertex and qh.minvertex
+*/
+void qh_detroundoff (void) {
+
+  qh_option ("_max-width", NULL, &qh MAXwidth);
+  if (!qh SETroundoff) {
+    qh DISTround= qh_distround (qh hull_dim, qh MAXabs_coord, qh MAXsumcoord);
+    if (qh RANDOMdist)
+      qh DISTround += qh RANDOMfactor * qh MAXabs_coord;
+    qh_option ("Error-roundoff", NULL, &qh DISTround);
+  }
+  qh MINdenom= qh MINdenom_1 * qh MAXabs_coord;
+  qh MINdenom_1_2= sqrt (qh MINdenom_1 * qh hull_dim) ;  /* if will be normalized */
+  qh MINdenom_2= qh MINdenom_1_2 * qh MAXabs_coord;
+                                              /* for inner product */
+  qh ANGLEround= 1.01 * qh hull_dim * REALepsilon;
+  if (qh RANDOMdist)
+    qh ANGLEround += qh RANDOMfactor;
+  if (qh premerge_cos < REALmax/2) {
+    qh premerge_cos -= qh ANGLEround;
+    if (qh RANDOMdist) 
+      qh_option ("Angle-premerge-with-random", NULL, &qh premerge_cos);
+  }
+  if (qh postmerge_cos < REALmax/2) {
+    qh postmerge_cos -= qh ANGLEround;
+    if (qh RANDOMdist)
+      qh_option ("Angle-postmerge-with-random", NULL, &qh postmerge_cos);
+  }
+  qh premerge_centrum += 2 * qh DISTround;    /*2 for centrum and distplane()*/
+  qh postmerge_centrum += 2 * qh DISTround;
+  if (qh RANDOMdist && (qh MERGEexact || qh PREmerge))
+    qh_option ("Centrum-premerge-with-random", NULL, &qh premerge_centrum);
+  if (qh RANDOMdist && qh POSTmerge)
+    qh_option ("Centrum-postmerge-with-random", NULL, &qh postmerge_centrum);
+  { /* compute ONEmerge, max vertex offset for merging simplicial facets */
+    realT maxangle= 1.0, maxrho;
+    
+    minimize_(maxangle, qh premerge_cos);
+    minimize_(maxangle, qh postmerge_cos);
+    /* max diameter * sin theta + DISTround for vertex to its hyperplane */
+    qh ONEmerge= sqrt (qh hull_dim) * qh MAXwidth *
+      sqrt (1.0 - maxangle * maxangle) + qh DISTround;  
+    maxrho= qh hull_dim * qh premerge_centrum + qh DISTround;
+    maximize_(qh ONEmerge, maxrho);
+    maxrho= qh hull_dim * qh postmerge_centrum + qh DISTround;
+    maximize_(qh ONEmerge, maxrho);
+    if (qh MERGING)
+      qh_option ("_one-merge", NULL, &qh ONEmerge);
+  }
+  qh NEARinside= qh ONEmerge * qh_RATIOnearinside; /* only used if qh KEEPnearinside */
+  if (qh JOGGLEmax < REALmax/2 && (qh KEEPcoplanar || qh KEEPinside)) {
+    realT maxdist;	       /* adjust qh.NEARinside for joggle */
+    qh KEEPnearinside= True;   
+    maxdist= sqrt (qh hull_dim) * qh JOGGLEmax + qh DISTround;
+    maxdist= 2*maxdist;        /* vertex and coplanar point can joggle in opposite directions */
+    maximize_(qh NEARinside, maxdist);  /* must agree with qh_nearcoplanar() */
+  }
+  if (qh KEEPnearinside)
+    qh_option ("_near-inside", NULL, &qh NEARinside);
+  if (qh JOGGLEmax < qh DISTround) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull error: the joggle for 'QJn', %.2g, is below roundoff for distance computations, %.2g\n",
+         qh JOGGLEmax, qh DISTround);
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  if (qh MINvisible > REALmax/2) {
+    if (!qh MERGING)
+      qh MINvisible= qh DISTround;
+    else if (qh hull_dim <= 3)
+      qh MINvisible= qh premerge_centrum;
+    else
+      qh MINvisible= qh_COPLANARratio * qh premerge_centrum;
+    if (qh APPROXhull && qh MINvisible > qh MINoutside)
+      qh MINvisible= qh MINoutside;
+    qh_option ("Visible-distance", NULL, &qh MINvisible);
+  }
+  if (qh MAXcoplanar > REALmax/2) {
+    qh MAXcoplanar= qh MINvisible;
+    qh_option ("U-coplanar-distance", NULL, &qh MAXcoplanar);
+  }
+  if (!qh APPROXhull) {             /* user may specify qh MINoutside */
+    qh MINoutside= 2 * qh MINvisible;
+    if (qh premerge_cos < REALmax/2) 
+      maximize_(qh MINoutside, (1- qh premerge_cos) * qh MAXabs_coord);
+    qh_option ("Width-outside", NULL, &qh MINoutside);
+  }
+  qh WIDEfacet= qh MINoutside;
+  maximize_(qh WIDEfacet, qh_WIDEcoplanar * qh MAXcoplanar); 
+  maximize_(qh WIDEfacet, qh_WIDEcoplanar * qh MINvisible); 
+  qh_option ("_wide-facet", NULL, &qh WIDEfacet);
+  if (qh MINvisible > qh MINoutside + 3 * REALepsilon 
+  && !qh BESToutside && !qh FORCEoutput)
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input warning: minimum visibility V%.2g is greater than \nminimum outside W%.2g.  Flipped facets are likely.\n",
+	     qh MINvisible, qh MINoutside);
+  qh max_vertex= qh DISTround;
+  qh min_vertex= -qh DISTround;
+  /* numeric constants reported in printsummary */
+} /* detroundoff */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="detsimplex">-</a>
+  
+  qh_detsimplex( apex, points, dim, nearzero )
+    compute determinant of a simplex with point apex and base points
+
+  returns:
+     signed determinant and nearzero from qh_determinant
+
+  notes:
+     uses qh.gm_matrix/qh.gm_row (assumes they're big enough)
+
+  design:
+    construct qm_matrix by subtracting apex from points
+    compute determinate
+*/
+realT qh_detsimplex(pointT *apex, setT *points, int dim, boolT *nearzero) {
+  pointT *coorda, *coordp, *gmcoord, *point, **pointp;
+  coordT **rows;
+  int k,  i=0;
+  realT det;
+
+  zinc_(Zdetsimplex);
+  gmcoord= qh gm_matrix;
+  rows= qh gm_row;
+  FOREACHpoint_(points) {
+    if (i == dim)
+      break;
+    rows[i++]= gmcoord;
+    coordp= point;
+    coorda= apex;
+    for (k= dim; k--; )
+      *(gmcoord++)= *coordp++ - *coorda++;
+  }
+  if (i < dim) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_detsimplex): #points %d < dimension %d\n", 
+               i, dim);
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  det= qh_determinant (rows, dim, nearzero);
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_detsimplex: det=%2.2g for point p%d, dim %d, nearzero? %d\n",
+	  det, qh_pointid(apex), dim, *nearzero)); 
+  return det;
+} /* detsimplex */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="distnorm">-</a>
+  
+  qh_distnorm( dim, point, normal, offset )
+    return distance from point to hyperplane at normal/offset
+
+  returns:
+    dist
+  
+  notes:  
+    dist > 0 if point is outside of hyperplane
+  
+  see:
+    qh_distplane in geom.c
+*/
+realT qh_distnorm (int dim, pointT *point, pointT *normal, realT *offsetp) {
+  coordT *normalp= normal, *coordp= point;
+  realT dist;
+  int k;
+
+  dist= *offsetp;
+  for (k= dim; k--; )
+    dist += *(coordp++) * *(normalp++);
+  return dist;
+} /* distnorm */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="distround">-</a>
+
+  qh_distround ( dimension, maxabs, maxsumabs )
+    compute maximum round-off error for a distance computation
+      to a normalized hyperplane
+    maxabs is the maximum absolute value of a coordinate
+    maxsumabs is the maximum possible sum of absolute coordinate values
+
+  returns:
+    max dist round for REALepsilon
+
+  notes:
+    calculate roundoff error according to
+    Lemma 3.2-1 of Golub and van Loan "Matrix Computation"
+    use sqrt(dim) since one vector is normalized
+      or use maxsumabs since one vector is < 1
+*/
+realT qh_distround (int dimension, realT maxabs, realT maxsumabs) {
+  realT maxdistsum, maxround;
+
+  maxdistsum= sqrt (dimension) * maxabs;
+  minimize_( maxdistsum, maxsumabs);
+  maxround= REALepsilon * (dimension * maxdistsum * 1.01 + maxabs);
+              /* adds maxabs for offset */
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_distround: %2.2g maxabs %2.2g maxsumabs %2.2g maxdistsum %2.2g\n",
+	         maxround, maxabs, maxsumabs, maxdistsum));
+  return maxround;
+} /* distround */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="divzero">-</a>
+  
+  qh_divzero( numer, denom, mindenom1, zerodiv )
+    divide by a number that's nearly zero
+    mindenom1= minimum denominator for dividing into 1.0
+
+  returns:
+    quotient
+    sets zerodiv and returns 0.0 if it would overflow
+  
+  design:
+    if numer is nearly zero and abs(numer) < abs(denom)
+      return numer/denom
+    else if numer is nearly zero
+      return 0 and zerodiv
+    else if denom/numer non-zero
+      return numer/denom
+    else
+      return 0 and zerodiv
+*/
+realT qh_divzero (realT numer, realT denom, realT mindenom1, boolT *zerodiv) {
+  realT temp, numerx, denomx;
+  
+
+  if (numer < mindenom1 && numer > -mindenom1) {
+    numerx= fabs_(numer);
+    denomx= fabs_(denom);
+    if (numerx < denomx) {
+      *zerodiv= False;
+      return numer/denom;
+    }else {
+      *zerodiv= True;
+      return 0.0;
+    }
+  }
+  temp= denom/numer;
+  if (temp > mindenom1 || temp < -mindenom1) {
+    *zerodiv= False;
+    return numer/denom;
+  }else {
+    *zerodiv= True;
+    return 0.0;
+  }
+} /* divzero */
+  
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="facetarea">-</a>
+
+  qh_facetarea( facet )
+    return area for a facet
+  
+  notes:
+    if non-simplicial, 
+      uses centrum to triangulate facet and sums the projected areas.
+    if (qh DELAUNAY),
+      computes projected area instead for last coordinate
+    assumes facet->normal exists
+    projecting tricoplanar facets to the hyperplane does not appear to make a difference
+  
+  design:
+    if simplicial
+      compute area
+    else
+      for each ridge
+        compute area from centrum to ridge
+    negate area if upper Delaunay facet
+*/
+realT qh_facetarea (facetT *facet) {
+  vertexT *apex;
+  pointT *centrum;
+  realT area= 0.0;
+  ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep;
+
+  if (facet->simplicial) {
+    apex= SETfirstt_(facet->vertices, vertexT);
+    area= qh_facetarea_simplex (qh hull_dim, apex->point, facet->vertices, 
+                    apex, facet->toporient, facet->normal, &facet->offset);
+  }else {
+    if (qh CENTERtype == qh_AScentrum)
+      centrum= facet->center;
+    else
+      centrum= qh_getcentrum (facet);
+    FOREACHridge_(facet->ridges) 
+      area += qh_facetarea_simplex (qh hull_dim, centrum, ridge->vertices, 
+                 NULL, (ridge->top == facet),  facet->normal, &facet->offset);
+    if (qh CENTERtype != qh_AScentrum)
+      qh_memfree (centrum, qh normal_size);
+  }
+  if (facet->upperdelaunay && qh DELAUNAY)
+    area= -area;  /* the normal should be [0,...,1] */
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_facetarea: f%d area %2.2g\n", facet->id, area)); 
+  return area;
+} /* facetarea */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="facetarea_simplex">-</a>
+
+  qh_facetarea_simplex( dim, apex, vertices, notvertex, toporient, normal, offset )
+    return area for a simplex defined by 
+      an apex, a base of vertices, an orientation, and a unit normal
+    if simplicial or tricoplanar facet, 
+      notvertex is defined and it is skipped in vertices
+  
+  returns:
+    computes area of simplex projected to plane [normal,offset]
+    returns 0 if vertex too far below plane (qh WIDEfacet)
+      vertex can't be apex of tricoplanar facet
+  
+  notes:
+    if (qh DELAUNAY),
+      computes projected area instead for last coordinate
+    uses qh gm_matrix/gm_row and qh hull_dim
+    helper function for qh_facetarea
+  
+  design:
+    if Notvertex
+      translate simplex to apex
+    else
+      project simplex to normal/offset
+      translate simplex to apex
+    if Delaunay
+      set last row/column to 0 with -1 on diagonal 
+    else
+      set last row to Normal
+    compute determinate
+    scale and flip sign for area
+*/
+realT qh_facetarea_simplex (int dim, coordT *apex, setT *vertices, 
+        vertexT *notvertex,  boolT toporient, coordT *normal, realT *offset) {
+  pointT *coorda, *coordp, *gmcoord;
+  coordT **rows, *normalp;
+  int k,  i=0;
+  realT area, dist;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  boolT nearzero;
+
+  gmcoord= qh gm_matrix;
+  rows= qh gm_row;
+  FOREACHvertex_(vertices) {
+    if (vertex == notvertex)
+      continue;
+    rows[i++]= gmcoord;
+    coorda= apex;
+    coordp= vertex->point;
+    normalp= normal;
+    if (notvertex) {
+      for (k= dim; k--; )
+	*(gmcoord++)= *coordp++ - *coorda++;
+    }else {
+      dist= *offset;
+      for (k= dim; k--; )
+	dist += *coordp++ * *normalp++;
+      if (dist < -qh WIDEfacet) {
+	zinc_(Znoarea);
+	return 0.0;
+      }
+      coordp= vertex->point;
+      normalp= normal;
+      for (k= dim; k--; )
+	*(gmcoord++)= (*coordp++ - dist * *normalp++) - *coorda++;
+    }
+  }
+  if (i != dim-1) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_facetarea_simplex): #points %d != dim %d -1\n", 
+               i, dim);
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  rows[i]= gmcoord;
+  if (qh DELAUNAY) {
+    for (i= 0; i < dim-1; i++)
+      rows[i][dim-1]= 0.0;
+    for (k= dim; k--; )
+      *(gmcoord++)= 0.0;
+    rows[dim-1][dim-1]= -1.0;
+  }else {
+    normalp= normal;
+    for (k= dim; k--; )
+      *(gmcoord++)= *normalp++;
+  }
+  zinc_(Zdetsimplex);
+  area= qh_determinant (rows, dim, &nearzero);
+  if (toporient)
+    area= -area;
+  area *= qh AREAfactor;
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_facetarea_simplex: area=%2.2g for point p%d, toporient %d, nearzero? %d\n",
+	  area, qh_pointid(apex), toporient, nearzero)); 
+  return area;
+} /* facetarea_simplex */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="facetcenter">-</a>
+  
+  qh_facetcenter( vertices )
+    return Voronoi center (Voronoi vertex) for a facet's vertices
+
+  returns:
+    return temporary point equal to the center
+    
+  see:
+    qh_voronoi_center()
+*/
+pointT *qh_facetcenter (setT *vertices) {
+  setT *points= qh_settemp (qh_setsize (vertices));
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  pointT *center;
+  
+  FOREACHvertex_(vertices) 
+    qh_setappend (&points, vertex->point);
+  center= qh_voronoi_center (qh hull_dim-1, points);
+  qh_settempfree (&points);
+  return center;
+} /* facetcenter */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="findgooddist">-</a>
+  
+  qh_findgooddist( point, facetA, dist, facetlist )
+    find best good facet visible for point from facetA
+    assumes facetA is visible from point
+
+  returns:
+    best facet, i.e., good facet that is furthest from point
+      distance to best facet
+      NULL if none
+      
+    moves good, visible facets (and some other visible facets)
+      to end of qh facet_list
+
+  notes:
+    uses qh visit_id
+
+  design:
+    initialize bestfacet if facetA is good
+    move facetA to end of facetlist
+    for each facet on facetlist
+      for each unvisited neighbor of facet
+        move visible neighbors to end of facetlist
+        update best good neighbor
+        if no good neighbors, update best facet
+*/
+facetT *qh_findgooddist (pointT *point, facetT *facetA, realT *distp, 
+               facetT **facetlist) {
+  realT bestdist= -REALmax, dist;
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp, *bestfacet=NULL, *facet;
+  boolT goodseen= False;  
+
+  if (facetA->good) {
+    zinc_(Zcheckpart);  /* calls from check_bestdist occur after print stats */
+    qh_distplane (point, facetA, &bestdist);
+    bestfacet= facetA;
+    goodseen= True;
+  }
+  qh_removefacet (facetA);
+  qh_appendfacet (facetA);
+  *facetlist= facetA;
+  facetA->visitid= ++qh visit_id;
+  FORALLfacet_(*facetlist) {
+    FOREACHneighbor_(facet) {
+      if (neighbor->visitid == qh visit_id)
+        continue;
+      neighbor->visitid= qh visit_id;
+      if (goodseen && !neighbor->good)
+        continue;
+      zinc_(Zcheckpart); 
+      qh_distplane (point, neighbor, &dist);
+      if (dist > 0) {
+        qh_removefacet (neighbor);
+        qh_appendfacet (neighbor);
+        if (neighbor->good) {
+          goodseen= True;
+          if (dist > bestdist) {
+            bestdist= dist;
+            bestfacet= neighbor;
+          }
+        }
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  if (bestfacet) {
+    *distp= bestdist;
+    trace2((qh ferr, "qh_findgooddist: p%d is %2.2g above good facet f%d\n",
+      qh_pointid(point), bestdist, bestfacet->id));
+    return bestfacet;
+  }
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_findgooddist: no good facet for p%d above f%d\n", 
+      qh_pointid(point), facetA->id));
+  return NULL;
+}  /* findgooddist */
+    
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="getarea">-</a>
+  
+  qh_getarea( facetlist )
+    set area of all facets in facetlist
+    collect statistics
+
+  returns:
+    sets qh totarea/totvol to total area and volume of convex hull
+    for Delaunay triangulation, computes projected area of the lower or upper hull
+      ignores upper hull if qh ATinfinity
+  
+  notes:
+    could compute outer volume by expanding facet area by rays from interior
+    the following attempt at perpendicular projection underestimated badly:
+      qh.totoutvol += (-dist + facet->maxoutside + qh DISTround) 
+                            * area/ qh hull_dim;
+  design:
+    for each facet on facetlist
+      compute facet->area
+      update qh.totarea and qh.totvol
+*/
+void qh_getarea (facetT *facetlist) {
+  realT area;
+  realT dist;
+  facetT *facet;
+
+  if (qh REPORTfreq)
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "computing area of each facet and volume of the convex hull\n");
+  else 
+    trace1((qh ferr, "qh_getarea: computing volume and area for each facet\n"));
+  qh totarea= qh totvol= 0.0;
+  FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+    if (!facet->normal)
+      continue;
+    if (facet->upperdelaunay && qh ATinfinity)
+      continue;
+    facet->f.area= area= qh_facetarea (facet);
+    facet->isarea= True;
+    if (qh DELAUNAY) {
+      if (facet->upperdelaunay == qh UPPERdelaunay)
+	qh totarea += area;
+    }else {
+      qh totarea += area;
+      qh_distplane (qh interior_point, facet, &dist);
+      qh totvol += -dist * area/ qh hull_dim;
+    }
+    if (qh PRINTstatistics) {
+      wadd_(Wareatot, area);
+      wmax_(Wareamax, area);
+      wmin_(Wareamin, area);
+    }
+  }
+} /* getarea */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="gram_schmidt">-</a>
+  
+  qh_gram_schmidt( dim, row )
+    implements Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization by rows
+
+  returns:
+    false if zero norm
+    overwrites rows[dim][dim]
+
+  notes:
+    see Golub & van Loan Algorithm 6.2-2
+    overflow due to small divisors not handled
+
+  design:
+    for each row
+      compute norm for row
+      if non-zero, normalize row
+      for each remaining rowA
+        compute inner product of row and rowA
+        reduce rowA by row * inner product
+*/
+boolT qh_gram_schmidt(int dim, realT **row) {
+  realT *rowi, *rowj, norm;
+  int i, j, k;
+  
+  for(i=0; i < dim; i++) {
+    rowi= row[i];
+    for (norm= 0.0, k= dim; k--; rowi++)
+      norm += *rowi * *rowi;
+    norm= sqrt(norm);
+    wmin_(Wmindenom, norm);
+    if (norm == 0.0)  /* either 0 or overflow due to sqrt */
+      return False;
+    for(k= dim; k--; )
+      *(--rowi) /= norm;  
+    for(j= i+1; j < dim; j++) {
+      rowj= row[j];
+      for(norm= 0.0, k=dim; k--; )
+	norm += *rowi++ * *rowj++;
+      for(k=dim; k--; )
+	*(--rowj) -= *(--rowi) * norm;
+    }
+  }
+  return True;
+} /* gram_schmidt */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="inthresholds">-</a>
+  
+  qh_inthresholds( normal, angle )
+    return True if normal within qh.lower_/upper_threshold
+
+  returns:
+    estimate of angle by summing of threshold diffs
+      angle may be NULL
+      smaller "angle" is better
+  
+  notes:
+    invalid if qh.SPLITthresholds
+
+  see:
+    qh.lower_threshold in qh_initbuild()
+    qh_initthresholds()
+
+  design:
+    for each dimension
+      test threshold
+*/
+boolT qh_inthresholds (coordT *normal, realT *angle) {
+  boolT within= True;
+  int k;
+  realT threshold;
+
+  if (angle)
+    *angle= 0.0;
+  for(k= 0; k < qh hull_dim; k++) {
+    threshold= qh lower_threshold[k];
+    if (threshold > -REALmax/2) {
+      if (normal[k] < threshold)
+        within= False;
+      if (angle) {
+	threshold -= normal[k];
+	*angle += fabs_(threshold);
+      }
+    }
+    if (qh upper_threshold[k] < REALmax/2) {
+      threshold= qh upper_threshold[k];
+      if (normal[k] > threshold)
+        within= False;
+      if (angle) {
+	threshold -= normal[k];
+	*angle += fabs_(threshold);
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  return within;
+} /* inthresholds */
+    
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="joggleinput">-</a>
+  
+  qh_joggleinput()
+    randomly joggle input to Qhull by qh.JOGGLEmax
+    initial input is qh.first_point/qh.num_points of qh.hull_dim
+      repeated calls use qh.input_points/qh.num_points
+ 
+  returns:
+    joggles points at qh.first_point/qh.num_points
+    copies data to qh.input_points/qh.input_malloc if first time
+    determines qh.JOGGLEmax if it was zero
+    if qh.DELAUNAY
+      computes the Delaunay projection of the joggled points
+
+  notes:
+    if qh.DELAUNAY, unnecessarily joggles the last coordinate
+    the initial 'QJn' may be set larger than qh_JOGGLEmaxincrease
+
+  design:
+    if qh.DELAUNAY
+      set qh.SCALElast for reduced precision errors
+    if first call
+      initialize qh.input_points to the original input points
+      if qh.JOGGLEmax == 0
+        determine default qh.JOGGLEmax
+    else
+      increase qh.JOGGLEmax according to qh.build_cnt
+    joggle the input by adding a random number in [-qh.JOGGLEmax,qh.JOGGLEmax]
+    if qh.DELAUNAY
+      sets the Delaunay projection
+*/
+void qh_joggleinput (void) {
+  int size, i, seed;
+  coordT *coordp, *inputp;
+  realT randr, randa, randb;
+
+  if (!qh input_points) { /* first call */
+    qh input_points= qh first_point;
+    qh input_malloc= qh POINTSmalloc;
+    size= qh num_points * qh hull_dim * sizeof(coordT);
+    if (!(qh first_point=(coordT*)malloc(size))) {
+      fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull error: insufficient memory to joggle %d points\n",
+          qh num_points);
+      qh_errexit(qh_ERRmem, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+    qh POINTSmalloc= True;
+    if (qh JOGGLEmax == 0.0) {
+      qh JOGGLEmax= qh_detjoggle (qh input_points, qh num_points, qh hull_dim);
+      qh_option ("QJoggle", NULL, &qh JOGGLEmax);
+    }
+  }else {                 /* repeated call */
+    if (!qh RERUN && qh build_cnt > qh_JOGGLEretry) {
+      if (((qh build_cnt-qh_JOGGLEretry-1) % qh_JOGGLEagain) == 0) {
+	realT maxjoggle= qh MAXwidth * qh_JOGGLEmaxincrease;
+	if (qh JOGGLEmax < maxjoggle) {
+	  qh JOGGLEmax *= qh_JOGGLEincrease;
+	  minimize_(qh JOGGLEmax, maxjoggle); 
+	}
+      }
+    }
+    qh_option ("QJoggle", NULL, &qh JOGGLEmax);
+  }
+  if (qh build_cnt > 1 && qh JOGGLEmax > fmax_(qh MAXwidth/4, 0.1)) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull error: the current joggle for 'QJn', %.2g, is too large for the width\nof the input.  If possible, recompile Qhull with higher-precision reals.\n",
+	        qh JOGGLEmax);
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  /* for some reason, using qh ROTATErandom and qh_RANDOMseed does not repeat the run. Use 'TRn' instead */
+  seed= qh_RANDOMint;
+  qh_option ("_joggle-seed", &seed, NULL);
+  trace0((qh ferr, "qh_joggleinput: joggle input by %2.2g with seed %d\n", 
+    qh JOGGLEmax, seed));
+  inputp= qh input_points;
+  coordp= qh first_point;
+  randa= 2.0 * qh JOGGLEmax/qh_RANDOMmax;
+  randb= -qh JOGGLEmax;
+  size= qh num_points * qh hull_dim;
+  for (i= size; i--; ) {
+    randr= qh_RANDOMint;
+    *(coordp++)= *(inputp++) + (randr * randa + randb);
+  }
+  if (qh DELAUNAY) {
+    qh last_low= qh last_high= qh last_newhigh= REALmax;
+    qh_setdelaunay (qh hull_dim, qh num_points, qh first_point);
+  }
+} /* joggleinput */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="maxabsval">-</a>
+  
+  qh_maxabsval( normal, dim )
+    return pointer to maximum absolute value of a dim vector
+    returns NULL if dim=0
+*/
+realT *qh_maxabsval (realT *normal, int dim) {
+  realT maxval= -REALmax;
+  realT *maxp= NULL, *colp, absval;
+  int k;
+
+  for (k= dim, colp= normal; k--; colp++) {
+    absval= fabs_(*colp);
+    if (absval > maxval) {
+      maxval= absval;
+      maxp= colp;
+    }
+  }
+  return maxp;
+} /* maxabsval */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="maxmin">-</a>
+  
+  qh_maxmin( points, numpoints, dimension )
+    return max/min points for each dimension      
+    determine max and min coordinates
+
+  returns:
+    returns a temporary set of max and min points
+      may include duplicate points. Does not include qh.GOODpoint
+    sets qh.NEARzero, qh.MAXabs_coord, qh.MAXsumcoord, qh.MAXwidth
+         qh.MAXlastcoord, qh.MINlastcoord
+    initializes qh.max_outside, qh.min_vertex, qh.WAScoplanar, qh.ZEROall_ok
+
+  notes:
+    loop duplicated in qh_detjoggle()
+
+  design:
+    initialize global precision variables
+    checks definition of REAL...
+    for each dimension
+      for each point
+        collect maximum and minimum point
+      collect maximum of maximums and minimum of minimums
+      determine qh.NEARzero for Gaussian Elimination
+*/
+setT *qh_maxmin(pointT *points, int numpoints, int dimension) {
+  int k;
+  realT maxcoord, temp;
+  pointT *minimum, *maximum, *point, *pointtemp;
+  setT *set;
+
+  qh max_outside= 0.0;
+  qh MAXabs_coord= 0.0;
+  qh MAXwidth= -REALmax;
+  qh MAXsumcoord= 0.0;
+  qh min_vertex= 0.0;
+  qh WAScoplanar= False;
+  if (qh ZEROcentrum)
+    qh ZEROall_ok= True;
+  if (REALmin < REALepsilon && REALmin < REALmax && REALmin > -REALmax
+  && REALmax > 0.0 && -REALmax < 0.0)
+    ; /* all ok */
+  else {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull error: floating point constants in user.h are wrong\n\
+REALepsilon %g REALmin %g REALmax %g -REALmax %g\n",
+	     REALepsilon, REALmin, REALmax, -REALmax);
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  set= qh_settemp(2*dimension);
+  for(k= 0; k < dimension; k++) {
+    if (points == qh GOODpointp)
+      minimum= maximum= points + dimension;
+    else
+      minimum= maximum= points;
+    FORALLpoint_(points, numpoints) {
+      if (point == qh GOODpointp)
+	continue;
+      if (maximum[k] < point[k])
+	maximum= point;
+      else if (minimum[k] > point[k])
+	minimum= point;
+    }
+    if (k == dimension-1) {
+      qh MINlastcoord= minimum[k];
+      qh MAXlastcoord= maximum[k];
+    }
+    if (qh SCALElast && k == dimension-1)
+      maxcoord= qh MAXwidth;
+    else {
+      maxcoord= fmax_(maximum[k], -minimum[k]);
+      if (qh GOODpointp) {
+        temp= fmax_(qh GOODpointp[k], -qh GOODpointp[k]);
+        maximize_(maxcoord, temp);
+      }
+      temp= maximum[k] - minimum[k];
+      maximize_(qh MAXwidth, temp);
+    }
+    maximize_(qh MAXabs_coord, maxcoord);
+    qh MAXsumcoord += maxcoord;
+    qh_setappend (&set, maximum);
+    qh_setappend (&set, minimum);
+    /* calculation of qh NEARzero is based on error formula 4.4-13 of
+       Golub & van Loan, authors say n^3 can be ignored and 10 be used in
+       place of rho */
+    qh NEARzero[k]= 80 * qh MAXsumcoord * REALepsilon;
+  }
+  if (qh IStracing >=1)
+    qh_printpoints (qh ferr, "qh_maxmin: found the max and min points (by dim):", set);
+  return(set);
+} /* maxmin */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="maxouter">-</a>
+
+  qh_maxouter()
+    return maximum distance from facet to outer plane
+    normally this is qh.max_outside+qh.DISTround
+    does not include qh.JOGGLEmax
+
+  see:
+    qh_outerinner()
+    
+  notes:
+    need to add another qh.DISTround if testing actual point with computation
+
+  for joggle:
+    qh_setfacetplane() updated qh.max_outer for Wnewvertexmax (max distance to vertex)
+    need to use Wnewvertexmax since could have a coplanar point for a high 
+      facet that is replaced by a low facet
+    need to add qh.JOGGLEmax if testing input points
+*/
+realT qh_maxouter (void) {
+  realT dist;
+
+  dist= fmax_(qh max_outside, qh DISTround);
+  dist += qh DISTround;
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_maxouter: max distance from facet to outer plane is %2.2g max_outside is %2.2g\n", dist, qh max_outside));
+  return dist;
+} /* maxouter */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="maxsimplex">-</a>
+  
+  qh_maxsimplex( dim, maxpoints, points, numpoints, simplex )
+    determines maximum simplex for a set of points 
+    starts from points already in simplex
+    skips qh.GOODpointp (assumes that it isn't in maxpoints)
+  
+  returns:
+    simplex with dim+1 points
+
+  notes:
+    assumes at least pointsneeded points in points
+    maximizes determinate for x,y,z,w, etc.
+    uses maxpoints as long as determinate is clearly non-zero
+
+  design:
+    initialize simplex with at least two points
+      (find points with max or min x coordinate)
+    for each remaining dimension
+      add point that maximizes the determinate
+        (use points from maxpoints first)    
+*/
+void qh_maxsimplex (int dim, setT *maxpoints, pointT *points, int numpoints, setT **simplex) {
+  pointT *point, **pointp, *pointtemp, *maxpoint, *minx=NULL, *maxx=NULL;
+  boolT nearzero, maxnearzero= False;
+  int k, sizinit;
+  realT maxdet= -REALmax, det, mincoord= REALmax, maxcoord= -REALmax;
+
+  sizinit= qh_setsize (*simplex);
+  if (sizinit < 2) {
+    if (qh_setsize (maxpoints) >= 2) {
+      FOREACHpoint_(maxpoints) {
+        if (maxcoord < point[0]) {
+          maxcoord= point[0];
+          maxx= point;
+        }
+	if (mincoord > point[0]) {
+          mincoord= point[0];
+          minx= point;
+        }
+      }
+    }else {
+      FORALLpoint_(points, numpoints) {
+	if (point == qh GOODpointp)
+	  continue;
+        if (maxcoord < point[0]) {
+	  maxcoord= point[0];
+          maxx= point;
+        }
+	if (mincoord > point[0]) {
+          mincoord= point[0];
+          minx= point;
+	}
+      }
+    }
+    qh_setunique (simplex, minx);
+    if (qh_setsize (*simplex) < 2)
+      qh_setunique (simplex, maxx);
+    sizinit= qh_setsize (*simplex);
+    if (sizinit < 2) {
+      qh_precision ("input has same x coordinate");
+      if (zzval_(Zsetplane) > qh hull_dim+1) {
+	fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull precision error (qh_maxsimplex for voronoi_center):\n%d points with the same x coordinate.\n",
+		 qh_setsize(maxpoints)+numpoints);
+	qh_errexit (qh_ERRprec, NULL, NULL);
+      }else {
+	fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: input is less than %d-dimensional since it has the same x coordinate\n", qh hull_dim);
+	qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  for(k= sizinit; k < dim+1; k++) {
+    maxpoint= NULL;
+    maxdet= -REALmax;
+    FOREACHpoint_(maxpoints) {
+      if (!qh_setin (*simplex, point)) {
+        det= qh_detsimplex(point, *simplex, k, &nearzero);
+        if ((det= fabs_(det)) > maxdet) {
+	  maxdet= det;
+          maxpoint= point;
+	  maxnearzero= nearzero;
+        }
+      }
+    }
+    if (!maxpoint || maxnearzero) {
+      zinc_(Zsearchpoints);
+      if (!maxpoint) {
+        trace0((qh ferr, "qh_maxsimplex: searching all points for %d-th initial vertex.\n", k+1));
+      }else {
+        trace0((qh ferr, "qh_maxsimplex: searching all points for %d-th initial vertex, better than p%d det %2.2g\n",
+		k+1, qh_pointid(maxpoint), maxdet));
+      }
+      FORALLpoint_(points, numpoints) {
+	if (point == qh GOODpointp)
+	  continue;
+        if (!qh_setin (*simplex, point)) {
+          det= qh_detsimplex(point, *simplex, k, &nearzero);
+          if ((det= fabs_(det)) > maxdet) {
+	    maxdet= det;
+            maxpoint= point;
+	    maxnearzero= nearzero;
+	  }
+        }
+      }
+    } /* !maxpoint */
+    if (!maxpoint) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_maxsimplex): not enough points available\n");
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+    qh_setappend(simplex, maxpoint);
+    trace1((qh ferr, "qh_maxsimplex: selected point p%d for %d`th initial vertex, det=%2.2g\n",
+	    qh_pointid(maxpoint), k+1, maxdet));
+  } /* k */ 
+} /* maxsimplex */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="minabsval">-</a>
+  
+  qh_minabsval( normal, dim )
+    return minimum absolute value of a dim vector
+*/
+realT qh_minabsval (realT *normal, int dim) {
+  realT minval= 0;
+  realT maxval= 0;
+  realT *colp;
+  int k;
+
+  for (k= dim, colp= normal; k--; colp++) {
+    maximize_(maxval, *colp);
+    minimize_(minval, *colp);
+  }
+  return fmax_(maxval, -minval);
+} /* minabsval */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="mindiff">-</a>
+  
+  qh_mindif( vecA, vecB, dim )
+    return index of min abs. difference of two vectors
+*/
+int qh_mindiff (realT *vecA, realT *vecB, int dim) {
+  realT mindiff= REALmax, diff;
+  realT *vecAp= vecA, *vecBp= vecB;
+  int k, mink= 0;
+
+  for (k= 0; k < dim; k++) {
+    diff= *vecAp++ - *vecBp++;
+    diff= fabs_(diff);
+    if (diff < mindiff) {
+      mindiff= diff;
+      mink= k;
+    }
+  }
+  return mink;
+} /* mindiff */
+
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="orientoutside">-</a>
+  
+  qh_orientoutside( facet  )
+    make facet outside oriented via qh.interior_point
+
+  returns:
+    True if facet reversed orientation.
+*/
+boolT qh_orientoutside (facetT *facet) {
+  int k;
+  realT dist;
+
+  qh_distplane (qh interior_point, facet, &dist);
+  if (dist > 0) {
+    for (k= qh hull_dim; k--; )
+      facet->normal[k]= -facet->normal[k];
+    facet->offset= -facet->offset;
+    return True;
+  }
+  return False;
+} /* orientoutside */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="outerinner">-</a>
+  
+  qh_outerinner( facet, outerplane, innerplane  )
+    if facet and qh.maxoutdone (i.e., qh_check_maxout)
+      returns outer and inner plane for facet
+    else
+      returns maximum outer and inner plane
+    accounts for qh.JOGGLEmax
+
+  see:
+    qh_maxouter(), qh_check_bestdist(), qh_check_points()
+
+  notes:
+    outerplaner or innerplane may be NULL
+    
+    includes qh.DISTround for actual points
+    adds another qh.DISTround if testing with floating point arithmetic
+*/
+void qh_outerinner (facetT *facet, realT *outerplane, realT *innerplane) {
+  realT dist, mindist;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+
+  if (outerplane) {
+    if (!qh_MAXoutside || !facet || !qh maxoutdone) {
+      *outerplane= qh_maxouter();       /* includes qh.DISTround */
+    }else { /* qh_MAXoutside ... */
+#if qh_MAXoutside 
+      *outerplane= facet->maxoutside + qh DISTround;
+#endif
+      
+    }
+    if (qh JOGGLEmax < REALmax/2)
+      *outerplane += qh JOGGLEmax * sqrt (qh hull_dim);
+  }
+  if (innerplane) {
+    if (facet) {
+      mindist= REALmax;
+      FOREACHvertex_(facet->vertices) {
+        zinc_(Zdistio);
+        qh_distplane (vertex->point, facet, &dist);
+        minimize_(mindist, dist);
+      }
+      *innerplane= mindist - qh DISTround;
+    }else 
+      *innerplane= qh min_vertex - qh DISTround;
+    if (qh JOGGLEmax < REALmax/2)
+      *innerplane -= qh JOGGLEmax * sqrt (qh hull_dim);
+  }
+} /* outerinner */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="pointdist">-</a>
+  
+  qh_pointdist( point1, point2, dim )
+    return distance between two points
+
+  notes:
+    returns distance squared if 'dim' is negative
+*/
+coordT qh_pointdist(pointT *point1, pointT *point2, int dim) {
+  coordT dist, diff;
+  int k;
+  
+  dist= 0.0;
+  for (k= (dim > 0 ? dim : -dim); k--; ) {
+    diff= *point1++ - *point2++;
+    dist += diff * diff;
+  }
+  if (dim > 0)
+    return(sqrt(dist));
+  return dist;
+} /* pointdist */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printmatrix">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printmatrix( fp, string, rows, numrow, numcol )
+    print matrix to fp given by row vectors
+    print string as header
+
+  notes:
+    print a vector by qh_printmatrix(fp, "", &vect, 1, len)
+*/
+void qh_printmatrix (FILE *fp, char *string, realT **rows, int numrow, int numcol) {
+  realT *rowp;
+  realT r; /*bug fix*/
+  int i,k;
+
+  fprintf (fp, "%s\n", string);
+  for (i= 0; i < numrow; i++) {
+    rowp= rows[i];
+    for (k= 0; k < numcol; k++) {
+      r= *rowp++;
+      fprintf (fp, "%6.3g ", r);
+    }
+    fprintf (fp, "\n");
+  }
+} /* printmatrix */
+
+  
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printpoints">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printpoints( fp, string, points )
+    print pointids to fp for a set of points
+    if string, prints string and 'p' point ids
+*/
+void qh_printpoints (FILE *fp, char *string, setT *points) {
+  pointT *point, **pointp;
+
+  if (string) {
+    fprintf (fp, "%s", string);
+    FOREACHpoint_(points) 
+      fprintf (fp, " p%d", qh_pointid(point));
+    fprintf (fp, "\n");
+  }else {
+    FOREACHpoint_(points) 
+      fprintf (fp, " %d", qh_pointid(point));
+    fprintf (fp, "\n");
+  }
+} /* printpoints */
+
+  
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="projectinput">-</a>
+  
+  qh_projectinput()
+    project input points using qh.lower_bound/upper_bound and qh DELAUNAY
+    if qh.lower_bound[k]=qh.upper_bound[k]= 0, 
+      removes dimension k 
+    if halfspace intersection
+      removes dimension k from qh.feasible_point
+    input points in qh first_point, num_points, input_dim
+
+  returns:
+    new point array in qh first_point of qh hull_dim coordinates
+    sets qh POINTSmalloc
+    if qh DELAUNAY 
+      projects points to paraboloid
+      lowbound/highbound is also projected
+    if qh ATinfinity
+      adds point "at-infinity"
+    if qh POINTSmalloc 
+      frees old point array
+
+  notes:
+    checks that qh.hull_dim agrees with qh.input_dim, PROJECTinput, and DELAUNAY
+
+
+  design:
+    sets project[k] to -1 (delete), 0 (keep), 1 (add for Delaunay)
+    determines newdim and newnum for qh hull_dim and qh num_points
+    projects points to newpoints
+    projects qh.lower_bound to itself
+    projects qh.upper_bound to itself
+    if qh DELAUNAY
+      if qh ATINFINITY
+        projects points to paraboloid
+        computes "infinity" point as vertex average and 10% above all points 
+      else
+        uses qh_setdelaunay to project points to paraboloid
+*/
+void qh_projectinput (void) {
+  int k,i;
+  int newdim= qh input_dim, newnum= qh num_points;
+  signed char *project;
+  int size= (qh input_dim+1)*sizeof(*project);
+  pointT *newpoints, *coord, *infinity;
+  realT paraboloid, maxboloid= 0;
+  
+  project= (signed char*)qh_memalloc (size);
+  memset ((char*)project, 0, size);
+  for (k= 0; k < qh input_dim; k++) {   /* skip Delaunay bound */
+    if (qh lower_bound[k] == 0 && qh upper_bound[k] == 0) {
+      project[k]= -1;
+      newdim--;
+    }
+  }
+  if (qh DELAUNAY) {
+    project[k]= 1;
+    newdim++;
+    if (qh ATinfinity)
+      newnum++;
+  }
+  if (newdim != qh hull_dim) {
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_projectinput): dimension after projection %d != hull_dim %d\n", newdim, qh hull_dim);
+    qh_errexit(qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  if (!(newpoints=(coordT*)malloc(newnum*newdim*sizeof(coordT)))){
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull error: insufficient memory to project %d points\n",
+           qh num_points);
+    qh_errexit(qh_ERRmem, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  qh_projectpoints (project, qh input_dim+1, qh first_point,
+                    qh num_points, qh input_dim, newpoints, newdim);
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_projectinput: updating lower and upper_bound\n"));
+  qh_projectpoints (project, qh input_dim+1, qh lower_bound,
+                    1, qh input_dim+1, qh lower_bound, newdim+1);
+  qh_projectpoints (project, qh input_dim+1, qh upper_bound,
+                    1, qh input_dim+1, qh upper_bound, newdim+1);
+  if (qh HALFspace) {
+    if (!qh feasible_point) {
+      fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_projectinput): HALFspace defined without qh.feasible_point\n");
+      qh_errexit(qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+    qh_projectpoints (project, qh input_dim, qh feasible_point,
+		      1, qh input_dim, qh feasible_point, newdim);
+  }
+  qh_memfree(project, ((qh input_dim+1)*sizeof(*project)));
+  if (qh POINTSmalloc)
+    free (qh first_point);
+  qh first_point= newpoints;
+  qh POINTSmalloc= True;
+  if (qh DELAUNAY && qh ATinfinity) {
+    coord= qh first_point;
+    infinity= qh first_point + qh hull_dim * qh num_points;
+    for (k=qh hull_dim-1; k--; )
+      infinity[k]= 0.0;
+    for (i=qh num_points; i--; ) {
+      paraboloid= 0.0;
+      for (k=0; k < qh hull_dim-1; k++) {
+        paraboloid += *coord * *coord;
+	infinity[k] += *coord;
+        coord++;
+      }
+      *(coord++)= paraboloid;
+      maximize_(maxboloid, paraboloid);
+    }
+    /* coord == infinity */
+    for (k=qh hull_dim-1; k--; )
+      *(coord++) /= qh num_points;
+    *(coord++)= maxboloid * 1.1;
+    qh num_points++;
+    trace0((qh ferr, "qh_projectinput: projected points to paraboloid for Delaunay\n"));
+  }else if (qh DELAUNAY)  /* !qh ATinfinity */
+    qh_setdelaunay( qh hull_dim, qh num_points, qh first_point);
+} /* projectinput */
+
+  
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="projectpoints">-</a>
+  
+  qh_projectpoints( project, n, points, numpoints, dim, newpoints, newdim )
+    project points/numpoints/dim to newpoints/newdim
+    if project[k] == -1
+      delete dimension k 
+    if project[k] == 1 
+      add dimension k by duplicating previous column
+    n is size of project
+
+  notes:
+    newpoints may be points if only adding dimension at end
+
+  design:
+    check that 'project' and 'newdim' agree
+    for each dimension
+      if project == -1
+        skip dimension
+      else
+        determine start of column in newpoints
+        determine start of column in points 
+          if project == +1, duplicate previous column
+        copy dimension (column) from points to newpoints
+*/
+void qh_projectpoints (signed char *project, int n, realT *points, 
+        int numpoints, int dim, realT *newpoints, int newdim) {
+  int testdim= dim, oldk=0, newk=0, i,j=0,k;
+  realT *newp, *oldp;
+  
+  for (k= 0; k < n; k++)
+    testdim += project[k];
+  if (testdim != newdim) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_projectpoints): newdim %d should be %d after projection\n",
+      newdim, testdim);
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  for (j= 0; j<n; j++) {
+    if (project[j] == -1)
+      oldk++;
+    else {
+      newp= newpoints+newk++;
+      if (project[j] == +1) {
+	if (oldk >= dim)
+	  continue;
+	oldp= points+oldk;
+      }else 
+	oldp= points+oldk++;
+      for (i=numpoints; i--; ) {
+        *newp= *oldp;
+        newp += newdim;
+        oldp += dim;
+      }
+    }
+    if (oldk >= dim)
+      break;
+  }
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_projectpoints: projected %d points from dim %d to dim %d\n", 
+    numpoints, dim, newdim));
+} /* projectpoints */
+        
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="rand">-</a>
+  
+  qh_rand() 
+  qh_srand( seed )
+    generate pseudo-random number between 1 and 2^31 -2
+
+  notes:
+    from Park & Miller's minimimal standard random number generator
+       Communications of the ACM, 31:1192-1201, 1988.
+    does not use 0 or 2^31 -1
+       this is silently enforced by qh_srand()
+    can make 'Rn' much faster by moving qh_rand to qh_distplane
+*/
+int qh_rand_seed= 1;  /* define as global variable instead of using qh */
+
+int qh_rand( void) {
+#define qh_rand_a 16807
+#define qh_rand_m 2147483647
+#define qh_rand_q 127773  /* m div a */
+#define qh_rand_r 2836    /* m mod a */
+  int lo, hi, test;
+  int seed = qh_rand_seed;
+
+  hi = seed / qh_rand_q;  /* seed div q */
+  lo = seed % qh_rand_q;  /* seed mod q */
+  test = qh_rand_a * lo - qh_rand_r * hi;
+  if (test > 0)
+    seed= test;
+  else
+    seed= test + qh_rand_m;
+  qh_rand_seed= seed;
+  /* seed = seed < qh_RANDOMmax/2 ? 0 : qh_RANDOMmax;  for testing */
+  /* seed = qh_RANDOMmax;  for testing */
+  return seed;
+} /* rand */
+
+void qh_srand( int seed) {
+  if (seed < 1)
+    qh_rand_seed= 1;
+  else if (seed >= qh_rand_m)
+    qh_rand_seed= qh_rand_m - 1;
+  else
+    qh_rand_seed= seed;
+} /* qh_srand */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="randomfactor">-</a>
+  
+  qh_randomfactor()
+    return a random factor within qh.RANDOMmax of 1.0
+
+  notes:
+    qh.RANDOMa/b are defined in global.c
+*/
+realT qh_randomfactor (void) {
+  realT randr;
+
+  randr= qh_RANDOMint;
+  return randr * qh RANDOMa + qh RANDOMb;
+} /* randomfactor */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="randommatrix">-</a>
+  
+  qh_randommatrix( buffer, dim, rows )
+    generate a random dim X dim matrix in range [-1,1]
+    assumes buffer is [dim+1, dim]
+
+  returns:
+    sets buffer to random numbers
+    sets rows to rows of buffer
+      sets row[dim] as scratch row
+*/
+void qh_randommatrix (realT *buffer, int dim, realT **rows) {
+  int i, k;
+  realT **rowi, *coord, realr;
+
+  coord= buffer;
+  rowi= rows;
+  for (i=0; i < dim; i++) {
+    *(rowi++)= coord;
+    for (k=0; k < dim; k++) {
+      realr= qh_RANDOMint;
+      *(coord++)= 2.0 * realr/(qh_RANDOMmax+1) - 1.0;
+    }
+  }
+  *rowi= coord;
+} /* randommatrix */
+
+        
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="rotateinput">-</a>
+  
+  qh_rotateinput( rows )
+    rotate input using row matrix
+    input points given by qh first_point, num_points, hull_dim
+    assumes rows[dim] is a scratch buffer
+    if qh POINTSmalloc, overwrites input points, else mallocs a new array
+
+  returns:
+    rotated input
+    sets qh POINTSmalloc
+
+  design:
+    see qh_rotatepoints
+*/
+void qh_rotateinput (realT **rows) {
+
+  if (!qh POINTSmalloc) {
+    qh first_point= qh_copypoints (qh first_point, qh num_points, qh hull_dim);
+    qh POINTSmalloc= True;
+  }
+  qh_rotatepoints (qh first_point, qh num_points, qh hull_dim, rows);
+}  /* rotateinput */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="rotatepoints">-</a>
+  
+  qh_rotatepoints( points, numpoints, dim, row )
+    rotate numpoints points by a d-dim row matrix
+    assumes rows[dim] is a scratch buffer
+
+  returns:
+    rotated points in place
+
+  design:
+    for each point
+      for each coordinate
+        use row[dim] to compute partial inner product
+      for each coordinate
+        rotate by partial inner product
+*/
+void qh_rotatepoints (realT *points, int numpoints, int dim, realT **row) {
+  realT *point, *rowi, *coord= NULL, sum, *newval;
+  int i,j,k;
+
+  if (qh IStracing >= 1)
+    qh_printmatrix (qh ferr, "qh_rotatepoints: rotate points by", row, dim, dim);
+  for (point= points, j= numpoints; j--; point += dim) {
+    newval= row[dim];
+    for (i= 0; i < dim; i++) {
+      rowi= row[i];
+      coord= point;
+      for (sum= 0.0, k= dim; k--; )
+        sum += *rowi++ * *coord++;
+      *(newval++)= sum;
+    }
+    for (k= dim; k--; )
+      *(--coord)= *(--newval);
+  }
+} /* rotatepoints */  
+  
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="scaleinput">-</a>
+  
+  qh_scaleinput()
+    scale input points using qh low_bound/high_bound
+    input points given by qh first_point, num_points, hull_dim
+    if qh POINTSmalloc, overwrites input points, else mallocs a new array
+
+  returns:
+    scales coordinates of points to low_bound[k], high_bound[k]
+    sets qh POINTSmalloc
+
+  design:
+    see qh_scalepoints
+*/
+void qh_scaleinput (void) {
+
+  if (!qh POINTSmalloc) {
+    qh first_point= qh_copypoints (qh first_point, qh num_points, qh hull_dim);
+    qh POINTSmalloc= True;
+  }
+  qh_scalepoints (qh first_point, qh num_points, qh hull_dim,
+       qh lower_bound, qh upper_bound);
+}  /* scaleinput */
+  
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="scalelast">-</a>
+  
+  qh_scalelast( points, numpoints, dim, low, high, newhigh )
+    scale last coordinate to [0,m] for Delaunay triangulations
+    input points given by points, numpoints, dim
+
+  returns:
+    changes scale of last coordinate from [low, high] to [0, newhigh]
+    overwrites last coordinate of each point
+    saves low/high/newhigh in qh.last_low, etc. for qh_setdelaunay()
+
+  notes:
+    when called by qh_setdelaunay, low/high may not match actual data
+    
+  design:
+    compute scale and shift factors
+    apply to last coordinate of each point
+*/
+void qh_scalelast (coordT *points, int numpoints, int dim, coordT low,
+		   coordT high, coordT newhigh) {
+  realT scale, shift;
+  coordT *coord;
+  int i;
+  boolT nearzero= False;
+
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_scalelast: scale last coordinate from [%2.2g, %2.2g] to [0,%2.2g]\n",
+    low, high, newhigh));
+  qh last_low= low;
+  qh last_high= high;
+  qh last_newhigh= newhigh;
+  scale= qh_divzero (newhigh, high - low,
+                  qh MINdenom_1, &nearzero);
+  if (nearzero) {
+    if (qh DELAUNAY)
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: can not scale last coordinate.  Input is cocircular\n   or cospherical.   Use option 'Qz' to add a point at infinity.\n");
+    else
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: can not scale last coordinate.  New bounds [0, %2.2g] are too wide for\nexisting bounds [%2.2g, %2.2g] (width %2.2g)\n",
+		newhigh, low, high, high-low);
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  shift= - low * newhigh / (high-low);
+  coord= points + dim - 1;
+  for (i= numpoints; i--; coord += dim)
+    *coord= *coord * scale + shift;
+} /* scalelast */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="scalepoints">-</a>
+  
+  qh_scalepoints( points, numpoints, dim, newlows, newhighs )
+    scale points to new lowbound and highbound
+    retains old bound when newlow= -REALmax or newhigh= +REALmax
+
+  returns:
+    scaled points
+    overwrites old points
+
+  design:
+    for each coordinate
+      compute current low and high bound
+      compute scale and shift factors
+      scale all points
+      enforce new low and high bound for all points
+*/
+void qh_scalepoints (pointT *points, int numpoints, int dim,
+	realT *newlows, realT *newhighs) {
+  int i,k;
+  realT shift, scale, *coord, low, high, newlow, newhigh, mincoord, maxcoord;
+  boolT nearzero= False;
+     
+  for (k= 0; k < dim; k++) {
+    newhigh= newhighs[k];
+    newlow= newlows[k];
+    if (newhigh > REALmax/2 && newlow < -REALmax/2)
+      continue;
+    low= REALmax;
+    high= -REALmax;
+    for (i= numpoints, coord= points+k; i--; coord += dim) {
+      minimize_(low, *coord);
+      maximize_(high, *coord);
+    }
+    if (newhigh > REALmax/2)
+      newhigh= high;
+    if (newlow < -REALmax/2)
+      newlow= low;
+    if (qh DELAUNAY && k == dim-1 && newhigh < newlow) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: 'Qb%d' or 'QB%d' inverts paraboloid since high bound %.2g < low bound %.2g\n",
+	       k, k, newhigh, newlow);
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+    scale= qh_divzero (newhigh - newlow, high - low,
+                  qh MINdenom_1, &nearzero);
+    if (nearzero) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: %d'th dimension's new bounds [%2.2g, %2.2g] too wide for\nexisting bounds [%2.2g, %2.2g]\n",
+              k, newlow, newhigh, low, high);
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+    shift= (newlow * high - low * newhigh)/(high-low);
+    coord= points+k;
+    for (i= numpoints; i--; coord += dim)
+      *coord= *coord * scale + shift;
+    coord= points+k;
+    if (newlow < newhigh) {
+      mincoord= newlow;
+      maxcoord= newhigh;
+    }else {
+      mincoord= newhigh;
+      maxcoord= newlow;
+    }
+    for (i= numpoints; i--; coord += dim) {
+      minimize_(*coord, maxcoord);  /* because of roundoff error */
+      maximize_(*coord, mincoord);
+    }
+    trace0((qh ferr, "qh_scalepoints: scaled %d'th coordinate [%2.2g, %2.2g] to [%.2g, %.2g] for %d points by %2.2g and shifted %2.2g\n",
+      k, low, high, newlow, newhigh, numpoints, scale, shift));
+  }
+} /* scalepoints */    
+
+       
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="setdelaunay">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setdelaunay( dim, count, points )
+    project count points to dim-d paraboloid for Delaunay triangulation
+    
+    dim is one more than the dimension of the input set
+    assumes dim is at least 3 (i.e., at least a 2-d Delaunay triangulation)
+
+    points is a dim*count realT array.  The first dim-1 coordinates
+    are the coordinates of the first input point.  array[dim] is
+    the first coordinate of the second input point.  array[2*dim] is
+    the first coordinate of the third input point.
+
+    if qh.last_low defined (i.e., 'Qbb' called qh_scalelast)
+      calls qh_scalelast to scale the last coordinate the same as the other points
+
+  returns:
+    for each point
+      sets point[dim-1] to sum of squares of coordinates
+    scale points to 'Qbb' if needed
+      
+  notes:
+    to project one point, use
+      qh_setdelaunay (qh hull_dim, 1, point)
+      
+    Do not use options 'Qbk', 'QBk', or 'QbB' since they scale 
+    the coordinates after the original projection.
+
+*/
+void qh_setdelaunay (int dim, int count, pointT *points) {
+  int i, k;
+  coordT *coordp, coord;
+  realT paraboloid;
+
+  trace0((qh ferr, "qh_setdelaunay: project %d points to paraboloid for Delaunay triangulation\n", count));
+  coordp= points;
+  for (i= 0; i < count; i++) {
+    coord= *coordp++;
+    paraboloid= coord*coord;
+    for (k= dim-2; k--; ) {
+      coord= *coordp++;
+      paraboloid += coord*coord;
+    }
+    *coordp++ = paraboloid;
+  }
+  if (qh last_low < REALmax/2) 
+    qh_scalelast (points, count, dim, qh last_low, qh last_high, qh last_newhigh);
+} /* setdelaunay */
+
+  
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="sethalfspace">-</a>
+  
+  qh_sethalfspace( dim, coords, nextp, normal, offset, feasible )
+    set point to dual of halfspace relative to feasible point
+    halfspace is normal coefficients and offset.
+
+  returns:
+    false if feasible point is outside of hull (error message already reported)
+    overwrites coordinates for point at dim coords
+    nextp= next point (coords)
+
+  design:
+    compute distance from feasible point to halfspace
+    divide each normal coefficient by -dist
+*/
+boolT qh_sethalfspace (int dim, coordT *coords, coordT **nextp, 
+         coordT *normal, coordT *offset, coordT *feasible) {
+  coordT *normp= normal, *feasiblep= feasible, *coordp= coords;
+  realT dist;
+  realT r; /*bug fix*/
+  int k;
+  boolT zerodiv;
+
+  dist= *offset;
+  for (k= dim; k--; )
+    dist += *(normp++) * *(feasiblep++);
+  if (dist > 0)
+    goto LABELerroroutside;
+  normp= normal;
+  if (dist < -qh MINdenom) {
+    for (k= dim; k--; )
+      *(coordp++)= *(normp++) / -dist;
+  }else {
+    for (k= dim; k--; ) {
+      *(coordp++)= qh_divzero (*(normp++), -dist, qh MINdenom_1, &zerodiv);
+      if (zerodiv) 
+        goto LABELerroroutside;
+    }
+  }
+  *nextp= coordp;
+  if (qh IStracing >= 4) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_sethalfspace: halfspace at offset %6.2g to point: ", *offset);
+    for (k= dim, coordp= coords; k--; ) {
+      r= *coordp++;
+      fprintf (qh ferr, " %6.2g", r);
+    }
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "\n");
+  }
+  return True;
+LABELerroroutside:
+  feasiblep= feasible;
+  normp= normal;
+  fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull input error: feasible point is not clearly inside halfspace\nfeasible point: ");
+  for (k= dim; k--; )
+    fprintf (qh ferr, qh_REAL_1, r=*(feasiblep++));
+  fprintf (qh ferr, "\n     halfspace: "); 
+  for (k= dim; k--; )
+    fprintf (qh ferr, qh_REAL_1, r=*(normp++));
+  fprintf (qh ferr, "\n     at offset: ");
+  fprintf (qh ferr, qh_REAL_1, *offset);
+  fprintf (qh ferr, " and distance: ");
+  fprintf (qh ferr, qh_REAL_1, dist);
+  fprintf (qh ferr, "\n");
+  return False;
+} /* sethalfspace */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="sethalfspace_all">-</a>
+  
+  qh_sethalfspace_all( dim, count, halfspaces, feasible )
+    generate dual for halfspace intersection with feasible point
+    array of count halfspaces
+      each halfspace is normal coefficients followed by offset 
+      the origin is inside the halfspace if the offset is negative
+
+  returns:
+    malloc'd array of count X dim-1 points
+
+  notes:
+    call before qh_init_B or qh_initqhull_globals 
+    unused/untested code: please email bradb@shore.net if this works ok for you
+    If using option 'Fp', also set qh feasible_point. It is a malloc'd array 
+      that is freed by qh_freebuffers.
+
+  design:
+    see qh_sethalfspace
+*/
+coordT *qh_sethalfspace_all (int dim, int count, coordT *halfspaces, pointT *feasible) {
+  int i, newdim;
+  pointT *newpoints;
+  coordT *coordp, *normalp, *offsetp;
+
+  trace0((qh ferr, "qh_sethalfspace_all: compute dual for halfspace intersection\n"));
+  newdim= dim - 1;
+  if (!(newpoints=(coordT*)malloc(count*newdim*sizeof(coordT)))){
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull error: insufficient memory to compute dual of %d halfspaces\n",
+          count);
+    qh_errexit(qh_ERRmem, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  coordp= newpoints;
+  normalp= halfspaces;
+  for (i= 0; i < count; i++) {
+    offsetp= normalp + newdim;
+    if (!qh_sethalfspace (newdim, coordp, &coordp, normalp, offsetp, feasible)) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "The halfspace was at index %d\n", i);
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+    normalp= offsetp + 1;
+  }
+  return newpoints;
+} /* sethalfspace_all */
+
+  
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="sharpnewfacets">-</a>
+  
+  qh_sharpnewfacets()
+
+  returns:
+    true if could be an acute angle (facets in different quadrants)
+ 
+  notes:
+    for qh_findbest
+
+  design:
+    for all facets on qh.newfacet_list
+      if two facets are in different quadrants
+        set issharp
+*/
+boolT qh_sharpnewfacets () {
+  facetT *facet;
+  boolT issharp = False;
+  int *quadrant, k;
+  
+  quadrant= (int*)qh_memalloc (qh hull_dim * sizeof(int));
+  FORALLfacet_(qh newfacet_list) {
+    if (facet == qh newfacet_list) {
+      for (k= qh hull_dim; k--; )
+      	quadrant[ k]= (facet->normal[ k] > 0);
+    }else {
+      for (k= qh hull_dim; k--; ) {
+        if (quadrant[ k] != (facet->normal[ k] > 0)) {
+          issharp= True;
+          break;
+        }
+      }
+    }
+    if (issharp)
+      break;
+  }
+  qh_memfree( quadrant, qh hull_dim * sizeof(int));
+  trace3((qh ferr, "qh_sharpnewfacets: %d\n", issharp));
+  return issharp;
+} /* sharpnewfacets */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="voronoi_center">-</a>
+  
+  qh_voronoi_center( dim, points )
+    return Voronoi center for a set of points
+    dim is the orginal dimension of the points
+    gh.gm_matrix/qh.gm_row are scratch buffers
+
+  returns:
+    center as a temporary point
+    if non-simplicial, 
+      returns center for max simplex of points
+
+  notes:
+    from Bowyer & Woodwark, A Programmer's Geometry, 1983, p. 65
+
+  design:
+    if non-simplicial
+      determine max simplex for points
+    translate point0 of simplex to origin
+    compute sum of squares of diagonal
+    compute determinate
+    compute Voronoi center (see Bowyer & Woodwark)
+*/
+pointT *qh_voronoi_center (int dim, setT *points) {
+  pointT *point, **pointp, *point0;
+  pointT *center= (pointT*)qh_memalloc (qh center_size);
+  setT *simplex;
+  int i, j, k, size= qh_setsize(points);
+  coordT *gmcoord;
+  realT *diffp, sum2, *sum2row, *sum2p, det, factor;
+  boolT nearzero, infinite;
+
+  if (size == dim+1)
+    simplex= points;
+  else if (size < dim+1) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_voronoi_center):\n  need at least %d points to construct a Voronoi center\n",
+	     dim+1);
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }else {
+    simplex= qh_settemp (dim+1);
+    qh_maxsimplex (dim, points, NULL, 0, &simplex);
+  }
+  point0= SETfirstt_(simplex, pointT);
+  gmcoord= qh gm_matrix;
+  for (k=0; k < dim; k++) {
+    qh gm_row[k]= gmcoord;
+    FOREACHpoint_(simplex) {
+      if (point != point0)
+        *(gmcoord++)= point[k] - point0[k];
+    }
+  }
+  sum2row= gmcoord;
+  for (i=0; i < dim; i++) {
+    sum2= 0.0;
+    for (k= 0; k < dim; k++) {
+      diffp= qh gm_row[k] + i;
+      sum2 += *diffp * *diffp;
+    }
+    *(gmcoord++)= sum2;
+  }
+  det= qh_determinant (qh gm_row, dim, &nearzero);
+  factor= qh_divzero (0.5, det, qh MINdenom, &infinite);
+  if (infinite) {
+    for (k=dim; k--; )
+      center[k]= qh_INFINITE;
+    if (qh IStracing)
+      qh_printpoints (qh ferr, "qh_voronoi_center: at infinity for ", simplex);
+  }else {
+    for (i=0; i < dim; i++) {
+      gmcoord= qh gm_matrix;
+      sum2p= sum2row;
+      for (k=0; k < dim; k++) {
+	qh gm_row[k]= gmcoord;
+	if (k == i) {
+	  for (j= dim; j--; )
+	    *(gmcoord++)= *sum2p++;
+	}else {
+	  FOREACHpoint_(simplex) {
+	    if (point != point0)
+	      *(gmcoord++)= point[k] - point0[k];
+	  }
+	}
+      }
+      center[i]= qh_determinant (qh gm_row, dim, &nearzero)*factor + point0[i];
+    }
+#ifndef qh_NOtrace
+    if (qh IStracing >= 3) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_voronoi_center: det %2.2g factor %2.2g ", det, factor);
+      qh_printmatrix (qh ferr, "center:", &center, 1, dim);
+      if (qh IStracing >= 5) {
+	qh_printpoints (qh ferr, "points", simplex);
+	FOREACHpoint_(simplex)
+	  fprintf (qh ferr, "p%d dist %.2g, ", qh_pointid (point),
+		   qh_pointdist (point, center, dim));
+	fprintf (qh ferr, "\n");
+      }
+    }
+#endif
+  }
+  if (simplex != points)
+    qh_settempfree (&simplex);
+  return center;
+} /* voronoi_center */
+

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/global.c
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/global.c	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/global.c	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,2041 @@
+/*<html><pre>  -<a                             href="qh-globa.htm"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="TOP">-</a>
+
+   global.c
+   initializes all the globals of the qhull application
+
+   see README
+
+   see qhull.h for qh.globals and function prototypes
+
+   see qhull_a.h for internal functions
+
+   copyright (c) 1993-2003, The Geometry Center
+ */
+
+#include "qhull_a.h"
+
+/*========= qh definition (see qhull.h) =======================*/
+
+#if qh_QHpointer
+qhT *qh_qh= NULL;	/* pointer to all global variables */
+#else
+qhT qh_qh;     		/* all global variables.
+			   Add "= {0}" if this causes a compiler error.
+			   Also qh_qhstat in stat.c and qhmem in mem.c.  */
+#endif
+
+/*-<a                             href	="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="qh_version">-</a>
+
+  qh_version
+    version string by year and date
+
+    the revision increases on code changes only
+
+  notes:
+    change date:    Changes.txt, Announce.txt, README.txt, 
+                    qhull.man, qhull.txt, qhull-news.html, Eudora signatures, 
+    change version: README.txt, qh-get.htm, File_id.diz, Makefile.txt
+    change year:    Copying.txt
+    check download size
+    recompile user_eg.c, rbox.c, qhull.c, qconvex.c, qdelaun.c qvoronoi.c, qhalf.c
+*/
+
+char *qh_version = "2003.1 2003/12/30";
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="appendprint">-</a>
+
+  qh_appendprint( printFormat )
+    append printFormat to qh.PRINTout unless already defined
+*/
+void qh_appendprint (qh_PRINT format) {
+  int i;
+
+  for (i=0; i < qh_PRINTEND; i++) {
+    if (qh PRINTout[i] == format && format != qh_PRINTqhull)
+      break;
+    if (!qh PRINTout[i]) {
+      qh PRINTout[i]= format;
+      break;
+    }
+  }
+} /* appendprint */
+     
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="checkflags">-</a>
+  
+  qh_checkflags( commandStr, hiddenFlags )
+    errors if commandStr contains hiddenFlags
+    hiddenFlags starts and ends with a space and is space deliminated (checked)
+
+  notes:
+    ignores first word (e.g., "qconvex i")
+    use qh_strtol/strtod since strtol/strtod may or may not skip trailing spaces
+  
+  see:
+    qh_initflags() initializes Qhull according to commandStr
+*/
+void qh_checkflags(char *command, char *hiddenflags) {
+  char *s= command, *t, *chkerr, key, opt, prevopt;
+  char chkkey[]= "   ";
+  char chkopt[]=  "    ";
+  char chkopt2[]= "     ";
+
+  if (*hiddenflags != ' ' || hiddenflags[strlen(hiddenflags)-1] != ' ') {
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull error (qh_checkflags): hiddenflags must start and end with a space: \"%s\"", hiddenflags);
+    qh_errexit(qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  if (strpbrk(hiddenflags, ",\n\r\t")) { 
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull error (qh_checkflags): hiddenflags contains commas, newlines, or tabs: \"%s\"", hiddenflags);
+    qh_errexit(qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  while (*s && !isspace(*s))  /* skip program name */
+    s++;
+  while (*s) {
+    while (*s && isspace(*s))
+      s++;
+    if (*s == '-')
+      s++;
+    if (!*s)
+      break;
+    key = *s++;
+    chkerr = NULL;
+    if (key == '\'') {         /* TO 'file name' */
+      t= strchr(s, '\'');
+      if (!t) {
+	fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull error (qh_checkflags): missing the 2nd single-quote for:\n%s\n", s-1);
+	qh_errexit(qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+      }
+      s= t+1;
+      continue;
+    }
+    chkkey[1]= key;
+    if (strstr(hiddenflags, chkkey)) {
+      chkerr= chkkey;
+    }else if (isupper(key)) {
+      opt= ' ';
+      prevopt= ' ';
+      chkopt[1]= key;
+      chkopt2[1]= key;
+      while (!chkerr && *s && !isspace(*s)) {
+	opt= *s++;
+	if (isalpha(opt)) {
+	  chkopt[2]= opt;
+	  if (strstr(hiddenflags, chkopt))
+	    chkerr= chkopt;
+	  if (prevopt != ' ') {
+ 	    chkopt2[2]= prevopt;
+ 	    chkopt2[3]= opt;
+	    if (strstr(hiddenflags, chkopt2))
+	      chkerr= chkopt2;
+	  }
+	}else if (key == 'Q' && isdigit(opt) && prevopt != 'b' 
+	      && (prevopt == ' ' || islower(prevopt))) {
+  	    chkopt[2]= opt;
+	    if (strstr(hiddenflags, chkopt))
+	      chkerr= chkopt;
+	}else {
+	  qh_strtod (s-1, &t);
+	  if (s < t)
+	    s= t;
+	}
+        prevopt= opt;
+      }
+    }
+    if (chkerr) {
+      *chkerr= '\'';
+      chkerr[strlen(chkerr)-1]=  '\'';
+      fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull error: option %s is not used with this program.\n             It may be used with qhull.\n", chkerr);
+      qh_errexit(qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+  }
+} /* checkflags */
+    
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="clock">-</a>
+  
+  qh_clock()
+    return user CPU time in 100ths (qh_SECtick)
+    only defined for qh_CLOCKtype == 2
+
+  notes:
+    use first value to determine time 0
+    from Stevens '92 8.15
+*/
+unsigned long qh_clock (void) {
+
+#if (qh_CLOCKtype == 2)
+  struct tms time;
+  static long clktck;  /* initialized first call */
+  double ratio, cpu;
+  unsigned long ticks;
+
+  if (!clktck) {
+    if ((clktck= sysconf (_SC_CLK_TCK)) < 0) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_clock): sysconf() failed.  Use qh_CLOCKtype 1 in user.h\n");
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+  }
+  if (times (&time) == -1) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_clock): times() failed.  Use qh_CLOCKtype 1 in user.h\n");
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  ratio= qh_SECticks / (double)clktck;
+  ticks= time.tms_utime * ratio;
+  return ticks;
+#else
+  fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_clock): use qh_CLOCKtype 2 in user.h\n");
+  qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL); /* never returns */
+  return 0;
+#endif
+} /* clock */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="freebuffers">-</a>
+
+  qh_freebuffers()
+    free up global memory buffers
+
+  notes:
+    must match qh_initbuffers()
+*/
+void qh_freebuffers (void) {
+
+  trace5((qh ferr, "qh_freebuffers: freeing up global memory buffers\n"));
+  /* allocated by qh_initqhull_buffers */
+  qh_memfree (qh NEARzero, qh hull_dim * sizeof(realT));
+  qh_memfree (qh lower_threshold, (qh input_dim+1) * sizeof(realT));
+  qh_memfree (qh upper_threshold, (qh input_dim+1) * sizeof(realT));
+  qh_memfree (qh lower_bound, (qh input_dim+1) * sizeof(realT));
+  qh_memfree (qh upper_bound, (qh input_dim+1) * sizeof(realT));
+  qh_memfree (qh gm_matrix, (qh hull_dim+1) * qh hull_dim * sizeof(coordT));
+  qh_memfree (qh gm_row, (qh hull_dim+1) * sizeof(coordT *));
+  qh NEARzero= qh lower_threshold= qh upper_threshold= NULL;
+  qh lower_bound= qh upper_bound= NULL;
+  qh gm_matrix= NULL;
+  qh gm_row= NULL;
+  qh_setfree (&qh other_points);
+  qh_setfree (&qh del_vertices);
+  qh_setfree (&qh coplanarset);
+  if (qh line)                /* allocated by qh_readinput, freed if no error */
+    free (qh line);
+  if (qh half_space)
+    free (qh half_space);
+  if (qh temp_malloc)
+    free (qh temp_malloc);
+  if (qh feasible_point)      /* allocated by qh_readfeasible */
+    free (qh feasible_point);
+  if (qh feasible_string)     /* allocated by qh_initflags */
+    free (qh feasible_string);
+  qh line= qh feasible_string= NULL;
+  qh half_space= qh feasible_point= qh temp_malloc= NULL;
+  /* usually allocated by qh_readinput */
+  if (qh first_point && qh POINTSmalloc) {
+    free(qh first_point);
+    qh first_point= NULL;
+  }
+  if (qh input_points && qh input_malloc) { /* set by qh_joggleinput */
+    free (qh input_points);
+    qh input_points= NULL;
+  }
+  trace5((qh ferr, "qh_freebuffers: finished\n"));
+} /* freebuffers */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="freebuild">-</a>
+
+  qh_freebuild( allmem )
+    free global memory used by qh_initbuild and qh_buildhull
+    if !allmem,
+      does not free short memory (freed by qh_memfreeshort)
+
+  design:
+    free centrums
+    free each vertex
+    mark unattached ridges
+    for each facet
+      free ridges
+      free outside set, coplanar set, neighbor set, ridge set, vertex set
+      free facet
+    free hash table
+    free interior point
+    free merge set
+    free temporary sets
+*/
+void qh_freebuild (boolT allmem) {
+  facetT *facet;
+  vertexT *vertex;
+  ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep;
+  mergeT *merge, **mergep;
+
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_freebuild: free memory from qh_inithull and qh_buildhull\n"));
+  if (qh del_vertices)
+    qh_settruncate (qh del_vertices, 0);
+  if (allmem) {
+    qh_clearcenters (qh_ASnone);
+    while ((vertex= qh vertex_list)) {
+      if (vertex->next)
+        qh_delvertex (vertex);
+      else {
+        qh_memfree (vertex, sizeof(vertexT));
+        qh newvertex_list= qh vertex_list= NULL;
+      }
+    }
+  }else if (qh VERTEXneighbors) {
+    FORALLvertices
+      qh_setfreelong (&(vertex->neighbors));
+  }
+  qh VERTEXneighbors= False;
+  qh GOODclosest= NULL;
+  if (allmem) {
+    FORALLfacets {
+      FOREACHridge_(facet->ridges)
+        ridge->seen= False;
+    }
+    FORALLfacets {
+      if (facet->visible) {
+	FOREACHridge_(facet->ridges) {
+	  if (!otherfacet_(ridge, facet)->visible)
+	    ridge->seen= True;  /* an unattached ridge */
+	}
+      }
+    }
+    while ((facet= qh facet_list)) {
+      FOREACHridge_(facet->ridges) {
+        if (ridge->seen) {
+          qh_setfree(&(ridge->vertices));
+          qh_memfree(ridge, sizeof(ridgeT));
+        }else
+          ridge->seen= True;
+      }
+      qh_setfree (&(facet->outsideset));
+      qh_setfree (&(facet->coplanarset));
+      qh_setfree (&(facet->neighbors));
+      qh_setfree (&(facet->ridges));
+      qh_setfree (&(facet->vertices));
+      if (facet->next)
+        qh_delfacet (facet);
+      else {
+        qh_memfree (facet, sizeof(facetT));
+        qh visible_list= qh newfacet_list= qh facet_list= NULL;
+      }
+    }
+  }else {
+    FORALLfacets {
+      qh_setfreelong (&(facet->outsideset));
+      qh_setfreelong (&(facet->coplanarset));
+      if (!facet->simplicial) {
+        qh_setfreelong (&(facet->neighbors));
+        qh_setfreelong (&(facet->ridges));
+        qh_setfreelong (&(facet->vertices));
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  qh_setfree (&(qh hash_table));
+  qh_memfree (qh interior_point, qh normal_size);
+  qh interior_point= NULL;
+  FOREACHmerge_(qh facet_mergeset)  /* usually empty */
+    qh_memfree (merge, sizeof(mergeT));
+  qh facet_mergeset= NULL;  /* temp set */
+  qh degen_mergeset= NULL;  /* temp set */
+  qh_settempfree_all();
+} /* freebuild */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="freeqhull">-</a>
+
+  qh_freeqhull( allmem )
+    free global memory
+    if !allmem,
+      does not free short memory (freed by qh_memfreeshort)
+
+  notes:
+    sets qh.NOerrexit in case caller forgets to
+
+  design:
+    free global and temporary memory from qh_initbuild and qh_buildhull
+    free buffers
+    free statistics
+*/
+void qh_freeqhull (boolT allmem) {
+
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_freeqhull: free global memory\n"));
+  qh NOerrexit= True;  /* no more setjmp since called at exit */
+  qh_freebuild (allmem);
+  qh_freebuffers();
+  qh_freestatistics();
+#if qh_QHpointer
+  free (qh_qh);
+  qh_qh= NULL;
+#else
+  memset((char *)&qh_qh, 0, sizeof(qhT));
+  qh NOerrexit= True;
+#endif
+} /* freeqhull */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="init_A">-</a>
+
+  qh_init_A( infile, outfile, errfile, argc, argv )
+    initialize memory and stdio files
+    convert input options to option string (qh.qhull_command)
+
+  notes:
+    infile may be NULL if qh_readpoints() is not called
+
+    errfile should always be defined.  It is used for reporting
+    errors.  outfile is used for output and format options.
+
+    argc/argv may be 0/NULL
+
+    called before error handling initialized
+    qh_errexit() may not be used
+*/
+void qh_init_A (FILE *infile, FILE *outfile, FILE *errfile, int argc, char *argv[]) {
+  qh_meminit (errfile);
+  qh_initqhull_start (infile, outfile, errfile);
+  qh_init_qhull_command (argc, argv);
+} /* init_A */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="init_B">-</a>
+
+  qh_init_B( points, numpoints, dim, ismalloc )
+    initialize globals for points array
+
+    points has numpoints dim-dimensional points
+      points[0] is the first coordinate of the first point
+      points[1] is the second coordinate of the first point
+      points[dim] is the first coordinate of the second point
+
+    ismalloc=True
+      Qhull will call free(points) on exit or input transformation
+    ismalloc=False
+      Qhull will allocate a new point array if needed for input transformation
+
+    qh.qhull_command
+      is the option string.
+      It is defined by qh_init_B(), qh_qhull_command(), or qh_initflags
+
+  returns:
+    if qh.PROJECTinput or (qh.DELAUNAY and qh.PROJECTdelaunay)
+      projects the input to a new point array
+
+        if qh.DELAUNAY,
+          qh.hull_dim is increased by one
+        if qh.ATinfinity,
+          qh_projectinput adds point-at-infinity for Delaunay tri.
+
+    if qh.SCALEinput
+      changes the upper and lower bounds of the input, see qh_scaleinput()
+
+    if qh.ROTATEinput
+      rotates the input by a random rotation, see qh_rotateinput()
+      if qh.DELAUNAY
+        rotates about the last coordinate
+
+  notes:
+    called after points are defined
+    qh_errexit() may be used
+*/
+void qh_init_B (coordT *points, int numpoints, int dim, boolT ismalloc) {
+  qh_initqhull_globals (points, numpoints, dim, ismalloc);
+  if (qhmem.LASTsize == 0)
+    qh_initqhull_mem();
+  /* mem.c and qset.c are initialized */
+  qh_initqhull_buffers();
+  qh_initthresholds (qh qhull_command);
+  if (qh PROJECTinput || (qh DELAUNAY && qh PROJECTdelaunay))
+    qh_projectinput();
+  if (qh SCALEinput)
+    qh_scaleinput();
+  if (qh ROTATErandom >= 0) {
+    qh_randommatrix (qh gm_matrix, qh hull_dim, qh gm_row);
+    if (qh DELAUNAY) {
+      int k, lastk= qh hull_dim-1;
+      for (k= 0; k < lastk; k++) {
+        qh gm_row[k][lastk]= 0.0;
+        qh gm_row[lastk][k]= 0.0;
+      }
+      qh gm_row[lastk][lastk]= 1.0;
+    }
+    qh_gram_schmidt (qh hull_dim, qh gm_row);
+    qh_rotateinput (qh gm_row);
+  }
+} /* init_B */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="init_qhull_command">-</a>
+
+  qh_init_qhull_command( argc, argv )
+    build qh.qhull_command from argc/argv
+
+  returns:
+    a space-deliminated string of options (just as typed)
+
+  notes:
+    makes option string easy to input and output
+
+    argc/argv may be 0/NULL
+*/
+void qh_init_qhull_command(int argc, char *argv[]) {
+  int i;
+  char *s;
+
+  if (argc) {
+    if ((s= strrchr( argv[0], '\\'))) /* Borland gives full path */
+      strcpy (qh qhull_command, s+1);
+    else
+      strcpy (qh qhull_command, argv[0]);
+    if ((s= strstr (qh qhull_command, ".EXE"))
+    ||  (s= strstr (qh qhull_command, ".exe")))
+      *s= '\0';
+  }
+  for (i=1; i < argc; i++) {
+    if (strlen (qh qhull_command) + strlen(argv[i]) + 1 < sizeof(qh qhull_command)) {
+      strcat (qh qhull_command, " ");
+      strcat (qh qhull_command, argv[i]);
+    }else {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: more than %d characters in command line\n",
+        (int)sizeof(qh qhull_command));
+      exit (1);  /* can not use qh_errexit */
+    }
+  }
+} /* init_qhull_command */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="initflags">-</a>
+
+  qh_initflags( commandStr )
+    set flags and initialized constants from commandStr
+
+  returns:
+    sets qh.qhull_command to command if needed
+
+  notes:
+    ignores first word (e.g., "qhull d")
+    use qh_strtol/strtod since strtol/strtod may or may not skip trailing spaces
+
+  see:
+    qh_initthresholds() continues processing of 'Pdn' and 'PDn'
+    'prompt' in unix.c for documentation
+
+  design:
+    for each space-deliminated option group
+      if top-level option
+        check syntax
+        append approriate option to option string
+        set appropriate global variable or append printFormat to print options
+      else
+        for each sub-option
+          check syntax
+          append approriate option to option string
+          set appropriate global variable or append printFormat to print options
+
+
+*/
+void qh_initflags(char *command) {
+  int k, i, lastproject;
+  char *s= command, *t, *prev_s, *start, key;
+  boolT isgeom= False, wasproject;
+  realT r;
+
+  if (command != &qh qhull_command[0]) {
+    *qh qhull_command= '\0';
+    strncat( qh qhull_command, command, sizeof( qh qhull_command));
+  }
+  while (*s && !isspace(*s))  /* skip program name */
+    s++;
+  while (*s) {
+    while (*s && isspace(*s))
+      s++;
+    if (*s == '-')
+      s++;
+    if (!*s)
+      break;
+    prev_s= s;
+    switch (*s++) {
+    case 'd':
+      qh_option ("delaunay", NULL, NULL);
+      qh DELAUNAY= True;
+      break;
+    case 'f':
+      qh_option ("facets", NULL, NULL);
+      qh_appendprint (qh_PRINTfacets);
+      break;
+    case 'i':
+      qh_option ("incidence", NULL, NULL);
+      qh_appendprint (qh_PRINTincidences);
+      break;
+    case 'm':
+      qh_option ("mathematica", NULL, NULL);
+      qh_appendprint (qh_PRINTmathematica);
+      break;
+    case 'n':
+      qh_option ("normals", NULL, NULL);
+      qh_appendprint (qh_PRINTnormals);
+      break;
+    case 'o':
+      qh_option ("offFile", NULL, NULL);
+      qh_appendprint (qh_PRINToff);
+      break;
+    case 'p':
+      qh_option ("points", NULL, NULL);
+      qh_appendprint (qh_PRINTpoints);
+      break;
+    case 's':
+      qh_option ("summary", NULL, NULL);
+      qh PRINTsummary= True;
+      break;
+    case 'v':
+      qh_option ("voronoi", NULL, NULL);
+      qh VORONOI= True;
+      qh DELAUNAY= True;
+      break;
+    case 'A':
+      if (!isdigit(*s) && *s != '.' && *s != '-')
+	fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull warning: no maximum cosine angle given for option 'An'.  Ignored.\n");
+      else {
+	if (*s == '-') {
+	  qh premerge_cos= -qh_strtod (s, &s);
+          qh_option ("Angle-premerge-", NULL, &qh premerge_cos);
+	  qh PREmerge= True;
+	}else {
+	  qh postmerge_cos= qh_strtod (s, &s);
+          qh_option ("Angle-postmerge", NULL, &qh postmerge_cos);
+	  qh POSTmerge= True;
+	}
+	qh MERGING= True;
+      }
+      break;
+    case 'C':
+      if (!isdigit(*s) && *s != '.' && *s != '-')
+	fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull warning: no centrum radius given for option 'Cn'.  Ignored.\n");
+      else {
+	if (*s == '-') {
+	  qh premerge_centrum= -qh_strtod (s, &s);
+          qh_option ("Centrum-premerge-", NULL, &qh premerge_centrum);
+	  qh PREmerge= True;
+	}else {
+	  qh postmerge_centrum= qh_strtod (s, &s);
+          qh_option ("Centrum-postmerge", NULL, &qh postmerge_centrum);
+	  qh POSTmerge= True;
+	}
+	qh MERGING= True;
+      }
+      break;
+    case 'E':
+      if (*s == '-')
+	fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull warning: negative maximum roundoff given for option 'An'.  Ignored.\n");
+      else if (!isdigit(*s))
+	fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull warning: no maximum roundoff given for option 'En'.  Ignored.\n");
+      else {
+	qh DISTround= qh_strtod (s, &s);
+        qh_option ("Distance-roundoff", NULL, &qh DISTround);
+	qh SETroundoff= True;
+      }
+      break;
+    case 'H':
+      start= s;
+      qh HALFspace= True;
+      qh_strtod (s, &t);
+      while (t > s)  {
+        if (*t && !isspace (*t)) {
+	  if (*t == ',')
+	    t++;
+	  else
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: origin for Halfspace intersection should be 'Hn,n,n,...'\n");
+	}
+        s= t;
+	qh_strtod (s, &t);
+      }
+      if (start < t) {
+        if (!(qh feasible_string= (char*)calloc (t-start+1, 1))) {
+          fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull error: insufficient memory for 'Hn,n,n'\n");
+          qh_errexit(qh_ERRmem, NULL, NULL);
+        }
+        strncpy (qh feasible_string, start, t-start);
+        qh_option ("Halfspace-about", NULL, NULL);
+        qh_option (qh feasible_string, NULL, NULL);
+      }else
+        qh_option ("Halfspace", NULL, NULL);
+      break;
+    case 'R':
+      if (!isdigit(*s))
+	fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull warning: missing random perturbation for option 'Rn'.  Ignored\n");
+      else {
+	qh RANDOMfactor= qh_strtod (s, &s);
+        qh_option ("Random_perturb", NULL, &qh RANDOMfactor);
+        qh RANDOMdist= True;
+      }
+      break;
+    case 'V':
+      if (!isdigit(*s) && *s != '-')
+	fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull warning: missing visible distance for option 'Vn'.  Ignored\n");
+      else {
+	qh MINvisible= qh_strtod (s, &s);
+        qh_option ("Visible", NULL, &qh MINvisible);
+      }
+      break;
+    case 'U':
+      if (!isdigit(*s) && *s != '-')
+	fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull warning: missing coplanar distance for option 'Un'.  Ignored\n");
+      else {
+	qh MAXcoplanar= qh_strtod (s, &s);
+        qh_option ("U-coplanar", NULL, &qh MAXcoplanar);
+      }
+      break;
+    case 'W':
+      if (*s == '-')
+	fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull warning: negative outside width for option 'Wn'.  Ignored.\n");
+      else if (!isdigit(*s))
+	fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull warning: missing outside width for option 'Wn'.  Ignored\n");
+      else {
+	qh MINoutside= qh_strtod (s, &s);
+        qh_option ("W-outside", NULL, &qh MINoutside);
+        qh APPROXhull= True;
+      }
+      break;
+    /************  sub menus ***************/
+    case 'F':
+      while (*s && !isspace(*s)) {
+	switch(*s++) {
+	case 'a':
+	  qh_option ("Farea", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh_appendprint (qh_PRINTarea);
+	  qh GETarea= True;
+	  break;
+	case 'A':
+	  qh_option ("FArea-total", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh GETarea= True;
+	  break;
+        case 'c':
+          qh_option ("Fcoplanars", NULL, NULL);
+          qh_appendprint (qh_PRINTcoplanars);
+          break;
+        case 'C':
+          qh_option ("FCentrums", NULL, NULL);
+          qh_appendprint (qh_PRINTcentrums);
+          break;
+	case 'd':
+          qh_option ("Fd-cdd-in", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh CDDinput= True;
+	  break;
+	case 'D':
+          qh_option ("FD-cdd-out", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh CDDoutput= True;
+	  break;
+	case 'F':
+	  qh_option ("FFacets-xridge", NULL, NULL);
+          qh_appendprint (qh_PRINTfacets_xridge);
+	  break;
+        case 'i':
+          qh_option ("Finner", NULL, NULL);
+          qh_appendprint (qh_PRINTinner);
+          break;
+        case 'I':
+          qh_option ("FIDs", NULL, NULL);
+          qh_appendprint (qh_PRINTids);
+          break;
+        case 'm':
+          qh_option ("Fmerges", NULL, NULL);
+          qh_appendprint (qh_PRINTmerges);
+          break;
+        case 'M':
+          qh_option ("FMaple", NULL, NULL);
+          qh_appendprint (qh_PRINTmaple);
+          break;
+        case 'n':
+          qh_option ("Fneighbors", NULL, NULL);
+          qh_appendprint (qh_PRINTneighbors);
+          break;
+        case 'N':
+          qh_option ("FNeighbors-vertex", NULL, NULL);
+          qh_appendprint (qh_PRINTvneighbors);
+          break;
+        case 'o':
+          qh_option ("Fouter", NULL, NULL);
+          qh_appendprint (qh_PRINTouter);
+          break;
+	case 'O':
+	  if (qh PRINToptions1st) {
+	    qh_option ("FOptions", NULL, NULL);
+	    qh_appendprint (qh_PRINToptions);
+	  }else
+	    qh PRINToptions1st= True;
+	  break;
+	case 'p':
+	  qh_option ("Fpoint-intersect", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh_appendprint (qh_PRINTpointintersect);
+	  break;
+	case 'P':
+	  qh_option ("FPoint-nearest", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh_appendprint (qh_PRINTpointnearest);
+	  break;
+	case 'Q':
+	  qh_option ("FQhull", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh_appendprint (qh_PRINTqhull);
+	  break;
+        case 's':
+          qh_option ("Fsummary", NULL, NULL);
+          qh_appendprint (qh_PRINTsummary);
+          break;
+        case 'S':
+          qh_option ("FSize", NULL, NULL);
+          qh_appendprint (qh_PRINTsize);
+          qh GETarea= True;
+          break;
+        case 't':
+          qh_option ("Ftriangles", NULL, NULL);
+          qh_appendprint (qh_PRINTtriangles);
+          break;
+        case 'v':
+          /* option set in qh_initqhull_globals */
+          qh_appendprint (qh_PRINTvertices);
+          break;
+        case 'V':
+          qh_option ("FVertex-average", NULL, NULL);
+          qh_appendprint (qh_PRINTaverage);
+          break;
+	case 'x':
+	  qh_option ("Fxtremes", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh_appendprint (qh_PRINTextremes);
+	  break;
+	default:
+	  s--;
+	  fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: unknown 'F' output option %c, rest ignored\n", (int)s[0]);
+	  while (*++s && !isspace(*s));
+	  break;
+	}
+      }
+      break;
+    case 'G':
+      isgeom= True;
+      qh_appendprint (qh_PRINTgeom);
+      while (*s && !isspace(*s)) {
+	switch(*s++) {
+        case 'a':
+          qh_option ("Gall-points", NULL, NULL);
+          qh PRINTdots= True;
+          break;
+        case 'c':
+          qh_option ("Gcentrums", NULL, NULL);
+          qh PRINTcentrums= True;
+          break;
+	case 'h':
+          qh_option ("Gintersections", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh DOintersections= True;
+	  break;
+	case 'i':
+          qh_option ("Ginner", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh PRINTinner= True;
+	  break;
+	case 'n':
+          qh_option ("Gno-planes", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh PRINTnoplanes= True;
+	  break;
+	case 'o':
+          qh_option ("Gouter", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh PRINTouter= True;
+	  break;
+	case 'p':
+          qh_option ("Gpoints", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh PRINTcoplanar= True;
+	  break;
+	case 'r':
+          qh_option ("Gridges", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh PRINTridges= True;
+	  break;
+	case 't':
+          qh_option ("Gtransparent", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh PRINTtransparent= True;
+	  break;
+	case 'v':
+          qh_option ("Gvertices", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh PRINTspheres= True;
+	  break;
+	case 'D':
+	  if (!isdigit (*s))
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: missing dimension for option 'GDn'\n");
+	  else {
+	    if (qh DROPdim >= 0)
+	      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: can only drop one dimension.  Previous 'GD%d' ignored\n",
+	           qh DROPdim);
+  	    qh DROPdim= qh_strtol (s, &s);
+            qh_option ("GDrop-dim", &qh DROPdim, NULL);
+          }
+	  break;
+	default:
+	  s--;
+	  fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: unknown 'G' print option %c, rest ignored\n", (int)s[0]);
+	  while (*++s && !isspace(*s));
+	  break;
+	}
+      }
+      break;
+    case 'P':
+      while (*s && !isspace(*s)) {
+	switch(*s++) {
+	case 'd': case 'D':  /* see qh_initthresholds() */
+	  key= s[-1];
+	  i= qh_strtol (s, &s);
+	  r= 0;
+	  if (*s == ':') {
+	    s++;
+	    r= qh_strtod (s, &s);
+	  }
+	  if (key == 'd')
+  	    qh_option ("Pdrop-facets-dim-less", &i, &r);
+  	  else
+  	    qh_option ("PDrop-facets-dim-more", &i, &r);
+	  break;
+        case 'g':
+          qh_option ("Pgood-facets", NULL, NULL);
+          qh PRINTgood= True;
+          break;
+        case 'G':
+          qh_option ("PGood-facet-neighbors", NULL, NULL);
+          qh PRINTneighbors= True;
+          break;
+        case 'o':
+          qh_option ("Poutput-forced", NULL, NULL);
+          qh FORCEoutput= True;
+          break;
+        case 'p':
+          qh_option ("Pprecision-ignore", NULL, NULL);
+          qh PRINTprecision= False;
+          break;
+	case 'A':
+	  if (!isdigit (*s))
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: missing facet count for keep area option 'PAn'\n");
+	  else {
+  	    qh KEEParea= qh_strtol (s, &s);
+            qh_option ("PArea-keep", &qh KEEParea, NULL);
+            qh GETarea= True;
+          }
+	  break;
+	case 'F':
+	  if (!isdigit (*s))
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: missing facet area for option 'PFn'\n");
+	  else {
+  	    qh KEEPminArea= qh_strtod (s, &s);
+            qh_option ("PFacet-area-keep", NULL, &qh KEEPminArea);
+            qh GETarea= True;
+          }
+	  break;
+	case 'M':
+	  if (!isdigit (*s))
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: missing merge count for option 'PMn'\n");
+	  else {
+  	    qh KEEPmerge= qh_strtol (s, &s);
+            qh_option ("PMerge-keep", &qh KEEPmerge, NULL);
+          }
+	  break;
+	default:
+	  s--;
+	  fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: unknown 'P' print option %c, rest ignored\n", (int)s[0]);
+	  while (*++s && !isspace(*s));
+	  break;
+	}
+      }
+      break;
+    case 'Q':
+      lastproject= -1;
+      while (*s && !isspace(*s)) {
+	switch(*s++) {
+	case 'b': case 'B':  /* handled by qh_initthresholds */
+	  key= s[-1];
+	  if (key == 'b' && *s == 'B') {
+	    s++;
+	    r= qh_DEFAULTbox;
+	    qh SCALEinput= True;
+	    qh_option ("QbBound-unit-box", NULL, &r);
+	    break;
+	  }
+	  if (key == 'b' && *s == 'b') {
+	    s++;
+	    qh SCALElast= True;
+	    qh_option ("Qbbound-last", NULL, NULL);
+	    break;
+	  }
+	  k= qh_strtol (s, &s);
+	  r= 0.0;
+	  wasproject= False;
+	  if (*s == ':') {
+	    s++;
+	    if ((r= qh_strtod(s, &s)) == 0.0) {
+ 	      t= s;            /* need true dimension for memory allocation */
+	      while (*t && !isspace(*t)) {
+	        if (toupper(*t++) == 'B'
+	         && k == qh_strtol (t, &t)
+	         && *t++ == ':'
+	         && qh_strtod(t, &t) == 0.0) {
+	          qh PROJECTinput++;
+	          trace2((qh ferr, "qh_initflags: project dimension %d\n", k));
+	          qh_option ("Qb-project-dim", &k, NULL);
+		  wasproject= True;
+	          lastproject= k;
+	          break;
+		}
+	      }
+	    }
+  	  }
+	  if (!wasproject) {
+	    if (lastproject == k && r == 0.0)
+	      lastproject= -1;  /* doesn't catch all possible sequences */
+	    else if (key == 'b') {
+	      qh SCALEinput= True;
+	      if (r == 0.0)
+		r= -qh_DEFAULTbox;
+	      qh_option ("Qbound-dim-low", &k, &r);
+	    }else {
+	      qh SCALEinput= True;
+	      if (r == 0.0)
+		r= qh_DEFAULTbox;
+	      qh_option ("QBound-dim-high", &k, &r);
+	    }
+	  }
+	  break;
+	case 'c':
+	  qh_option ("Qcoplanar-keep", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh KEEPcoplanar= True;
+	  break;
+	case 'f':
+	  qh_option ("Qfurthest-outside", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh BESToutside= True;
+	  break;
+	case 'g':
+	  qh_option ("Qgood-facets-only", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh ONLYgood= True;
+	  break;
+	case 'i':
+	  qh_option ("Qinterior-keep", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh KEEPinside= True;
+	  break;
+	case 'm':
+	  qh_option ("Qmax-outside-only", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh ONLYmax= True;
+	  break;
+	case 'r':
+	  qh_option ("Qrandom-outside", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh RANDOMoutside= True;
+	  break;
+	case 's':
+	  qh_option ("Qsearch-initial-simplex", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh ALLpoints= True;
+	  break;
+	case 't':
+	  qh_option ("Qtriangulate", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh TRIangulate= True;
+	  break;
+	case 'T':
+	  qh_option ("QTestPoints", NULL, NULL);
+	  if (!isdigit (*s))
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: missing number of test points for option 'QTn'\n");
+	  else {
+  	    qh TESTpoints= qh_strtol (s, &s);
+            qh_option ("QTestPoints", &qh TESTpoints, NULL);
+          }
+	  break;
+	case 'u':
+	  qh_option ("QupperDelaunay", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh UPPERdelaunay= True;
+	  break;
+	case 'v':
+	  qh_option ("Qvertex-neighbors-convex", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh TESTvneighbors= True;
+	  break;
+	case 'x':
+	  qh_option ("Qxact-merge", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh MERGEexact= True;
+	  break;
+	case 'z':
+	  qh_option ("Qz-infinity-point", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh ATinfinity= True;
+	  break;
+	case '0':
+	  qh_option ("Q0-no-premerge", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh NOpremerge= True;
+	  break;
+	case '1':
+	  if (!isdigit(*s)) {
+	    qh_option ("Q1-no-angle-sort", NULL, NULL);
+	    qh ANGLEmerge= False;
+	    break; 
+	  }
+	  switch(*s++) {
+  	  case '0':
+	    qh_option ("Q10-no-narrow", NULL, NULL);
+	    qh NOnarrow= True;
+	    break; 
+  	  case '1':
+	    qh_option ("Q11-trinormals Qtriangulate", NULL, NULL);
+	    qh TRInormals= True;
+	    qh TRIangulate= True;
+	    break; 
+	  default:
+	    s--;
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: unknown 'Q' qhull option 1%c, rest ignored\n", (int)s[0]);
+	    while (*++s && !isspace(*s));
+	    break;
+	  }
+	  break;
+	case '2':
+	  qh_option ("Q2-no-merge-independent", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh MERGEindependent= False;
+	  goto LABELcheckdigit;
+	  break; /* no warnings */
+	case '3':
+	  qh_option ("Q3-no-merge-vertices", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh MERGEvertices= False;
+	LABELcheckdigit:
+	  if (isdigit(*s))
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: can not follow '1', '2', or '3' with a digit.  '%c' skipped.\n",
+	             *s++);
+	  break;
+	case '4':
+	  qh_option ("Q4-avoid-old-into-new", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh AVOIDold= True;
+	  break;
+	case '5':
+	  qh_option ("Q5-no-check-outer", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh SKIPcheckmax= True;
+	  break;
+	case '6':
+	  qh_option ("Q6-no-concave-merge", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh SKIPconvex= True;
+	  break;
+	case '7':
+	  qh_option ("Q7-no-breadth-first", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh VIRTUALmemory= True;
+	  break;
+	case '8':
+	  qh_option ("Q8-no-near-inside", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh NOnearinside= True;
+	  break;
+	case '9':
+	  qh_option ("Q9-pick-furthest", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh PICKfurthest= True;
+	  break;
+	case 'G':
+	  i= qh_strtol (s, &t);
+	  if (qh GOODpoint)
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: good point already defined for option 'QGn'.  Ignored\n");
+          else if (s == t)
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: missing good point id for option 'QGn'.  Ignored\n");
+	  else if (i < 0 || *s == '-') {
+ 	    qh GOODpoint= i-1;
+  	    qh_option ("QGood-if-dont-see-point", &i, NULL);
+	  }else {
+ 	    qh GOODpoint= i+1;
+  	    qh_option ("QGood-if-see-point", &i, NULL);
+  	  }
+ 	  s= t;
+	  break;
+	case 'J':
+          if (!isdigit(*s) && *s != '-')
+   	    qh JOGGLEmax= 0.0;
+	  else {
+ 	    qh JOGGLEmax= (realT) qh_strtod (s, &s);
+            qh_option ("QJoggle", NULL, &qh JOGGLEmax);
+	  }
+	  break;
+	case 'R':
+          if (!isdigit(*s) && *s != '-')
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: missing random seed for option 'QRn'.  Ignored\n");
+	  else {
+ 	    qh ROTATErandom= i= qh_strtol(s, &s);
+   	    if (i > 0)
+   	      qh_option ("QRotate-id", &i, NULL );
+	    else if (i < -1)
+   	      qh_option ("QRandom-seed", &i, NULL );
+          }
+	  break;
+	case 'V':
+	  i= qh_strtol (s, &t);
+	  if (qh GOODvertex)
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: good vertex already defined for option 'QVn'.  Ignored\n");
+          else if (s == t)
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: no good point id given for option 'QVn'.  Ignored\n");
+	  else if (i < 0) {
+ 	    qh GOODvertex= i - 1;
+ 	    qh_option ("QV-good-facets-not-point", &i, NULL);
+	  }else {
+  	    qh_option ("QV-good-facets-point", &i, NULL);
+	    qh GOODvertex= i + 1;
+          }
+ 	  s= t;
+	  break;
+	default:
+	  s--;
+	  fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: unknown 'Q' qhull option %c, rest ignored\n", (int)s[0]);
+	  while (*++s && !isspace(*s));
+	  break;
+	}
+      }
+      break;
+    case 'T':
+      while (*s && !isspace(*s)) {
+	if (isdigit(*s) || *s == '-')
+	  qh IStracing= qh_strtol(s, &s);
+	else switch(*s++) {
+	case 'c':
+          qh_option ("Tcheck-frequently", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh CHECKfrequently= True;
+	  break;
+	case 's':
+          qh_option ("Tstatistics", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh PRINTstatistics= True;
+	  break;
+	case 'v':
+          qh_option ("Tverify", NULL, NULL);
+	  qh VERIFYoutput= True;
+	  break;
+	case 'z':
+	  if (!qh fout)
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: output file undefined (stdout).  Option 'Tz' ignored.\n");
+	  else {
+	    qh_option ("Tz-stdout", NULL, NULL);
+  	    qh ferr= qh fout;
+  	    qhmem.ferr= qh fout;
+	  }
+	  break;
+	case 'C':
+	  if (!isdigit(*s))
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: missing point id for cone for trace option 'TCn'.  Ignored\n");
+	  else {
+	    i= qh_strtol (s, &s);
+	    qh_option ("TCone-stop", &i, NULL);
+	    qh STOPcone= i + 1;
+          }
+	  break;
+	case 'F':
+	  if (!isdigit(*s))
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: missing frequency count for trace option 'TFn'.  Ignored\n");
+	  else {
+	    qh REPORTfreq= qh_strtol (s, &s);
+            qh_option ("TFacet-log", &qh REPORTfreq, NULL);
+	    qh REPORTfreq2= qh REPORTfreq/2;  /* for tracemerging() */
+	  }
+	  break;
+	case 'I':
+	  if (s[0] != ' ' || s[1] == '\"' || s[1] == '\'' ||isspace (s[1])) {
+	    s++;
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: option 'TI' mistyped.\nUse 'TI', one space, file name, and space or end-of-line.\nDo not use quotes.  Option 'FI' ignored.\n");
+	  }else {  /* not a procedure because of qh_option (filename, NULL, NULL); */
+	    char filename[500], *t= filename;
+
+	    s++;
+	    while (*s) {
+	      if (t - filename >= sizeof (filename)-2) {
+		fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull error: filename for 'TI' too long.\n");
+		qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+	      }
+	      if (isspace (*s))
+		break;
+	      *(t++)= *s++;
+	    }
+	    *t= '\0';
+	    if (!freopen (filename, "r", stdin)) {
+	      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull error: could not open file \"%s\".", filename);
+	      qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+	    }else {
+	      qh_option ("TInput-file", NULL, NULL);
+	      qh_option (filename, NULL, NULL);
+	    }
+	  }
+	  break;
+	case 'O':
+	  if (s[0] != ' ' || s[1] == '\"' || isspace (s[1])) {
+	    s++;
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: option 'TO' mistyped.\nUse 'TO', one space, file name, and space or end-of-line.\nThe file name may be enclosed in single quotes.\nDo not use double quotes.  Option 'FO' ignored.\n");
+	  }else {  /* not a procedure because of qh_option (filename, NULL, NULL); */
+	    char filename[500], *t= filename;
+	    boolT isquote= False;
+
+	    s++;
+	    if (*s == '\'') {
+	      isquote= True;
+	      s++;
+	    }
+	    while (*s) {
+	      if (t - filename >= sizeof (filename)-2) {
+		fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull error: filename for 'TO' too long.\n");
+		qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+	      }
+	      if (isquote) {
+		if (*s == '\'') {
+		  s++;
+		  isquote= False;
+		  break;
+		}
+	      }else if (isspace (*s))
+		break;
+	      *(t++)= *s++;
+	    }
+	    *t= '\0';
+	    if (isquote)
+	      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull error: missing end quote for option 'TO'.  Rest of line ignored.\n");
+	    else if (!freopen (filename, "w", stdout)) {
+	      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull error: could not open file \"%s\".", filename);
+	      qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+	    }else {
+	      qh_option ("TOutput-file", NULL, NULL);
+	      qh_option (filename, NULL, NULL);
+	    }
+	  }
+	  break;
+	case 'P':
+	  if (!isdigit(*s))
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: missing point id for trace option 'TPn'.  Ignored\n");
+	  else {
+	    qh TRACEpoint= qh_strtol (s, &s);
+            qh_option ("Trace-point", &qh TRACEpoint, NULL);
+          }
+	  break;
+	case 'M':
+	  if (!isdigit(*s))
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: missing merge id for trace option 'TMn'.  Ignored\n");
+	  else {
+	    qh TRACEmerge= qh_strtol (s, &s);
+            qh_option ("Trace-merge", &qh TRACEmerge, NULL);
+          }
+	  break;
+	case 'R':
+	  if (!isdigit(*s))
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: missing rerun count for trace option 'TRn'.  Ignored\n");
+	  else {
+	    qh RERUN= qh_strtol (s, &s);
+            qh_option ("TRerun", &qh RERUN, NULL);
+          }
+	  break;
+	case 'V':
+	  i= qh_strtol (s, &t);
+	  if (s == t)
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: missing furthest point id for trace option 'TVn'.  Ignored\n");
+	  else if (i < 0) {
+	    qh STOPpoint= i - 1;
+            qh_option ("TV-stop-before-point", &i, NULL);
+	  }else {
+	    qh STOPpoint= i + 1;
+            qh_option ("TV-stop-after-point", &i, NULL);
+          }
+          s= t;
+	  break;
+	case 'W':
+	  if (!isdigit(*s))
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: missing max width for trace option 'TWn'.  Ignored\n");
+	  else {
+ 	    qh TRACEdist= (realT) qh_strtod (s, &s);
+            qh_option ("TWide-trace", NULL, &qh TRACEdist);
+          }
+	  break;
+	default:
+	  s--;
+	  fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: unknown 'T' trace option %c, rest ignored\n", (int)s[0]);
+	  while (*++s && !isspace(*s));
+	  break;
+	}
+      }
+      break;
+    default:
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: unknown flag %c (%x)\n", (int)s[-1],
+	       (int)s[-1]);
+      break;
+    }
+    if (s-1 == prev_s && *s && !isspace(*s)) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: missing space after flag %c (%x); reserved for menu. Skipped.\n",
+	       (int)*prev_s, (int)*prev_s);
+      while (*s && !isspace(*s))
+	s++;
+    }
+  }
+  if (isgeom && !qh FORCEoutput && qh PRINTout[1])
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: additional output formats are not compatible with Geomview\n");
+  /* set derived values in qh_initqhull_globals */
+} /* initflags */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="initqhull_buffers">-</a>
+
+  qh_initqhull_buffers()
+    initialize global memory buffers
+
+  notes:
+    must match qh_freebuffers()
+*/
+void qh_initqhull_buffers (void) {
+  int k;
+
+  qh TEMPsize= (qhmem.LASTsize - sizeof (setT))/SETelemsize;
+  if (qh TEMPsize <= 0 || qh TEMPsize > qhmem.LASTsize)
+    qh TEMPsize= 8;  /* e.g., if qh_NOmem */
+  qh other_points= qh_setnew (qh TEMPsize);
+  qh del_vertices= qh_setnew (qh TEMPsize);
+  qh coplanarset= qh_setnew (qh TEMPsize);
+  qh NEARzero= (realT *)qh_memalloc(qh hull_dim * sizeof(realT));
+  qh lower_threshold= (realT *)qh_memalloc((qh input_dim+1) * sizeof(realT));
+  qh upper_threshold= (realT *)qh_memalloc((qh input_dim+1) * sizeof(realT));
+  qh lower_bound= (realT *)qh_memalloc((qh input_dim+1) * sizeof(realT));
+  qh upper_bound= (realT *)qh_memalloc((qh input_dim+1) * sizeof(realT));
+  for(k= qh input_dim+1; k--; ) {
+    qh lower_threshold[k]= -REALmax;
+    qh upper_threshold[k]= REALmax;
+    qh lower_bound[k]= -REALmax;
+    qh upper_bound[k]= REALmax;
+  }
+  qh gm_matrix= (coordT *)qh_memalloc((qh hull_dim+1) * qh hull_dim * sizeof(coordT));
+  qh gm_row= (coordT **)qh_memalloc((qh hull_dim+1) * sizeof(coordT *));
+} /* initqhull_buffers */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="initqhull_globals">-</a>
+
+  qh_initqhull_globals( points, numpoints, dim, ismalloc )
+    initialize globals
+    if ismalloc
+      points were malloc'd and qhull should free at end
+
+  returns:
+    sets qh.first_point, num_points, input_dim, hull_dim and others
+    seeds random number generator (seed=1 if tracing)
+    modifies qh.hull_dim if ((qh.DELAUNAY and qh.PROJECTdelaunay) or qh.PROJECTinput)
+    adjust user flags as needed
+    also checks DIM3 dependencies and constants
+
+  notes:
+    do not use qh_point() since an input transformation may move them elsewhere
+
+  see:
+    qh_initqhull_start() sets default values for non-zero globals
+
+  design:
+    initialize points array from input arguments
+    test for qh.ZEROcentrum
+      (i.e., use opposite vertex instead of cetrum for convexity testing)
+    test for qh.PRINTgood (i.e., only print 'good' facets)
+    initialize qh.CENTERtype, qh.normal_size,
+      qh.center_size, qh.TRACEpoint/level,
+    initialize and test random numbers
+    check for conflicting print output options
+*/
+void qh_initqhull_globals (coordT *points, int numpoints, int dim, boolT ismalloc) {
+  int seed, pointsneeded, extra= 0, i, randi, k;
+  boolT printgeom= False, printmath= False, printcoplanar= False;
+  realT randr;
+  realT factorial;
+
+  time_t timedata;
+
+  trace0((qh ferr, "qh_initqhull_globals: for %s | %s\n", qh rbox_command,
+      qh qhull_command));
+  qh POINTSmalloc= ismalloc;
+  qh first_point= points;
+  qh num_points= numpoints;
+  qh hull_dim= qh input_dim= dim;
+  if (!qh NOpremerge && !qh MERGEexact && !qh PREmerge && qh JOGGLEmax > REALmax/2) {
+    qh MERGING= True;
+    if (qh hull_dim <= 4) {
+      qh PREmerge= True;
+      qh_option ("_pre-merge", NULL, NULL);
+    }else {
+      qh MERGEexact= True;
+      qh_option ("Qxact_merge", NULL, NULL);
+    }
+  }else if (qh MERGEexact) 
+    qh MERGING= True;
+  if (!qh NOpremerge && qh JOGGLEmax > REALmax/2) {
+#ifdef qh_NOmerge
+    qh JOGGLEmax= 0.0;
+#endif
+  }
+  if (qh TRIangulate && qh JOGGLEmax < REALmax/2 && qh PRINTprecision)
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull warning: joggle ('QJ') always produces simplicial output.  Triangulated output ('Qt') does nothing.\n");
+  if (qh JOGGLEmax < REALmax/2 && qh DELAUNAY && !qh SCALEinput && !qh SCALElast) {
+    qh SCALElast= True;
+    qh_option ("Qbbound-last-qj", NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  if (qh MERGING && !qh POSTmerge && qh premerge_cos > REALmax/2
+  && qh premerge_centrum == 0) {
+    qh ZEROcentrum= True;
+    qh ZEROall_ok= True;
+    qh_option ("_zero-centrum", NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  if (qh JOGGLEmax < REALmax/2 && REALepsilon > 2e-8 && qh PRINTprecision)
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull warning: real epsilon, %2.2g, is probably too large for joggle ('QJn')\nRecompile with double precision reals (see user.h).\n",
+          REALepsilon);
+#ifdef qh_NOmerge
+  if (qh MERGING) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: merging not installed (qh_NOmerge + 'Qx', 'Cn' or 'An')\n");
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+#endif
+  if (!(qh PRINTgood || qh PRINTneighbors)) {
+    if (qh KEEParea || qh KEEPminArea < REALmax/2 || qh KEEPmerge || qh DELAUNAY
+	|| (!qh ONLYgood && (qh GOODvertex || qh GOODpoint))) {
+      qh PRINTgood= True;
+      qh_option ("Pgood", NULL, NULL);
+    }
+  }
+  if (qh DELAUNAY && qh KEEPcoplanar && !qh KEEPinside) {
+    qh KEEPinside= True;
+    qh_option ("Qinterior-keep", NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  if (qh DELAUNAY && qh HALFspace) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: can not use Delaunay ('d') or Voronoi ('v') with halfspace intersection ('H')\n");
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  if (!qh DELAUNAY && (qh UPPERdelaunay || qh ATinfinity)) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: use upper-Delaunay ('Qu') or infinity-point ('Qz') with Delaunay ('d') or Voronoi ('v')\n");
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  if (qh UPPERdelaunay && qh ATinfinity) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: can not use infinity-point ('Qz') with upper-Delaunay ('Qu')\n");
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  if (qh SCALElast && !qh DELAUNAY && qh PRINTprecision)
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input warning: option 'Qbb' (scale-last-coordinate) is normally used with 'd' or 'v'\n");
+  qh DOcheckmax= (!qh SKIPcheckmax && qh MERGING );
+  qh KEEPnearinside= (qh DOcheckmax && !(qh KEEPinside && qh KEEPcoplanar) 
+                          && !qh NOnearinside);
+  if (qh MERGING)
+    qh CENTERtype= qh_AScentrum;
+  else if (qh VORONOI)
+    qh CENTERtype= qh_ASvoronoi;
+  if (qh TESTvneighbors && !qh MERGING) {
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull input error: test vertex neighbors ('Qv') needs a merge option\n");
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL ,NULL);
+  }
+  if (qh PROJECTinput || (qh DELAUNAY && qh PROJECTdelaunay)) {
+    qh hull_dim -= qh PROJECTinput;
+    if (qh DELAUNAY) {
+      qh hull_dim++;
+      extra= 1;
+    }
+  }
+  if (qh hull_dim <= 1) {
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull error: dimension %d must be > 1\n", qh hull_dim);
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  for (k= 2, factorial=1.0; k < qh hull_dim; k++)
+    factorial *= k;
+  qh AREAfactor= 1.0 / factorial;
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_initqhull_globals: initialize globals.  dim %d numpoints %d malloc? %d projected %d to hull_dim %d\n",
+	dim, numpoints, ismalloc, qh PROJECTinput, qh hull_dim));
+  qh normal_size= qh hull_dim * sizeof(coordT);
+  qh center_size= qh normal_size - sizeof(coordT);
+  pointsneeded= qh hull_dim+1;
+  if (qh hull_dim > qh_DIMmergeVertex) {
+    qh MERGEvertices= False;
+    qh_option ("Q3-no-merge-vertices-dim-high", NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  if (qh GOODpoint)
+    pointsneeded++;
+#ifdef qh_NOtrace
+  if (qh IStracing) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: tracing is not installed (qh_NOtrace in user.h)");
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+#endif
+  if (qh RERUN > 1) {
+    qh TRACElastrun= qh IStracing; /* qh_build_withrestart duplicates next conditional */
+    if (qh IStracing != -1)
+      qh IStracing= 0;
+  }else if (qh TRACEpoint != -1 || qh TRACEdist < REALmax/2 || qh TRACEmerge) {
+    qh TRACElevel= (qh IStracing? qh IStracing : 3);
+    qh IStracing= 0;
+  }
+  if (qh ROTATErandom == 0 || qh ROTATErandom == -1) {
+    seed= time (&timedata);
+    if (qh ROTATErandom  == -1) {
+      seed= -seed;
+      qh_option ("QRandom-seed", &seed, NULL );
+    }else
+      qh_option ("QRotate-random", &seed, NULL);
+    qh ROTATErandom= seed;
+  }
+  seed= qh ROTATErandom;
+  if (seed == INT_MIN)    /* default value */
+    seed= 1;
+  else if (seed < 0)
+    seed= -seed;
+  qh_RANDOMseed_(seed);
+  randr= 0.0;
+  for (i= 1000; i--; ) {
+    randi= qh_RANDOMint;
+    randr += randi;
+    if (randi > qh_RANDOMmax) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "\
+qhull configuration error (qh_RANDOMmax in user.h):\n\
+   random integer %d > qh_RANDOMmax (%.8g)\n",
+	       randi, qh_RANDOMmax);
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+  }
+  qh_RANDOMseed_(seed);
+  randr = randr/1000;
+  if (randr < qh_RANDOMmax/10
+  || randr > qh_RANDOMmax * 5)
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "\
+qhull configuration warning (qh_RANDOMmax in user.h):\n\
+   average of 1000 random integers (%.2g) is much different than expected (%.2g).\n\
+   Is qh_RANDOMmax (%.2g) wrong?\n",
+	     randr, qh_RANDOMmax/2.0, qh_RANDOMmax);
+  qh RANDOMa= 2.0 * qh RANDOMfactor/qh_RANDOMmax;
+  qh RANDOMb= 1.0 - qh RANDOMfactor;
+  if (qh_HASHfactor < 1.1) {
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_initqhull_globals): qh_HASHfactor %d must be at least 1.1.  Qhull uses linear hash probing\n",
+      qh_HASHfactor);
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  if (numpoints+extra < pointsneeded) {
+    fprintf(qh ferr,"qhull input error: not enough points (%d) to construct initial simplex (need %d)\n",
+	    numpoints, pointsneeded);
+    qh_errexit(qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  if (qh PRINTtransparent) {
+    if (qh hull_dim != 4 || !qh DELAUNAY || qh VORONOI || qh DROPdim >= 0) {
+      fprintf(qh ferr,"qhull input error: transparent Delaunay ('Gt') needs 3-d Delaunay ('d') w/o 'GDn'\n");
+      qh_errexit(qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+    qh DROPdim = 3;
+    qh PRINTridges = True;
+  }
+  for (i= qh_PRINTEND; i--; ) {
+    if (qh PRINTout[i] == qh_PRINTgeom)
+      printgeom= True;
+    else if (qh PRINTout[i] == qh_PRINTmathematica || qh PRINTout[i] == qh_PRINTmaple)
+      printmath= True;
+    else if (qh PRINTout[i] == qh_PRINTcoplanars)
+      printcoplanar= True;
+    else if (qh PRINTout[i] == qh_PRINTpointnearest)
+      printcoplanar= True;
+    else if (qh PRINTout[i] == qh_PRINTpointintersect && !qh HALFspace) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: option 'Fp' is only used for \nhalfspace intersection ('Hn,n,n').\n");
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+    }else if (qh PRINTout[i] == qh_PRINTtriangles && (qh HALFspace || qh VORONOI)) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: option 'Ft' is not available for Voronoi vertices or halfspace intersection\n");
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+    }else if (qh PRINTout[i] == qh_PRINTcentrums && qh VORONOI) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: option 'FC' is not available for Voronoi vertices ('v')\n");
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+    }else if (qh PRINTout[i] == qh_PRINTvertices) {
+      if (qh VORONOI)
+        qh_option ("Fvoronoi", NULL, NULL);
+      else 
+        qh_option ("Fvertices", NULL, NULL);
+    }
+  }
+  if (printcoplanar && qh DELAUNAY && qh JOGGLEmax < REALmax/2) {
+    if (qh PRINTprecision) 
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input warning: 'QJ' (joggle) will usually prevent coincident input sites for options 'Fc' and 'FP'\n");
+  }
+  if (!qh KEEPcoplanar && !qh KEEPinside && !qh ONLYgood) {
+    if ((qh PRINTcoplanar && qh PRINTspheres) || printcoplanar) {
+      qh KEEPcoplanar = True;
+      qh_option ("Qcoplanar", NULL, NULL);
+    }
+  }
+  if (printmath && (qh hull_dim > 3 || qh VORONOI)) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: Mathematica and Maple output is only available for 2-d and 3-d convex hulls and 2-d Delaunay triangulations\n");
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  if (printgeom) {
+    if (qh hull_dim > 4) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: Geomview output is only available for 2-d, 3-d and 4-d\n");
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+    if (qh PRINTnoplanes && !(qh PRINTcoplanar + qh PRINTcentrums
+     + qh PRINTdots + qh PRINTspheres + qh DOintersections + qh PRINTridges)) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: no output specified for Geomview\n");
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+    if (qh VORONOI && (qh hull_dim > 3 || qh DROPdim >= 0)) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: Geomview output for Voronoi diagrams only for 2-d\n");
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+    /* can not warn about furthest-site Geomview output: no lower_threshold */
+    if (qh hull_dim == 4 && qh DROPdim == -1 &&
+	(qh PRINTcoplanar || qh PRINTspheres || qh PRINTcentrums)) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input warning: coplanars, vertices, and centrums output not\n\
+available for 4-d output (ignored).  Could use 'GDn' instead.\n");
+      qh PRINTcoplanar= qh PRINTspheres= qh PRINTcentrums= False;
+    }
+  }
+  qh PRINTdim= qh hull_dim;
+  if (qh DROPdim >=0) {    /* after Geomview checks */
+    if (qh DROPdim < qh hull_dim) {
+      qh PRINTdim--;
+      if (!printgeom || qh hull_dim < 3)
+        fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input warning: drop dimension 'GD%d' is only available for 3-d/4-d Geomview\n", qh DROPdim);
+    }else
+      qh DROPdim= -1;
+  }else if (qh VORONOI) {
+    qh DROPdim= qh hull_dim-1;
+    qh PRINTdim= qh hull_dim-1;
+  }
+} /* initqhull_globals */
+ 
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="initqhull_mem">-</a>
+
+  qh_initqhull_mem(  )
+    initialize mem.c for qhull
+    qh.hull_dim and qh.normal_size determine some of the allocation sizes
+    if qh.MERGING,
+      includes ridgeT
+    calls qh_user_memsizes() to add up to 10 additional sizes for quick allocation
+      (see numsizes below)
+
+  returns:
+    mem.c already for qh_memalloc/qh_memfree (errors if called beforehand)
+
+  notes:
+    qh_produceoutput() prints memsizes
+
+*/
+void qh_initqhull_mem (void) {
+  int numsizes;
+  int i;
+
+  numsizes= 8+10;
+  qh_meminitbuffers (qh IStracing, qh_MEMalign, numsizes,
+                     qh_MEMbufsize,qh_MEMinitbuf);
+  qh_memsize(sizeof(vertexT));
+  if (qh MERGING) {
+    qh_memsize(sizeof(ridgeT));
+    qh_memsize(sizeof(mergeT));
+  }
+  qh_memsize(sizeof(facetT));
+  i= sizeof(setT) + (qh hull_dim - 1) * SETelemsize;  /* ridge.vertices */
+  qh_memsize(i);
+  qh_memsize(qh normal_size);        /* normal */
+  i += SETelemsize;                 /* facet.vertices, .ridges, .neighbors */
+  qh_memsize(i);
+  qh_user_memsizes();
+  qh_memsetup();
+} /* initqhull_mem */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="initqhull_start">-</a>
+
+  qh_initqhull_start( infile, outfile, errfile )
+    start initialization of qhull
+    initialize statistics, stdio, default values for global variables
+
+  see:
+    qh_maxmin() determines the precision constants
+*/
+void qh_initqhull_start (FILE *infile, FILE *outfile, FILE *errfile) {
+
+  qh_CPUclock; /* start the clock */
+#if qh_QHpointer
+  if (!(qh_qh= (qhT *)malloc (sizeof(qhT)))) {
+    fprintf (errfile, "qhull error (qh_initqhull_globals): insufficient memory\n");
+    exit (qh_ERRmem);  /* no error handler */
+  }
+  memset((char *)qh_qh, 0, sizeof(qhT));   /* every field is 0, FALSE, NULL */
+#else
+  memset((char *)&qh_qh, 0, sizeof(qhT));
+#endif
+  strcat (qh qhull, "qhull");
+  qh_initstatistics();
+  qh ANGLEmerge= True;
+  qh DROPdim= -1;
+  qh ferr= errfile;
+  qh fin= infile;
+  qh fout= outfile;
+  qh furthest_id= -1;
+  qh JOGGLEmax= REALmax;
+  qh KEEPminArea = REALmax;
+  qh last_low= REALmax;
+  qh last_high= REALmax;
+  qh last_newhigh= REALmax;
+  qh max_outside= 0.0;
+  qh max_vertex= 0.0;
+  qh MAXabs_coord= 0.0;
+  qh MAXsumcoord= 0.0;
+  qh MAXwidth= -REALmax;
+  qh MERGEindependent= True;
+  qh MINdenom_1= fmax_(1.0/REALmax, REALmin); /* used by qh_scalepoints */
+  qh MINoutside= 0.0;
+  qh MINvisible= REALmax;
+  qh MAXcoplanar= REALmax;
+  qh outside_err= REALmax;
+  qh premerge_centrum= 0.0;
+  qh premerge_cos= REALmax;
+  qh PRINTprecision= True;
+  qh PRINTradius= 0.0;
+  qh postmerge_cos= REALmax;
+  qh postmerge_centrum= 0.0;
+  qh ROTATErandom= INT_MIN;
+  qh MERGEvertices= True;
+  qh totarea= 0.0;
+  qh totvol= 0.0;
+  qh TRACEdist= REALmax;
+  qh TRACEpoint= -1; /* recompile or use 'TPn' */
+  qh tracefacet_id= UINT_MAX;  /* recompile to trace a facet */
+  qh tracevertex_id= UINT_MAX; /* recompile to trace a vertex */
+  qh_RANDOMseed_(1);
+} /* initqhull_start */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="initthresholds">-</a>
+
+  qh_initthresholds( commandString )
+    set thresholds for printing and scaling from commandString
+
+  returns:
+    sets qh.GOODthreshold or qh.SPLITthreshold if 'Pd0D1' used
+
+  see:
+    qh_initflags(), 'Qbk' 'QBk' 'Pdk' and 'PDk'
+    qh_inthresholds()
+
+  design:
+    for each 'Pdn' or 'PDn' option
+      check syntax
+      set qh.lower_threshold or qh.upper_threshold
+    set qh.GOODthreshold if an unbounded threshold is used
+    set qh.SPLITthreshold if a bounded threshold is used
+*/
+void qh_initthresholds(char *command) {
+  realT value;
+  int index, maxdim, k;
+  char *s= command;
+  char key;
+
+  maxdim= qh input_dim;
+  if (qh DELAUNAY && (qh PROJECTdelaunay || qh PROJECTinput))
+    maxdim++;
+  while (*s) {
+    if (*s == '-')
+      s++;
+    if (*s == 'P') {
+      s++;
+      while (*s && !isspace(key= *s++)) {
+	if (key == 'd' || key == 'D') {
+	  if (!isdigit(*s)) {
+	    fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull warning: no dimension given for Print option '%c' at: %s.  Ignored\n",
+		    key, s-1);
+	    continue;
+	  }
+	  index= qh_strtol (s, &s);
+	  if (index >= qh hull_dim) {
+	    fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull warning: dimension %d for Print option '%c' is >= %d.  Ignored\n",
+	        index, key, qh hull_dim);
+	    continue;
+	  }
+	  if (*s == ':') {
+	    s++;
+	    value= qh_strtod(s, &s);
+	    if (fabs((double)value) > 1.0) {
+	      fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull warning: value %2.4g for Print option %c is > +1 or < -1.  Ignored\n",
+	              value, key);
+	      continue;
+	    }
+	  }else
+	    value= 0.0;
+	  if (key == 'd')
+	    qh lower_threshold[index]= value;
+	  else
+	    qh upper_threshold[index]= value;
+	}
+      }
+    }else if (*s == 'Q') {
+      s++;
+      while (*s && !isspace(key= *s++)) {
+	if (key == 'b' && *s == 'B') {
+	  s++;
+	  for (k=maxdim; k--; ) {
+	    qh lower_bound[k]= -qh_DEFAULTbox;
+	    qh upper_bound[k]= qh_DEFAULTbox;
+	  }
+	}else if (key == 'b' && *s == 'b')
+	  s++;
+	else if (key == 'b' || key == 'B') {
+	  if (!isdigit(*s)) {
+	    fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull warning: no dimension given for Qhull option %c.  Ignored\n",
+		    key);
+	    continue;
+	  }
+	  index= qh_strtol (s, &s);
+	  if (index >= maxdim) {
+	    fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull warning: dimension %d for Qhull option %c is >= %d.  Ignored\n",
+	        index, key, maxdim);
+	    continue;
+	  }
+	  if (*s == ':') {
+	    s++;
+	    value= qh_strtod(s, &s);
+	  }else if (key == 'b')
+	    value= -qh_DEFAULTbox;
+	  else
+	    value= qh_DEFAULTbox;
+	  if (key == 'b')
+	    qh lower_bound[index]= value;
+	  else
+	    qh upper_bound[index]= value;
+	}
+      }
+    }else {
+      while (*s && !isspace (*s))
+        s++;
+    }
+    while (isspace (*s))
+      s++;
+  }
+  for (k= qh hull_dim; k--; ) {
+    if (qh lower_threshold[k] > -REALmax/2) {
+      qh GOODthreshold= True;
+      if (qh upper_threshold[k] < REALmax/2) {
+        qh SPLITthresholds= True;
+        qh GOODthreshold= False;
+        break;
+      }
+    }else if (qh upper_threshold[k] < REALmax/2)
+      qh GOODthreshold= True;
+  }
+} /* initthresholds */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="option">-</a>
+
+  qh_option( option, intVal, realVal )
+    add an option description to qh.qhull_options
+
+  notes:
+    will be printed with statistics ('Ts') and errors
+    strlen(option) < 40
+*/
+void qh_option (char *option, int *i, realT *r) {
+  char buf[200];
+  int len, maxlen;
+
+  sprintf (buf, "  %s", option);
+  if (i)
+    sprintf (buf+strlen(buf), " %d", *i);
+  if (r)
+    sprintf (buf+strlen(buf), " %2.2g", *r);
+  len= strlen(buf);
+  qh qhull_optionlen += len;
+  maxlen= sizeof (qh qhull_options) - len -1;
+  maximize_(maxlen, 0);
+  if (qh qhull_optionlen >= 80 && maxlen > 0) {
+    qh qhull_optionlen= len;
+    strncat (qh qhull_options, "\n", maxlen--);
+  }
+  strncat (qh qhull_options, buf, maxlen);
+} /* option */
+
+#if qh_QHpointer
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="restore_qhull">-</a>
+
+  qh_restore_qhull( oldqh )
+    restores a previously saved qhull
+    also restores qh_qhstat and qhmem.tempstack
+
+  notes:
+    errors if current qhull hasn't been saved or freed
+    uses qhmem for error reporting
+
+  NOTE 1998/5/11:
+    Freeing memory after qh_save_qhull and qh_restore_qhull
+    is complicated.  The procedures will be redesigned.
+
+  see:
+    qh_save_qhull()
+*/
+void qh_restore_qhull (qhT **oldqh) {
+
+  if (*oldqh && strcmp ((*oldqh)->qhull, "qhull")) {
+    fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_restore_qhull): %p is not a qhull data structure\n",
+                  *oldqh);
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  if (qh_qh) {
+    fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_restore_qhull): did not save or free existing qhull\n");
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  if (!*oldqh || !(*oldqh)->old_qhstat) {
+    fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_restore_qhull): did not previously save qhull %p\n",
+                  *oldqh);
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  qh_qh= *oldqh;
+  *oldqh= NULL;
+  qh_qhstat= qh old_qhstat;
+  qhmem.tempstack= qh old_tempstack;
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_restore_qhull: restored qhull from %p\n", *oldqh));
+} /* restore_qhull */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="save_qhull">-</a>
+
+  qh_save_qhull(  )
+    saves qhull for a later qh_restore_qhull
+    also saves qh_qhstat and qhmem.tempstack
+
+  returns:
+    qh_qh=NULL
+
+  notes:
+    need to initialize qhull or call qh_restore_qhull before continuing
+
+  NOTE 1998/5/11:
+    Freeing memory after qh_save_qhull and qh_restore_qhull
+    is complicated.  The procedures will be redesigned.
+
+  see:
+    qh_restore_qhull()
+*/
+qhT *qh_save_qhull (void) {
+  qhT *oldqh;
+
+  trace1((qhmem.ferr, "qh_save_qhull: save qhull %p\n", qh_qh));
+  if (!qh_qh) {
+    fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_save_qhull): qhull not initialized\n");
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  qh old_qhstat= qh_qhstat;
+  qh_qhstat= NULL;
+  qh old_tempstack= qhmem.tempstack;
+  qhmem.tempstack= NULL;
+  oldqh= qh_qh;
+  qh_qh= NULL;
+  return oldqh;
+} /* save_qhull */
+
+#endif
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="strtol">-</a>
+
+  qh_strtol( s, endp) qh_strtod( s, endp)
+    internal versions of strtol() and strtod()
+    does not skip trailing spaces
+  notes:
+    some implementations of strtol()/strtod() skip trailing spaces
+*/
+double qh_strtod (const char *s, char **endp) {
+  double result;
+
+  result= strtod (s, endp);
+  if (s < (*endp) && (*endp)[-1] == ' ')
+    (*endp)--;
+  return result;
+} /* strtod */
+
+int qh_strtol (const char *s, char **endp) {
+  int result;
+
+  result= (int) strtol (s, endp, 10);
+  if (s< (*endp) && (*endp)[-1] == ' ')
+    (*endp)--;
+  return result;
+} /* strtol */

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/io.c
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/io.c	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/io.c	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,4108 @@
+/*<html><pre>  -<a                             href="qh-io.htm"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="TOP">-</a>
+
+   io.c 
+   Input/Output routines of qhull application
+
+   see qh-io.htm and io.h
+
+   see user.c for qh_errprint and qh_printfacetlist
+
+   unix.c calls qh_readpoints and qh_produce_output
+
+   unix.c and user.c are the only callers of io.c functions
+   This allows the user to avoid loading io.o from qhull.a
+
+   copyright (c) 1993-2003 The Geometry Center        
+*/
+
+#include "qhull_a.h"
+
+/*========= -functions in alphabetical order after qh_produce_output()  =====*/
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="produce_output">-</a>
+  
+  qh_produce_output()
+    prints out the result of qhull in desired format
+    if qh.GETarea
+      computes and prints area and volume
+    qh.PRINTout[] is an array of output formats
+
+  notes:
+    prints output in qh.PRINTout order
+*/
+void qh_produce_output(void) {
+  int i, tempsize= qh_setsize ((setT*)qhmem.tempstack), d_1;
+
+  if (qh VORONOI) {
+    qh_clearcenters (qh_ASvoronoi);
+    qh_vertexneighbors();
+  }
+  if (qh TRIangulate) {
+    qh_triangulate(); 
+    if (qh VERIFYoutput && !qh CHECKfrequently) 
+      qh_checkpolygon (qh facet_list);
+  }
+  qh_findgood_all (qh facet_list); 
+  if (qh GETarea)
+    qh_getarea(qh facet_list);
+  if (qh KEEParea || qh KEEPmerge || qh KEEPminArea < REALmax/2)
+    qh_markkeep (qh facet_list);
+  if (qh PRINTsummary)
+    qh_printsummary(qh ferr);
+  else if (qh PRINTout[0] == qh_PRINTnone)
+    qh_printsummary(qh fout);
+  for (i= 0; i < qh_PRINTEND; i++)
+    qh_printfacets (qh fout, qh PRINTout[i], qh facet_list, NULL, !qh_ALL);
+  qh_allstatistics();
+  if (qh PRINTprecision && !qh MERGING && (qh JOGGLEmax > REALmax/2 || qh RERUN))
+    qh_printstats (qh ferr, qhstat precision, NULL);
+  if (qh VERIFYoutput && (zzval_(Zridge) > 0 || zzval_(Zridgemid) > 0)) 
+    qh_printstats (qh ferr, qhstat vridges, NULL);
+  if (qh PRINTstatistics) {
+    qh_collectstatistics();
+    qh_printstatistics(qh ferr, "");
+    qh_memstatistics (qh ferr);
+    d_1= sizeof(setT) + (qh hull_dim - 1) * SETelemsize;
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "\
+    size in bytes: merge %d ridge %d vertex %d facet %d\n\
+         normal %d ridge vertices %d facet vertices or neighbors %d\n",
+	    sizeof(mergeT), sizeof(ridgeT),
+	    sizeof(vertexT), sizeof(facetT),
+	    qh normal_size, d_1, d_1 + SETelemsize);
+  }
+  if (qh_setsize ((setT*)qhmem.tempstack) != tempsize) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_produce_output): temporary sets not empty (%d)\n",
+	     qh_setsize ((setT*)qhmem.tempstack));
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+} /* produce_output */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="dfacet">-</a>
+  
+  dfacet( id )
+    print facet by id, for debugging
+
+*/
+void dfacet (unsigned id) {
+  facetT *facet;
+
+  FORALLfacets {
+    if (facet->id == id) {
+      qh_printfacet (qh fout, facet);
+      break;
+    }
+  }
+} /* dfacet */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="dvertex">-</a>
+  
+  dvertex( id )
+    print vertex by id, for debugging
+*/
+void dvertex (unsigned id) {
+  vertexT *vertex;
+
+  FORALLvertices {
+    if (vertex->id == id) {
+      qh_printvertex (qh fout, vertex);
+      break;
+    }
+  }
+} /* dvertex */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="compare_vertexpoint">-</a>
+  
+  qh_compare_vertexpoint( p1, p2 )
+    used by qsort() to order vertices by point id 
+*/
+int qh_compare_vertexpoint(const void *p1, const void *p2) {
+  vertexT *a= *((vertexT **)p1), *b= *((vertexT **)p2);
+ 
+  return ((qh_pointid(a->point) > qh_pointid(b->point)?1:-1));
+} /* compare_vertexpoint */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="compare_facetarea">-</a>
+  
+  qh_compare_facetarea( p1, p2 )
+    used by qsort() to order facets by area
+*/
+int qh_compare_facetarea(const void *p1, const void *p2) {
+  facetT *a= *((facetT **)p1), *b= *((facetT **)p2);
+
+  if (!a->isarea)
+    return -1;
+  if (!b->isarea)
+    return 1; 
+  if (a->f.area > b->f.area)
+    return 1;
+  else if (a->f.area == b->f.area)
+    return 0;
+  return -1;
+} /* compare_facetarea */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="compare_facetmerge">-</a>
+  
+  qh_compare_facetmerge( p1, p2 )
+    used by qsort() to order facets by number of merges
+*/
+int qh_compare_facetmerge(const void *p1, const void *p2) {
+  facetT *a= *((facetT **)p1), *b= *((facetT **)p2);
+ 
+  return (a->nummerge - b->nummerge);
+} /* compare_facetvisit */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="compare_facetvisit">-</a>
+  
+  qh_compare_facetvisit( p1, p2 )
+    used by qsort() to order facets by visit id or id
+*/
+int qh_compare_facetvisit(const void *p1, const void *p2) {
+  facetT *a= *((facetT **)p1), *b= *((facetT **)p2);
+  int i,j;
+
+  if (!(i= a->visitid))
+    i= - a->id; /* do not convert to int */
+  if (!(j= b->visitid))
+    j= - b->id;
+  return (i - j);
+} /* compare_facetvisit */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="countfacets">-</a>
+  
+  qh_countfacets( facetlist, facets, printall, 
+          numfacets, numsimplicial, totneighbors, numridges, numcoplanar, numtricoplanars  )
+    count good facets for printing and set visitid
+    if allfacets, ignores qh_skipfacet()
+
+  notes:
+    qh_printsummary and qh_countfacets must match counts
+
+  returns:
+    numfacets, numsimplicial, total neighbors, numridges, coplanars
+    each facet with ->visitid indicating 1-relative position
+      ->visitid==0 indicates not good
+  
+  notes
+    numfacets >= numsimplicial
+    if qh.NEWfacets, 
+      does not count visible facets (matches qh_printafacet)
+
+  design:
+    for all facets on facetlist and in facets set
+      unless facet is skipped or visible (i.e., will be deleted)
+        mark facet->visitid
+        update counts
+*/
+void qh_countfacets (facetT *facetlist, setT *facets, boolT printall,
+    int *numfacetsp, int *numsimplicialp, int *totneighborsp, int *numridgesp, int *numcoplanarsp, int *numtricoplanarsp) {
+  facetT *facet, **facetp;
+  int numfacets= 0, numsimplicial= 0, numridges= 0, totneighbors= 0, numcoplanars= 0, numtricoplanars= 0;
+
+  FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+    if ((facet->visible && qh NEWfacets)
+    || (!printall && qh_skipfacet(facet)))
+      facet->visitid= 0;
+    else {
+      facet->visitid= ++numfacets;
+      totneighbors += qh_setsize (facet->neighbors);
+      if (facet->simplicial) {
+        numsimplicial++;
+	if (facet->keepcentrum && facet->tricoplanar)
+	  numtricoplanars++;
+      }else
+        numridges += qh_setsize (facet->ridges);
+      if (facet->coplanarset)
+        numcoplanars += qh_setsize (facet->coplanarset);
+    }
+  }
+  FOREACHfacet_(facets) {
+    if ((facet->visible && qh NEWfacets)
+    || (!printall && qh_skipfacet(facet)))
+      facet->visitid= 0;
+    else {
+      facet->visitid= ++numfacets;
+      totneighbors += qh_setsize (facet->neighbors);
+      if (facet->simplicial){
+        numsimplicial++;
+	if (facet->keepcentrum && facet->tricoplanar)
+	  numtricoplanars++;
+      }else
+        numridges += qh_setsize (facet->ridges);
+      if (facet->coplanarset)
+        numcoplanars += qh_setsize (facet->coplanarset);
+    }
+  }
+  qh visit_id += numfacets+1;
+  *numfacetsp= numfacets;
+  *numsimplicialp= numsimplicial;
+  *totneighborsp= totneighbors;
+  *numridgesp= numridges;
+  *numcoplanarsp= numcoplanars;
+  *numtricoplanarsp= numtricoplanars;
+} /* countfacets */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="detvnorm">-</a>
+  
+  qh_detvnorm( vertex, vertexA, centers, offset )
+    compute separating plane of the Voronoi diagram for a pair of input sites
+    centers= set of facets (i.e., Voronoi vertices)
+      facet->visitid= 0 iff vertex-at-infinity (i.e., unbounded)
+        
+  assumes:
+    qh_ASvoronoi and qh_vertexneighbors() already set
+  
+  returns:
+    norm
+      a pointer into qh.gm_matrix to qh.hull_dim-1 reals
+      copy the data before reusing qh.gm_matrix
+    offset
+      if 'QVn'
+        sign adjusted so that qh.GOODvertexp is inside
+      else
+        sign adjusted so that vertex is inside
+      
+    qh.gm_matrix= simplex of points from centers relative to first center
+    
+  notes:
+    in io.c so that code for 'v Tv' can be removed by removing io.c
+    returns pointer into qh.gm_matrix to avoid tracking of temporary memory
+  
+  design:
+    determine midpoint of input sites
+    build points as the set of Voronoi vertices
+    select a simplex from points (if necessary)
+      include midpoint if the Voronoi region is unbounded
+    relocate the first vertex of the simplex to the origin
+    compute the normalized hyperplane through the simplex
+    orient the hyperplane toward 'QVn' or 'vertex'
+    if 'Tv' or 'Ts'
+      if bounded
+        test that hyperplane is the perpendicular bisector of the input sites
+      test that Voronoi vertices not in the simplex are still on the hyperplane
+    free up temporary memory
+*/
+pointT *qh_detvnorm (vertexT *vertex, vertexT *vertexA, setT *centers, realT *offsetp) {
+  facetT *facet, **facetp;
+  int  i, k, pointid, pointidA, point_i, point_n;
+  setT *simplex= NULL;
+  pointT *point, **pointp, *point0, *midpoint, *normal, *inpoint;
+  coordT *coord, *gmcoord, *normalp;
+  setT *points= qh_settemp (qh TEMPsize);
+  boolT nearzero= False;
+  boolT unbounded= False;
+  int numcenters= 0;
+  int dim= qh hull_dim - 1;
+  realT dist, offset, angle, zero= 0.0;
+
+  midpoint= qh gm_matrix + qh hull_dim * qh hull_dim;  /* last row */
+  for (k= 0; k < dim; k++)
+    midpoint[k]= (vertex->point[k] + vertexA->point[k])/2;
+  FOREACHfacet_(centers) {
+    numcenters++;
+    if (!facet->visitid)
+      unbounded= True;
+    else {
+      if (!facet->center)
+        facet->center= qh_facetcenter (facet->vertices);
+      qh_setappend (&points, facet->center);
+    }
+  }
+  if (numcenters > dim) {
+    simplex= qh_settemp (qh TEMPsize);
+    qh_setappend (&simplex, vertex->point);
+    if (unbounded)
+      qh_setappend (&simplex, midpoint);
+    qh_maxsimplex (dim, points, NULL, 0, &simplex);
+    qh_setdelnth (simplex, 0);
+  }else if (numcenters == dim) {
+    if (unbounded)
+      qh_setappend (&points, midpoint);
+    simplex= points; 
+  }else {
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "qh_detvnorm: too few points (%d) to compute separating plane\n", numcenters);
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  i= 0;
+  gmcoord= qh gm_matrix;
+  point0= SETfirstt_(simplex, pointT);
+  FOREACHpoint_(simplex) {
+    if (qh IStracing >= 4)
+      qh_printmatrix(qh ferr, "qh_detvnorm: Voronoi vertex or midpoint", 
+                              &point, 1, dim);
+    if (point != point0) {
+      qh gm_row[i++]= gmcoord;
+      coord= point0;
+      for (k= dim; k--; )
+        *(gmcoord++)= *point++ - *coord++;
+    }
+  }
+  qh gm_row[i]= gmcoord;  /* does not overlap midpoint, may be used later for qh_areasimplex */
+  normal= gmcoord;
+  qh_sethyperplane_gauss (dim, qh gm_row, point0, True,
+           	normal, &offset, &nearzero);
+  if (qh GOODvertexp == vertexA->point)
+    inpoint= vertexA->point;
+  else
+    inpoint= vertex->point;
+  zinc_(Zdistio);
+  dist= qh_distnorm (dim, inpoint, normal, &offset);
+  if (dist > 0) {
+    offset= -offset;
+    normalp= normal;
+    for (k= dim; k--; ) {
+      *normalp= -(*normalp);
+      normalp++;
+    }
+  }
+  if (qh VERIFYoutput || qh PRINTstatistics) {
+    pointid= qh_pointid (vertex->point);
+    pointidA= qh_pointid (vertexA->point);
+    if (!unbounded) {
+      zinc_(Zdiststat);
+      dist= qh_distnorm (dim, midpoint, normal, &offset);
+      if (dist < 0)
+        dist= -dist;
+      zzinc_(Zridgemid);
+      wwmax_(Wridgemidmax, dist);
+      wwadd_(Wridgemid, dist);
+      trace4((qh ferr, "qh_detvnorm: points %d %d midpoint dist %2.2g\n",
+                 pointid, pointidA, dist));
+      for (k= 0; k < dim; k++) 
+        midpoint[k]= vertexA->point[k] - vertex->point[k];  /* overwrites midpoint! */
+      qh_normalize (midpoint, dim, False);
+      angle= qh_distnorm (dim, midpoint, normal, &zero); /* qh_detangle uses dim+1 */
+      if (angle < 0.0)
+	angle= angle + 1.0;
+      else
+	angle= angle - 1.0;
+      if (angle < 0.0)
+	angle -= angle;
+      trace4((qh ferr, "qh_detvnorm: points %d %d angle %2.2g nearzero %d\n",
+                 pointid, pointidA, angle, nearzero));
+      if (nearzero) {
+        zzinc_(Zridge0);
+        wwmax_(Wridge0max, angle);
+        wwadd_(Wridge0, angle);
+      }else {
+        zzinc_(Zridgeok)
+        wwmax_(Wridgeokmax, angle);
+        wwadd_(Wridgeok, angle);
+      }
+    }
+    if (simplex != points) {
+      FOREACHpoint_i_(points) {
+        if (!qh_setin (simplex, point)) {
+          facet= SETelemt_(centers, point_i, facetT);
+	  zinc_(Zdiststat);
+  	  dist= qh_distnorm (dim, point, normal, &offset);
+          if (dist < 0)
+            dist= -dist;
+	  zzinc_(Zridge);
+          wwmax_(Wridgemax, dist);
+          wwadd_(Wridge, dist);
+          trace4((qh ferr, "qh_detvnorm: points %d %d Voronoi vertex %d dist %2.2g\n",
+                             pointid, pointidA, facet->visitid, dist));
+        }
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  *offsetp= offset;
+  if (simplex != points)
+    qh_settempfree (&simplex);
+  qh_settempfree (&points);
+  return normal;
+} /* detvnorm */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="detvridge">-</a>
+
+  qh_detvridge( vertexA )
+    determine Voronoi ridge from 'seen' neighbors of vertexA
+    include one vertex-at-infinite if an !neighbor->visitid
+
+  returns:
+    temporary set of centers (facets, i.e., Voronoi vertices)
+    sorted by center id
+*/
+setT *qh_detvridge (vertexT *vertex) {
+  setT *centers= qh_settemp (qh TEMPsize);
+  setT *tricenters= qh_settemp (qh TEMPsize);
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp;
+  boolT firstinf= True;
+  
+  FOREACHneighbor_(vertex) {
+    if (neighbor->seen) {
+      if (neighbor->visitid) {
+	if (!neighbor->tricoplanar || qh_setunique (&tricenters, neighbor->center)) 
+	  qh_setappend (&centers, neighbor);
+      }else if (firstinf) {
+        firstinf= False;
+        qh_setappend (&centers, neighbor);
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  qsort (SETaddr_(centers, facetT), qh_setsize (centers),
+             sizeof (facetT *), qh_compare_facetvisit);
+  qh_settempfree (&tricenters);
+  return centers;
+} /* detvridge */      
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="detvridge3">-</a>
+
+  qh_detvridge3( atvertex, vertex )
+    determine 3-d Voronoi ridge from 'seen' neighbors of atvertex and vertex
+    include one vertex-at-infinite for !neighbor->visitid
+    assumes all facet->seen2= True
+
+  returns:
+    temporary set of centers (facets, i.e., Voronoi vertices)
+    listed in adjacency order (not oriented)
+    all facet->seen2= True
+
+  design:
+    mark all neighbors of atvertex
+    for each adjacent neighbor of both atvertex and vertex
+      if neighbor selected
+        add neighbor to set of Voronoi vertices
+*/
+setT *qh_detvridge3 (vertexT *atvertex, vertexT *vertex) {
+  setT *centers= qh_settemp (qh TEMPsize);
+  setT *tricenters= qh_settemp (qh TEMPsize);
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp, *facet= NULL;
+  boolT firstinf= True;
+  
+  FOREACHneighbor_(atvertex)
+    neighbor->seen2= False;
+  FOREACHneighbor_(vertex) {
+    if (!neighbor->seen2) {
+      facet= neighbor;
+      break;
+    }
+  }
+  while (facet) { 
+    facet->seen2= True;
+    if (neighbor->seen) {
+      if (facet->visitid) {
+	if (!facet->tricoplanar || qh_setunique (&tricenters, facet->center)) 
+	  qh_setappend (&centers, facet);
+      }else if (firstinf) {
+        firstinf= False;
+        qh_setappend (&centers, facet);
+      }
+    }
+    FOREACHneighbor_(facet) {
+      if (!neighbor->seen2) {
+	if (qh_setin (vertex->neighbors, neighbor))
+          break;
+	else
+	  neighbor->seen2= True;
+      }
+    }
+    facet= neighbor;
+  }
+  if (qh CHECKfrequently) {
+    FOREACHneighbor_(vertex) {
+      if (!neighbor->seen2) {
+	fprintf (stderr, "qh_detvridge3: neigbors of vertex p%d are not connected at facet %d\n",
+	         qh_pointid (vertex->point), neighbor->id);
+	qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, neighbor, NULL);
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  FOREACHneighbor_(atvertex) 
+    neighbor->seen2= True;
+  qh_settempfree (&tricenters);
+  return centers;
+} /* detvridge3 */      
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="eachvoronoi">-</a>
+  
+  qh_eachvoronoi( fp, printvridge, vertex, visitall, innerouter, inorder )
+    if visitall,
+      visit all Voronoi ridges for vertex (i.e., an input site)
+    else
+      visit all unvisited Voronoi ridges for vertex
+      all vertex->seen= False if unvisited
+    assumes
+      all facet->seen= False
+      all facet->seen2= True (for qh_detvridge3)
+      all facet->visitid == 0 if vertex_at_infinity
+                         == index of Voronoi vertex 
+                         >= qh.num_facets if ignored
+    innerouter:
+      qh_RIDGEall--  both inner (bounded) and outer (unbounded) ridges
+      qh_RIDGEinner- only inner
+      qh_RIDGEouter- only outer
+      
+    if inorder
+      orders vertices for 3-d Voronoi diagrams
+  
+  returns:
+    number of visited ridges (does not include previously visited ridges)
+    
+    if printvridge,
+      calls printvridge( fp, vertex, vertexA, centers)
+        fp== any pointer (assumes FILE*)
+        vertex,vertexA= pair of input sites that define a Voronoi ridge
+        centers= set of facets (i.e., Voronoi vertices)
+                 ->visitid == index or 0 if vertex_at_infinity
+                 ordered for 3-d Voronoi diagram
+  notes:
+    uses qh.vertex_visit
+  
+  see:
+    qh_eachvoronoi_all()
+  
+  design:
+    mark selected neighbors of atvertex
+    for each selected neighbor (either Voronoi vertex or vertex-at-infinity)
+      for each unvisited vertex 
+        if atvertex and vertex share more than d-1 neighbors
+          bump totalcount
+          if printvridge defined
+            build the set of shared neighbors (i.e., Voronoi vertices)
+            call printvridge
+*/
+int qh_eachvoronoi (FILE *fp, printvridgeT printvridge, vertexT *atvertex, boolT visitall, qh_RIDGE innerouter, boolT inorder) {
+  boolT unbounded;
+  int count;
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp, *neighborA, **neighborAp;
+  setT *centers;
+  setT *tricenters= qh_settemp (qh TEMPsize);
+
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  boolT firstinf;
+  unsigned int numfacets= (unsigned int)qh num_facets;
+  int totridges= 0;
+
+  qh vertex_visit++;
+  atvertex->seen= True;
+  if (visitall) {
+    FORALLvertices 
+      vertex->seen= False;
+  }
+  FOREACHneighbor_(atvertex) {
+    if (neighbor->visitid < numfacets) 
+      neighbor->seen= True;
+  }
+  FOREACHneighbor_(atvertex) {
+    if (neighbor->seen) {
+      FOREACHvertex_(neighbor->vertices) {
+        if (vertex->visitid != qh vertex_visit && !vertex->seen) {
+	  vertex->visitid= qh vertex_visit;
+          count= 0;
+          firstinf= True;
+	  qh_settruncate (tricenters, 0);
+          FOREACHneighborA_(vertex) {
+            if (neighborA->seen) {
+	      if (neighborA->visitid) {
+		if (!neighborA->tricoplanar || qh_setunique (&tricenters, neighborA->center))
+		  count++;
+              }else if (firstinf) {
+                count++;
+                firstinf= False;
+	      }
+	    }
+          }
+          if (count >= qh hull_dim - 1) {  /* e.g., 3 for 3-d Voronoi */
+            if (firstinf) {
+              if (innerouter == qh_RIDGEouter)
+                continue;
+              unbounded= False;
+            }else {
+              if (innerouter == qh_RIDGEinner)
+                continue;
+              unbounded= True;
+            }
+            totridges++;
+            trace4((qh ferr, "qh_eachvoronoi: Voronoi ridge of %d vertices between sites %d and %d\n",
+                  count, qh_pointid (atvertex->point), qh_pointid (vertex->point)));
+            if (printvridge) { 
+	      if (inorder && qh hull_dim == 3+1) /* 3-d Voronoi diagram */
+                centers= qh_detvridge3 (atvertex, vertex);
+	      else
+                centers= qh_detvridge (vertex);
+              (*printvridge) (fp, atvertex, vertex, centers, unbounded);
+              qh_settempfree (&centers);
+            }
+          }
+        }
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  FOREACHneighbor_(atvertex) 
+    neighbor->seen= False;
+  qh_settempfree (&tricenters);
+  return totridges;
+} /* eachvoronoi */
+  
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="eachvoronoi_all">-</a>
+  
+  qh_eachvoronoi_all( fp, printvridge, isupper, innerouter, inorder )
+    visit all Voronoi ridges
+    
+    innerouter:
+      see qh_eachvoronoi()
+      
+    if inorder
+      orders vertices for 3-d Voronoi diagrams
+    
+  returns
+    total number of ridges 
+
+    if isupper == facet->upperdelaunay  (i.e., a Vornoi vertex)
+      facet->visitid= Voronoi vertex index (same as 'o' format)
+    else 
+      facet->visitid= 0
+
+    if printvridge,
+      calls printvridge( fp, vertex, vertexA, centers)
+      [see qh_eachvoronoi]
+      
+  notes:
+    Not used for qhull.exe
+    same effect as qh_printvdiagram but ridges not sorted by point id
+*/
+int qh_eachvoronoi_all (FILE *fp, printvridgeT printvridge, boolT isupper, qh_RIDGE innerouter, boolT inorder) {
+  facetT *facet;
+  vertexT *vertex;
+  int numcenters= 1;  /* vertex 0 is vertex-at-infinity */
+  int totridges= 0;
+
+  qh_clearcenters (qh_ASvoronoi);
+  qh_vertexneighbors();
+  maximize_(qh visit_id, (unsigned) qh num_facets);
+  FORALLfacets {
+    facet->visitid= 0;
+    facet->seen= False;
+    facet->seen2= True;
+  }
+  FORALLfacets {
+    if (facet->upperdelaunay == isupper)
+      facet->visitid= numcenters++;
+  }
+  FORALLvertices 
+    vertex->seen= False;
+  FORALLvertices {
+    if (qh GOODvertex > 0 && qh_pointid(vertex->point)+1 != qh GOODvertex)
+      continue;
+    totridges += qh_eachvoronoi (fp, printvridge, vertex, 
+                   !qh_ALL, innerouter, inorder);
+  }
+  return totridges;
+} /* eachvoronoi_all */
+      
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="facet2point">-</a>
+  
+  qh_facet2point( facet, point0, point1, mindist )
+    return two projected temporary vertices for a 2-d facet
+    may be non-simplicial
+
+  returns:
+    point0 and point1 oriented and projected to the facet
+    returns mindist (maximum distance below plane)
+*/
+void qh_facet2point(facetT *facet, pointT **point0, pointT **point1, realT *mindist) {
+  vertexT *vertex0, *vertex1;
+  realT dist;
+  
+  if (facet->toporient ^ qh_ORIENTclock) {
+    vertex0= SETfirstt_(facet->vertices, vertexT);
+    vertex1= SETsecondt_(facet->vertices, vertexT);
+  }else {
+    vertex1= SETfirstt_(facet->vertices, vertexT);
+    vertex0= SETsecondt_(facet->vertices, vertexT);
+  }
+  zadd_(Zdistio, 2);
+  qh_distplane(vertex0->point, facet, &dist);
+  *mindist= dist;
+  *point0= qh_projectpoint(vertex0->point, facet, dist);
+  qh_distplane(vertex1->point, facet, &dist);
+  minimize_(*mindist, dist);		
+  *point1= qh_projectpoint(vertex1->point, facet, dist);
+} /* facet2point */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="facetvertices">-</a>
+  
+  qh_facetvertices( facetlist, facets, allfacets )
+    returns temporary set of vertices in a set and/or list of facets
+    if allfacets, ignores qh_skipfacet()
+
+  returns:
+    vertices with qh.vertex_visit
+    
+  notes:
+    optimized for allfacets of facet_list
+
+  design:
+    if allfacets of facet_list
+      create vertex set from vertex_list
+    else
+      for each selected facet in facets or facetlist
+        append unvisited vertices to vertex set
+*/
+setT *qh_facetvertices (facetT *facetlist, setT *facets, boolT allfacets) {
+  setT *vertices;
+  facetT *facet, **facetp;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+
+  qh vertex_visit++;
+  if (facetlist == qh facet_list && allfacets && !facets) {
+    vertices= qh_settemp (qh num_vertices);
+    FORALLvertices {
+      vertex->visitid= qh vertex_visit; 
+      qh_setappend (&vertices, vertex);
+    }
+  }else {
+    vertices= qh_settemp (qh TEMPsize);
+    FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+      if (!allfacets && qh_skipfacet (facet))
+        continue;
+      FOREACHvertex_(facet->vertices) {
+        if (vertex->visitid != qh vertex_visit) {
+          vertex->visitid= qh vertex_visit;
+          qh_setappend (&vertices, vertex);
+        }
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  FOREACHfacet_(facets) {
+    if (!allfacets && qh_skipfacet (facet))
+      continue;
+    FOREACHvertex_(facet->vertices) {
+      if (vertex->visitid != qh vertex_visit) {
+        vertex->visitid= qh vertex_visit;
+        qh_setappend (&vertices, vertex);
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  return vertices;
+} /* facetvertices */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="geomplanes">-</a>
+  
+  qh_geomplanes( facet, outerplane, innerplane )
+    return outer and inner planes for Geomview 
+    qh.PRINTradius is size of vertices and points (includes qh.JOGGLEmax)
+
+  notes:
+    assume precise calculations in io.c with roundoff covered by qh_GEOMepsilon
+*/
+void qh_geomplanes (facetT *facet, realT *outerplane, realT *innerplane) {
+  realT radius;
+
+  if (qh MERGING || qh JOGGLEmax < REALmax/2) {
+    qh_outerinner (facet, outerplane, innerplane);
+    radius= qh PRINTradius;
+    if (qh JOGGLEmax < REALmax/2)
+      radius -= qh JOGGLEmax * sqrt (qh hull_dim);  /* already accounted for in qh_outerinner() */
+    *outerplane += radius;
+    *innerplane -= radius;
+    if (qh PRINTcoplanar || qh PRINTspheres) {
+      *outerplane += qh MAXabs_coord * qh_GEOMepsilon;
+      *innerplane -= qh MAXabs_coord * qh_GEOMepsilon;
+    }
+  }else 
+    *innerplane= *outerplane= 0;
+} /* geomplanes */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="markkeep">-</a>
+  
+  qh_markkeep( facetlist )
+    mark good facets that meet qh.KEEParea, qh.KEEPmerge, and qh.KEEPminArea
+    ignores visible facets (not part of convex hull)
+
+  returns:
+    may clear facet->good
+    recomputes qh.num_good
+
+  design:
+    get set of good facets
+    if qh.KEEParea
+      sort facets by area
+      clear facet->good for all but n largest facets
+    if qh.KEEPmerge
+      sort facets by merge count
+      clear facet->good for all but n most merged facets
+    if qh.KEEPminarea
+      clear facet->good if area too small
+    update qh.num_good    
+*/
+void qh_markkeep (facetT *facetlist) {
+  facetT *facet, **facetp;
+  setT *facets= qh_settemp (qh num_facets);
+  int size, count;
+
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_markkeep: only keep %d largest and/or %d most merged facets and/or min area %.2g\n",
+          qh KEEParea, qh KEEPmerge, qh KEEPminArea));
+  FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+    if (!facet->visible && facet->good)
+      qh_setappend (&facets, facet);
+  }
+  size= qh_setsize (facets);
+  if (qh KEEParea) {
+    qsort (SETaddr_(facets, facetT), size,
+             sizeof (facetT *), qh_compare_facetarea);
+    if ((count= size - qh KEEParea) > 0) {
+      FOREACHfacet_(facets) {
+        facet->good= False;
+        if (--count == 0)
+          break;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  if (qh KEEPmerge) {
+    qsort (SETaddr_(facets, facetT), size,
+             sizeof (facetT *), qh_compare_facetmerge);
+    if ((count= size - qh KEEPmerge) > 0) {
+      FOREACHfacet_(facets) {
+        facet->good= False;
+        if (--count == 0)
+          break;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  if (qh KEEPminArea < REALmax/2) {
+    FOREACHfacet_(facets) {
+      if (!facet->isarea || facet->f.area < qh KEEPminArea)
+	facet->good= False;
+    }
+  }
+  qh_settempfree (&facets);
+  count= 0;
+  FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+    if (facet->good)
+      count++;
+  }
+  qh num_good= count;
+} /* markkeep */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="markvoronoi">-</a>
+  
+  qh_markvoronoi( facetlist, facets, printall, islower, numcenters )
+    mark voronoi vertices for printing by site pairs
+  
+  returns:
+    temporary set of vertices indexed by pointid
+    islower set if printing lower hull (i.e., at least one facet is lower hull)
+    numcenters= total number of Voronoi vertices
+    bumps qh.printoutnum for vertex-at-infinity
+    clears all facet->seen and sets facet->seen2
+    
+    if selected
+      facet->visitid= Voronoi vertex id
+    else if upper hull (or 'Qu' and lower hull)
+      facet->visitid= 0
+    else
+      facet->visitid >= qh num_facets
+  
+  notes:
+    ignores qh.ATinfinity, if defined
+*/
+setT *qh_markvoronoi (facetT *facetlist, setT *facets, boolT printall, boolT *islowerp, int *numcentersp) {
+  int numcenters=0;
+  facetT *facet, **facetp;
+  setT *vertices;
+  boolT islower= False;
+
+  qh printoutnum++;
+  qh_clearcenters (qh_ASvoronoi);  /* in case, qh_printvdiagram2 called by user */
+  qh_vertexneighbors();
+  vertices= qh_pointvertex();
+  if (qh ATinfinity) 
+    SETelem_(vertices, qh num_points-1)= NULL;
+  qh visit_id++;
+  maximize_(qh visit_id, (unsigned) qh num_facets);
+  FORALLfacet_(facetlist) { 
+    if (printall || !qh_skipfacet (facet)) {
+      if (!facet->upperdelaunay) {
+        islower= True;
+	break;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  FOREACHfacet_(facets) {
+    if (printall || !qh_skipfacet (facet)) {
+      if (!facet->upperdelaunay) {
+        islower= True;
+	break;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  FORALLfacets {
+    if (facet->normal && (facet->upperdelaunay == islower))
+      facet->visitid= 0;  /* facetlist or facets may overwrite */
+    else
+      facet->visitid= qh visit_id;
+    facet->seen= False;
+    facet->seen2= True;
+  }
+  numcenters++;  /* qh_INFINITE */
+  FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+    if (printall || !qh_skipfacet (facet))
+      facet->visitid= numcenters++;
+  }
+  FOREACHfacet_(facets) {
+    if (printall || !qh_skipfacet (facet))
+      facet->visitid= numcenters++;  
+  }
+  *islowerp= islower;
+  *numcentersp= numcenters;
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_markvoronoi: islower %d numcenters %d\n", islower, numcenters));
+  return vertices;
+} /* markvoronoi */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="order_vertexneighbors">-</a>
+  
+  qh_order_vertexneighbors( vertex )
+    order facet neighbors of a 2-d or 3-d vertex by adjacency
+
+  notes:
+    does not orient the neighbors
+
+  design:
+    initialize a new neighbor set with the first facet in vertex->neighbors
+    while vertex->neighbors non-empty
+      select next neighbor in the previous facet's neighbor set
+    set vertex->neighbors to the new neighbor set
+*/
+void qh_order_vertexneighbors(vertexT *vertex) {
+  setT *newset;
+  facetT *facet, *neighbor, **neighborp;
+
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_order_vertexneighbors: order neighbors of v%d for 3-d\n", vertex->id));
+  newset= qh_settemp (qh_setsize (vertex->neighbors));
+  facet= (facetT*)qh_setdellast (vertex->neighbors);
+  qh_setappend (&newset, facet);
+  while (qh_setsize (vertex->neighbors)) {
+    FOREACHneighbor_(vertex) {
+      if (qh_setin (facet->neighbors, neighbor)) {
+        qh_setdel(vertex->neighbors, neighbor);
+        qh_setappend (&newset, neighbor);
+        facet= neighbor;
+        break;
+      }
+    }
+    if (!neighbor) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_order_vertexneighbors): no neighbor of v%d for f%d\n",
+        vertex->id, facet->id);
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, facet, NULL);
+    }
+  }
+  qh_setfree (&vertex->neighbors);
+  qh_settemppop ();
+  vertex->neighbors= newset;
+} /* order_vertexneighbors */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printafacet">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printafacet( fp, format, facet, printall )
+    print facet to fp in given output format (see qh.PRINTout)
+
+  returns:
+    nop if !printall and qh_skipfacet()
+    nop if visible facet and NEWfacets and format != PRINTfacets
+    must match qh_countfacets
+
+  notes
+    preserves qh.visit_id
+    facet->normal may be null if PREmerge/MERGEexact and STOPcone before merge
+
+  see
+    qh_printbegin() and qh_printend()
+
+  design:
+    test for printing facet
+    call appropriate routine for format
+    or output results directly
+*/
+void qh_printafacet(FILE *fp, int format, facetT *facet, boolT printall) {
+  realT color[4], offset, dist, outerplane, innerplane;
+  boolT zerodiv;
+  coordT *point, *normp, *coordp, **pointp, *feasiblep;
+  int k;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp;
+
+  if (!printall && qh_skipfacet (facet))
+    return;
+  if (facet->visible && qh NEWfacets && format != qh_PRINTfacets)
+    return;
+  qh printoutnum++;
+  switch (format) {
+  case qh_PRINTarea:
+    if (facet->isarea) {
+      fprintf (fp, qh_REAL_1, facet->f.area);
+      fprintf (fp, "\n");
+    }else
+      fprintf (fp, "0\n");
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTcoplanars:
+    fprintf (fp, "%d", qh_setsize (facet->coplanarset));
+    FOREACHpoint_(facet->coplanarset)
+      fprintf (fp, " %d", qh_pointid (point));
+    fprintf (fp, "\n");
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTcentrums:
+    qh_printcenter (fp, format, NULL, facet);
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTfacets:
+    qh_printfacet (fp, facet);
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTfacets_xridge:
+    qh_printfacetheader (fp, facet);
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTgeom:  /* either 2 , 3, or 4-d by qh_printbegin */
+    if (!facet->normal)
+      break;
+    for (k= qh hull_dim; k--; ) {
+      color[k]= (facet->normal[k]+1.0)/2.0;
+      maximize_(color[k], -1.0);
+      minimize_(color[k], +1.0);
+    }
+    qh_projectdim3 (color, color);
+    if (qh PRINTdim != qh hull_dim)
+      qh_normalize2 (color, 3, True, NULL, NULL);
+    if (qh hull_dim <= 2)
+      qh_printfacet2geom (fp, facet, color);
+    else if (qh hull_dim == 3) {
+      if (facet->simplicial)
+        qh_printfacet3geom_simplicial (fp, facet, color);
+      else
+        qh_printfacet3geom_nonsimplicial (fp, facet, color);
+    }else {
+      if (facet->simplicial)
+        qh_printfacet4geom_simplicial (fp, facet, color);
+      else
+        qh_printfacet4geom_nonsimplicial (fp, facet, color);
+    }
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTids:
+    fprintf (fp, "%d\n", facet->id);
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTincidences:
+  case qh_PRINToff:
+  case qh_PRINTtriangles:
+    if (qh hull_dim == 3 && format != qh_PRINTtriangles) 
+      qh_printfacet3vertex (fp, facet, format);
+    else if (facet->simplicial || qh hull_dim == 2 || format == qh_PRINToff)
+      qh_printfacetNvertex_simplicial (fp, facet, format);
+    else
+      qh_printfacetNvertex_nonsimplicial (fp, facet, qh printoutvar++, format);
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTinner:
+    qh_outerinner (facet, NULL, &innerplane);
+    offset= facet->offset - innerplane;
+    goto LABELprintnorm;
+    break; /* prevent warning */
+  case qh_PRINTmerges:
+    fprintf (fp, "%d\n", facet->nummerge);
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTnormals:
+    offset= facet->offset;
+    goto LABELprintnorm;
+    break; /* prevent warning */
+  case qh_PRINTouter:
+    qh_outerinner (facet, &outerplane, NULL);
+    offset= facet->offset - outerplane;
+  LABELprintnorm:
+    if (!facet->normal) {
+      fprintf (fp, "no normal for facet f%d\n", facet->id);
+      break;
+    }
+    if (qh CDDoutput) {
+      fprintf (fp, qh_REAL_1, -offset);
+      for (k=0; k < qh hull_dim; k++) 
+	fprintf (fp, qh_REAL_1, -facet->normal[k]);
+    }else {
+      for (k=0; k < qh hull_dim; k++) 
+	fprintf (fp, qh_REAL_1, facet->normal[k]);
+      fprintf (fp, qh_REAL_1, offset);
+    }
+    fprintf (fp, "\n");
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTmathematica:  /* either 2 or 3-d by qh_printbegin */
+  case qh_PRINTmaple:
+    if (qh hull_dim == 2)
+      qh_printfacet2math (fp, facet, format, qh printoutvar++);
+    else 
+      qh_printfacet3math (fp, facet, format, qh printoutvar++);
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTneighbors:
+    fprintf (fp, "%d", qh_setsize (facet->neighbors));
+    FOREACHneighbor_(facet)
+      fprintf (fp, " %d", 
+	       neighbor->visitid ? neighbor->visitid - 1: - neighbor->id);
+    fprintf (fp, "\n");
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTpointintersect:
+    if (!qh feasible_point) {
+      fprintf (fp, "qhull input error (qh_printafacet): option 'Fp' needs qh feasible_point\n");
+      qh_errexit( qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+    if (facet->offset > 0)
+      goto LABELprintinfinite;
+    point= coordp= (coordT*)qh_memalloc (qh normal_size);
+    normp= facet->normal;
+    feasiblep= qh feasible_point;
+    if (facet->offset < -qh MINdenom) {
+      for (k= qh hull_dim; k--; )
+        *(coordp++)= (*(normp++) / - facet->offset) + *(feasiblep++);
+    }else {
+      for (k= qh hull_dim; k--; ) {
+        *(coordp++)= qh_divzero (*(normp++), facet->offset, qh MINdenom_1,
+				 &zerodiv) + *(feasiblep++);
+        if (zerodiv) {
+          qh_memfree (point, qh normal_size);
+          goto LABELprintinfinite;
+        }
+      }
+    }
+    qh_printpoint (fp, NULL, point);
+    qh_memfree (point, qh normal_size);
+    break;
+  LABELprintinfinite:
+    for (k= qh hull_dim; k--; )
+      fprintf (fp, qh_REAL_1, qh_INFINITE);
+    fprintf (fp, "\n");   
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTpointnearest:
+    FOREACHpoint_(facet->coplanarset) {
+      int id, id2;
+      vertex= qh_nearvertex (facet, point, &dist);
+      id= qh_pointid (vertex->point);
+      id2= qh_pointid (point);
+      fprintf (fp, "%d %d %d " qh_REAL_1 "\n", id, id2, facet->id, dist);
+    }
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTpoints:  /* VORONOI only by qh_printbegin */
+    if (qh CDDoutput)
+      fprintf (fp, "1 ");
+    qh_printcenter (fp, format, NULL, facet);
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTvertices:
+    fprintf (fp, "%d", qh_setsize (facet->vertices));
+    FOREACHvertex_(facet->vertices)
+      fprintf (fp, " %d", qh_pointid (vertex->point));
+    fprintf (fp, "\n");
+    break;
+  }
+} /* printafacet */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printbegin">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printbegin(  )
+    prints header for all output formats
+
+  returns:
+    checks for valid format
+  
+  notes:
+    uses qh.visit_id for 3/4off
+    changes qh.interior_point if printing centrums
+    qh_countfacets clears facet->visitid for non-good facets
+    
+  see
+    qh_printend() and qh_printafacet()
+    
+  design:
+    count facets and related statistics
+    print header for format
+*/
+void qh_printbegin (FILE *fp, int format, facetT *facetlist, setT *facets, boolT printall) {
+  int numfacets, numsimplicial, numridges, totneighbors, numcoplanars, numtricoplanars;
+  int i, num;
+  facetT *facet, **facetp;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  setT *vertices;
+  pointT *point, **pointp, *pointtemp;
+
+  qh printoutnum= 0;
+  qh_countfacets (facetlist, facets, printall, &numfacets, &numsimplicial, 
+      &totneighbors, &numridges, &numcoplanars, &numtricoplanars);
+  switch (format) {
+  case qh_PRINTnone:
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTarea:
+    fprintf (fp, "%d\n", numfacets);
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTcoplanars:
+    fprintf (fp, "%d\n", numfacets);
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTcentrums:
+    if (qh CENTERtype == qh_ASnone)
+      qh_clearcenters (qh_AScentrum);
+    fprintf (fp, "%d\n%d\n", qh hull_dim, numfacets);
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTfacets:
+  case qh_PRINTfacets_xridge:
+    if (facetlist)
+      qh_printvertexlist (fp, "Vertices and facets:\n", facetlist, facets, printall);
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTgeom: 
+    if (qh hull_dim > 4)  /* qh_initqhull_globals also checks */
+      goto LABELnoformat;
+    if (qh VORONOI && qh hull_dim > 3)  /* PRINTdim == DROPdim == hull_dim-1 */
+      goto LABELnoformat;
+    if (qh hull_dim == 2 && (qh PRINTridges || qh DOintersections))
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: output for ridges and intersections not implemented in 2-d\n");
+    if (qh hull_dim == 4 && (qh PRINTinner || qh PRINTouter ||
+			     (qh PRINTdim == 4 && qh PRINTcentrums)))
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: output for outer/inner planes and centrums not implemented in 4-d\n");
+    if (qh PRINTdim == 4 && (qh PRINTspheres))
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: output for vertices not implemented in 4-d\n");
+    if (qh PRINTdim == 4 && qh DOintersections && qh PRINTnoplanes)
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: 'Gnh' generates no output in 4-d\n");
+    if (qh PRINTdim == 2) {
+      fprintf(fp, "{appearance {linewidth 3} LIST # %s | %s\n",
+	      qh rbox_command, qh qhull_command);
+    }else if (qh PRINTdim == 3) {
+      fprintf(fp, "{appearance {+edge -evert linewidth 2} LIST # %s | %s\n",
+	      qh rbox_command, qh qhull_command);
+    }else if (qh PRINTdim == 4) {
+      qh visit_id++;
+      num= 0;
+      FORALLfacet_(facetlist)    /* get number of ridges to be printed */
+        qh_printend4geom (NULL, facet, &num, printall);
+      FOREACHfacet_(facets)
+        qh_printend4geom (NULL, facet, &num, printall);
+      qh ridgeoutnum= num;
+      qh printoutvar= 0;  /* counts number of ridges in output */
+      fprintf (fp, "LIST # %s | %s\n", qh rbox_command, qh qhull_command);
+    }
+    if (qh PRINTdots) {
+      qh printoutnum++;
+      num= qh num_points + qh_setsize (qh other_points);
+      if (qh DELAUNAY && qh ATinfinity)
+	num--;
+      if (qh PRINTdim == 4)
+        fprintf (fp, "4VECT %d %d 1\n", num, num);
+      else
+	fprintf (fp, "VECT %d %d 1\n", num, num);
+      for (i= num; i--; ) {
+        if (i % 20 == 0)
+          fprintf (fp, "\n");
+	fprintf (fp, "1 ");
+      }
+      fprintf (fp, "# 1 point per line\n1 ");
+      for (i= num-1; i--; ) {
+        if (i % 20 == 0)
+          fprintf (fp, "\n");
+	fprintf (fp, "0 ");
+      }
+      fprintf (fp, "# 1 color for all\n");
+      FORALLpoints {
+        if (!qh DELAUNAY || !qh ATinfinity || qh_pointid(point) != qh num_points-1) {
+	  if (qh PRINTdim == 4)
+	    qh_printpoint (fp, NULL, point);
+	  else
+	    qh_printpoint3 (fp, point);
+	}
+      }
+      FOREACHpoint_(qh other_points) {
+	if (qh PRINTdim == 4)
+	  qh_printpoint (fp, NULL, point);
+	else
+	  qh_printpoint3 (fp, point);
+      }
+      fprintf (fp, "0 1 1 1  # color of points\n");
+    }
+    if (qh PRINTdim == 4  && !qh PRINTnoplanes)
+      /* 4dview loads up multiple 4OFF objects slowly */
+      fprintf(fp, "4OFF %d %d 1\n", 3*qh ridgeoutnum, qh ridgeoutnum);
+    qh PRINTcradius= 2 * qh DISTround;  /* include test DISTround */
+    if (qh PREmerge) {
+      maximize_(qh PRINTcradius, qh premerge_centrum + qh DISTround);
+    }else if (qh POSTmerge)
+      maximize_(qh PRINTcradius, qh postmerge_centrum + qh DISTround);
+    qh PRINTradius= qh PRINTcradius;
+    if (qh PRINTspheres + qh PRINTcoplanar)
+      maximize_(qh PRINTradius, qh MAXabs_coord * qh_MINradius);
+    if (qh premerge_cos < REALmax/2) {
+      maximize_(qh PRINTradius, (1- qh premerge_cos) * qh MAXabs_coord);
+    }else if (!qh PREmerge && qh POSTmerge && qh postmerge_cos < REALmax/2) {
+      maximize_(qh PRINTradius, (1- qh postmerge_cos) * qh MAXabs_coord);
+    }
+    maximize_(qh PRINTradius, qh MINvisible); 
+    if (qh JOGGLEmax < REALmax/2)
+      qh PRINTradius += qh JOGGLEmax * sqrt (qh hull_dim);
+    if (qh PRINTdim != 4 &&
+	(qh PRINTcoplanar || qh PRINTspheres || qh PRINTcentrums)) {
+      vertices= qh_facetvertices (facetlist, facets, printall);
+      if (qh PRINTspheres && qh PRINTdim <= 3)
+         qh_printspheres (fp, vertices, qh PRINTradius);
+      if (qh PRINTcoplanar || qh PRINTcentrums) {
+        qh firstcentrum= True;
+        if (qh PRINTcoplanar&& !qh PRINTspheres) {
+          FOREACHvertex_(vertices) 
+            qh_printpointvect2 (fp, vertex->point, NULL,
+				qh interior_point, qh PRINTradius);
+	}
+        FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+	  if (!printall && qh_skipfacet(facet))
+	    continue;
+	  if (!facet->normal)
+	    continue;
+          if (qh PRINTcentrums && qh PRINTdim <= 3)
+            qh_printcentrum (fp, facet, qh PRINTcradius);
+	  if (!qh PRINTcoplanar)
+	    continue;
+          FOREACHpoint_(facet->coplanarset)
+            qh_printpointvect2 (fp, point, facet->normal, NULL, qh PRINTradius);
+          FOREACHpoint_(facet->outsideset)
+            qh_printpointvect2 (fp, point, facet->normal, NULL, qh PRINTradius);
+        }
+        FOREACHfacet_(facets) {
+	  if (!printall && qh_skipfacet(facet))
+	    continue;
+	  if (!facet->normal)
+	    continue;
+          if (qh PRINTcentrums && qh PRINTdim <= 3)
+            qh_printcentrum (fp, facet, qh PRINTcradius);
+	  if (!qh PRINTcoplanar)
+	    continue;
+          FOREACHpoint_(facet->coplanarset)
+            qh_printpointvect2 (fp, point, facet->normal, NULL, qh PRINTradius);
+          FOREACHpoint_(facet->outsideset)
+            qh_printpointvect2 (fp, point, facet->normal, NULL, qh PRINTradius);
+        }
+      }
+      qh_settempfree (&vertices);
+    }
+    qh visit_id++; /* for printing hyperplane intersections */
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTids:
+    fprintf (fp, "%d\n", numfacets);
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTincidences:
+    if (qh VORONOI && qh PRINTprecision)
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: writing Delaunay.  Use 'p' or 'o' for Voronoi centers\n");
+    qh printoutvar= qh vertex_id;  /* centrum id for non-simplicial facets */
+    if (qh hull_dim <= 3)
+      fprintf(fp, "%d\n", numfacets);
+    else
+      fprintf(fp, "%d\n", numsimplicial+numridges);
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTinner:
+  case qh_PRINTnormals:
+  case qh_PRINTouter:
+    if (qh CDDoutput)
+      fprintf (fp, "%s | %s\nbegin\n    %d %d real\n", qh rbox_command, 
+              qh qhull_command, numfacets, qh hull_dim+1);
+    else
+      fprintf (fp, "%d\n%d\n", qh hull_dim+1, numfacets);
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTmathematica:  
+  case qh_PRINTmaple:
+    if (qh hull_dim > 3)  /* qh_initbuffers also checks */
+      goto LABELnoformat;
+    if (qh VORONOI)
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: output is the Delaunay triangulation\n");
+    if (format == qh_PRINTmaple) {
+      if (qh hull_dim == 2)
+	fprintf(fp, "PLOT(CURVES(\n");
+      else
+	fprintf(fp, "PLOT3D(POLYGONS(\n");
+    }else
+      fprintf(fp, "{\n");
+    qh printoutvar= 0;   /* counts number of facets for notfirst */
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTmerges:
+    fprintf (fp, "%d\n", numfacets);
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTpointintersect:
+    fprintf (fp, "%d\n%d\n", qh hull_dim, numfacets);
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTneighbors:
+    fprintf (fp, "%d\n", numfacets);
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINToff:
+  case qh_PRINTtriangles:
+    if (qh VORONOI)
+      goto LABELnoformat;
+    num = qh hull_dim;
+    if (format == qh_PRINToff || qh hull_dim == 2)
+      fprintf (fp, "%d\n%d %d %d\n", num, 
+        qh num_points+qh_setsize (qh other_points), numfacets, totneighbors/2);
+    else { /* qh_PRINTtriangles */
+      qh printoutvar= qh num_points+qh_setsize (qh other_points); /* first centrum */
+      if (qh DELAUNAY)
+        num--;  /* drop last dimension */
+      fprintf (fp, "%d\n%d %d %d\n", num, qh printoutvar 
+	+ numfacets - numsimplicial, numsimplicial + numridges, totneighbors/2);
+    }
+    FORALLpoints
+      qh_printpointid (qh fout, NULL, num, point, -1);
+    FOREACHpoint_(qh other_points)
+      qh_printpointid (qh fout, NULL, num, point, -1);
+    if (format == qh_PRINTtriangles && qh hull_dim > 2) {
+      FORALLfacets {
+	if (!facet->simplicial && facet->visitid)
+          qh_printcenter (qh fout, format, NULL, facet);
+      }
+    }
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTpointnearest:
+    fprintf (fp, "%d\n", numcoplanars);
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTpoints:
+    if (!qh VORONOI)
+      goto LABELnoformat;
+    if (qh CDDoutput)
+      fprintf (fp, "%s | %s\nbegin\n%d %d real\n", qh rbox_command,
+             qh qhull_command, numfacets, qh hull_dim);
+    else
+      fprintf (fp, "%d\n%d\n", qh hull_dim-1, numfacets);
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTvertices:
+    fprintf (fp, "%d\n", numfacets);
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTsummary:
+  default:
+  LABELnoformat:
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_printbegin): can not use this format for dimension %d\n",
+         qh hull_dim);
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+} /* printbegin */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printcenter">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printcenter( fp, string, facet )
+    print facet->center as centrum or Voronoi center
+    string may be NULL.  Don't include '%' codes.
+    nop if qh CENTERtype neither CENTERvoronoi nor CENTERcentrum
+    if upper envelope of Delaunay triangulation and point at-infinity
+      prints qh_INFINITE instead;
+
+  notes:
+    defines facet->center if needed
+    if format=PRINTgeom, adds a 0 if would otherwise be 2-d
+*/
+void qh_printcenter (FILE *fp, int format, char *string, facetT *facet) {
+  int k, num;
+
+  if (qh CENTERtype != qh_ASvoronoi && qh CENTERtype != qh_AScentrum)
+    return;
+  if (string)
+    fprintf (fp, string, facet->id);
+  if (qh CENTERtype == qh_ASvoronoi) {
+    num= qh hull_dim-1;
+    if (!facet->normal || !facet->upperdelaunay || !qh ATinfinity) {
+      if (!facet->center)
+        facet->center= qh_facetcenter (facet->vertices);
+      for (k=0; k < num; k++)
+        fprintf (fp, qh_REAL_1, facet->center[k]);
+    }else {
+      for (k=0; k < num; k++)
+        fprintf (fp, qh_REAL_1, qh_INFINITE);
+    }
+  }else /* qh CENTERtype == qh_AScentrum */ {
+    num= qh hull_dim;
+    if (format == qh_PRINTtriangles && qh DELAUNAY) 
+      num--;
+    if (!facet->center) 
+      facet->center= qh_getcentrum (facet);
+    for (k=0; k < num; k++)
+      fprintf (fp, qh_REAL_1, facet->center[k]);
+  }
+  if (format == qh_PRINTgeom && num == 2)
+    fprintf (fp, " 0\n");
+  else
+    fprintf (fp, "\n");
+} /* printcenter */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printcentrum">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printcentrum( fp, facet, radius )
+    print centrum for a facet in OOGL format
+    radius defines size of centrum
+    2-d or 3-d only
+
+  returns:
+    defines facet->center if needed
+*/
+void qh_printcentrum (FILE *fp, facetT *facet, realT radius) {
+  pointT *centrum, *projpt;
+  boolT tempcentrum= False;
+  realT xaxis[4], yaxis[4], normal[4], dist;
+  realT green[3]={0, 1, 0};
+  vertexT *apex;
+  int k;
+  
+  if (qh CENTERtype == qh_AScentrum) {
+    if (!facet->center)
+      facet->center= qh_getcentrum (facet);
+    centrum= facet->center;
+  }else {
+    centrum= qh_getcentrum (facet);
+    tempcentrum= True;
+  }
+  fprintf (fp, "{appearance {-normal -edge normscale 0} ");
+  if (qh firstcentrum) {
+    qh firstcentrum= False;
+    fprintf (fp, "{INST geom { define centrum CQUAD  # f%d\n\
+-0.3 -0.3 0.0001     0 0 1 1\n\
+ 0.3 -0.3 0.0001     0 0 1 1\n\
+ 0.3  0.3 0.0001     0 0 1 1\n\
+-0.3  0.3 0.0001     0 0 1 1 } transform { \n", facet->id);
+  }else
+    fprintf (fp, "{INST geom { : centrum } transform { # f%d\n", facet->id);
+  apex= SETfirstt_(facet->vertices, vertexT);
+  qh_distplane(apex->point, facet, &dist);
+  projpt= qh_projectpoint(apex->point, facet, dist);
+  for (k= qh hull_dim; k--; ) {
+    xaxis[k]= projpt[k] - centrum[k];
+    normal[k]= facet->normal[k];
+  }
+  if (qh hull_dim == 2) {
+    xaxis[2]= 0;
+    normal[2]= 0;
+  }else if (qh hull_dim == 4) {
+    qh_projectdim3 (xaxis, xaxis);
+    qh_projectdim3 (normal, normal);
+    qh_normalize2 (normal, qh PRINTdim, True, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  qh_crossproduct (3, xaxis, normal, yaxis);
+  fprintf (fp, "%8.4g %8.4g %8.4g 0\n", xaxis[0], xaxis[1], xaxis[2]);
+  fprintf (fp, "%8.4g %8.4g %8.4g 0\n", yaxis[0], yaxis[1], yaxis[2]);
+  fprintf (fp, "%8.4g %8.4g %8.4g 0\n", normal[0], normal[1], normal[2]);
+  qh_printpoint3 (fp, centrum);
+  fprintf (fp, "1 }}}\n"); 
+  qh_memfree (projpt, qh normal_size);
+  qh_printpointvect (fp, centrum, facet->normal, NULL, radius, green);
+  if (tempcentrum)
+    qh_memfree (centrum, qh normal_size);
+} /* printcentrum */
+  
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printend">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printend( fp, format )
+    prints trailer for all output formats
+
+  see:
+    qh_printbegin() and qh_printafacet()
+      
+*/
+void qh_printend (FILE *fp, int format, facetT *facetlist, setT *facets, boolT printall) {
+  int num;
+  facetT *facet, **facetp;
+
+  if (!qh printoutnum)
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: no facets printed\n");
+  switch (format) {
+  case qh_PRINTgeom:
+    if (qh hull_dim == 4 && qh DROPdim < 0  && !qh PRINTnoplanes) {
+      qh visit_id++;
+      num= 0;
+      FORALLfacet_(facetlist)
+        qh_printend4geom (fp, facet,&num, printall);
+      FOREACHfacet_(facets) 
+        qh_printend4geom (fp, facet, &num, printall);
+      if (num != qh ridgeoutnum || qh printoutvar != qh ridgeoutnum) {
+	fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_printend): number of ridges %d != number printed %d and at end %d\n", qh ridgeoutnum, qh printoutvar, num);
+	qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+      }
+    }else
+      fprintf(fp, "}\n");
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTinner:
+  case qh_PRINTnormals:
+  case qh_PRINTouter:
+    if (qh CDDoutput) 
+      fprintf (fp, "end\n");
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTmaple:
+    fprintf(fp, "));\n");
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTmathematica:
+    fprintf(fp, "}\n");
+    break;
+  case qh_PRINTpoints:
+    if (qh CDDoutput)
+      fprintf (fp, "end\n");
+    break;
+  }
+} /* printend */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printend4geom">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printend4geom( fp, facet, numridges, printall )
+    helper function for qh_printbegin/printend
+
+  returns:
+    number of printed ridges
+  
+  notes:
+    just counts printed ridges if fp=NULL
+    uses facet->visitid
+    must agree with qh_printfacet4geom...
+
+  design:
+    computes color for facet from its normal
+    prints each ridge of facet 
+*/
+void qh_printend4geom (FILE *fp, facetT *facet, int *nump, boolT printall) {
+  realT color[3];
+  int i, num= *nump;
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp;
+  ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep;
+  
+  if (!printall && qh_skipfacet(facet))
+    return;
+  if (qh PRINTnoplanes || (facet->visible && qh NEWfacets))
+    return;
+  if (!facet->normal)
+    return;
+  if (fp) {
+    for (i=0; i < 3; i++) {
+      color[i]= (facet->normal[i]+1.0)/2.0;
+      maximize_(color[i], -1.0);
+      minimize_(color[i], +1.0);
+    }
+  }
+  facet->visitid= qh visit_id;
+  if (facet->simplicial) {
+    FOREACHneighbor_(facet) {
+      if (neighbor->visitid != qh visit_id) {
+	if (fp)
+          fprintf (fp, "3 %d %d %d %8.4g %8.4g %8.4g 1 # f%d f%d\n",
+		 3*num, 3*num+1, 3*num+2, color[0], color[1], color[2],
+		 facet->id, neighbor->id);
+	num++;
+      }
+    }
+  }else {
+    FOREACHridge_(facet->ridges) {
+      neighbor= otherfacet_(ridge, facet);
+      if (neighbor->visitid != qh visit_id) {
+	if (fp)
+          fprintf (fp, "3 %d %d %d %8.4g %8.4g %8.4g 1 #r%d f%d f%d\n",
+		 3*num, 3*num+1, 3*num+2, color[0], color[1], color[2],
+		 ridge->id, facet->id, neighbor->id);
+	num++;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  *nump= num;
+} /* printend4geom */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printextremes">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printextremes( fp, facetlist, facets, printall )
+    print extreme points for convex hulls or halfspace intersections
+
+  notes:
+    #points, followed by ids, one per line
+    
+    sorted by id
+    same order as qh_printpoints_out if no coplanar/interior points
+*/
+void qh_printextremes (FILE *fp, facetT *facetlist, setT *facets, int printall) {
+  setT *vertices, *points;
+  pointT *point;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  int id;
+  int numpoints=0, point_i, point_n;
+  int allpoints= qh num_points + qh_setsize (qh other_points);
+
+  points= qh_settemp (allpoints);
+  qh_setzero (points, 0, allpoints);
+  vertices= qh_facetvertices (facetlist, facets, printall);
+  FOREACHvertex_(vertices) {
+    id= qh_pointid (vertex->point);
+    if (id >= 0) {
+      SETelem_(points, id)= vertex->point;
+      numpoints++;
+    }
+  }
+  qh_settempfree (&vertices);
+  fprintf (fp, "%d\n", numpoints);
+  FOREACHpoint_i_(points) {
+    if (point) 
+      fprintf (fp, "%d\n", point_i);
+  }
+  qh_settempfree (&points);
+} /* printextremes */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printextremes_2d">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printextremes_2d( fp, facetlist, facets, printall )
+    prints point ids for facets in qh_ORIENTclock order
+
+  notes:
+    #points, followed by ids, one per line
+    if facetlist/facets are disjoint than the output includes skips
+    errors if facets form a loop
+    does not print coplanar points
+*/
+void qh_printextremes_2d (FILE *fp, facetT *facetlist, setT *facets, int printall) {
+  int numfacets, numridges, totneighbors, numcoplanars, numsimplicial, numtricoplanars;
+  setT *vertices;
+  facetT *facet, *startfacet, *nextfacet;
+  vertexT *vertexA, *vertexB;
+
+  qh_countfacets (facetlist, facets, printall, &numfacets, &numsimplicial, 
+      &totneighbors, &numridges, &numcoplanars, &numtricoplanars); /* marks qh visit_id */
+  vertices= qh_facetvertices (facetlist, facets, printall);
+  fprintf(fp, "%d\n", qh_setsize (vertices));
+  qh_settempfree (&vertices);
+  if (!numfacets)
+    return;
+  facet= startfacet= facetlist ? facetlist : SETfirstt_(facets, facetT);
+  qh vertex_visit++;
+  qh visit_id++;
+  do {
+    if (facet->toporient ^ qh_ORIENTclock) {
+      vertexA= SETfirstt_(facet->vertices, vertexT);
+      vertexB= SETsecondt_(facet->vertices, vertexT);
+      nextfacet= SETfirstt_(facet->neighbors, facetT);
+    }else {
+      vertexA= SETsecondt_(facet->vertices, vertexT);
+      vertexB= SETfirstt_(facet->vertices, vertexT);
+      nextfacet= SETsecondt_(facet->neighbors, facetT);
+    }
+    if (facet->visitid == qh visit_id) {
+      fprintf(qh ferr, "qh_printextremes_2d: loop in facet list.  facet %d nextfacet %d\n",
+                 facet->id, nextfacet->id);
+      qh_errexit2 (qh_ERRqhull, facet, nextfacet);
+    }
+    if (facet->visitid) {
+      if (vertexA->visitid != qh vertex_visit) {
+	vertexA->visitid= qh vertex_visit;
+	fprintf(fp, "%d\n", qh_pointid (vertexA->point));
+      }
+      if (vertexB->visitid != qh vertex_visit) {
+	vertexB->visitid= qh vertex_visit;
+	fprintf(fp, "%d\n", qh_pointid (vertexB->point));
+      }
+    }
+    facet->visitid= qh visit_id;
+    facet= nextfacet;
+  }while (facet && facet != startfacet);
+} /* printextremes_2d */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printextremes_d">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printextremes_d( fp, facetlist, facets, printall )
+    print extreme points of input sites for Delaunay triangulations
+
+  notes:
+    #points, followed by ids, one per line
+    
+    unordered
+*/
+void qh_printextremes_d (FILE *fp, facetT *facetlist, setT *facets, int printall) {
+  setT *vertices;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  boolT upperseen, lowerseen;
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp;
+  int numpoints=0;
+
+  vertices= qh_facetvertices (facetlist, facets, printall);
+  qh_vertexneighbors();
+  FOREACHvertex_(vertices) {
+    upperseen= lowerseen= False;
+    FOREACHneighbor_(vertex) {
+      if (neighbor->upperdelaunay)
+        upperseen= True;
+      else
+        lowerseen= True;
+    }
+    if (upperseen && lowerseen) {
+      vertex->seen= True;
+      numpoints++;
+    }else
+      vertex->seen= False;
+  }
+  fprintf (fp, "%d\n", numpoints);
+  FOREACHvertex_(vertices) {
+    if (vertex->seen)
+      fprintf (fp, "%d\n", qh_pointid (vertex->point));
+  }
+  qh_settempfree (&vertices);
+} /* printextremes_d */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printfacet">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printfacet( fp, facet )
+    prints all fields of a facet to fp
+
+  notes:
+    ridges printed in neighbor order
+*/
+void qh_printfacet(FILE *fp, facetT *facet) {
+
+  qh_printfacetheader (fp, facet);
+  if (facet->ridges)
+    qh_printfacetridges (fp, facet);
+} /* printfacet */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printfacet2geom">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printfacet2geom( fp, facet, color )
+    print facet as part of a 2-d VECT for Geomview
+  
+    notes:
+      assume precise calculations in io.c with roundoff covered by qh_GEOMepsilon
+      mindist is calculated within io.c.  maxoutside is calculated elsewhere
+      so a DISTround error may have occured.
+*/
+void qh_printfacet2geom(FILE *fp, facetT *facet, realT color[3]) {
+  pointT *point0, *point1;
+  realT mindist, innerplane, outerplane;
+  int k;
+
+  qh_facet2point (facet, &point0, &point1, &mindist);
+  qh_geomplanes (facet, &outerplane, &innerplane);
+  if (qh PRINTouter || (!qh PRINTnoplanes && !qh PRINTinner))
+    qh_printfacet2geom_points(fp, point0, point1, facet, outerplane, color);
+  if (qh PRINTinner || (!qh PRINTnoplanes && !qh PRINTouter &&
+                outerplane - innerplane > 2 * qh MAXabs_coord * qh_GEOMepsilon)) {
+    for(k= 3; k--; )
+      color[k]= 1.0 - color[k];
+    qh_printfacet2geom_points(fp, point0, point1, facet, innerplane, color);
+  }
+  qh_memfree (point1, qh normal_size);
+  qh_memfree (point0, qh normal_size); 
+} /* printfacet2geom */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printfacet2geom_points">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printfacet2geom_points( fp, point1, point2, facet, offset, color )
+    prints a 2-d facet as a VECT with 2 points at some offset.   
+    The points are on the facet's plane.
+*/
+void qh_printfacet2geom_points(FILE *fp, pointT *point1, pointT *point2,
+			       facetT *facet, realT offset, realT color[3]) {
+  pointT *p1= point1, *p2= point2;
+
+  fprintf(fp, "VECT 1 2 1 2 1 # f%d\n", facet->id);
+  if (offset != 0.0) {
+    p1= qh_projectpoint (p1, facet, -offset);
+    p2= qh_projectpoint (p2, facet, -offset);
+  }
+  fprintf(fp, "%8.4g %8.4g %8.4g\n%8.4g %8.4g %8.4g\n",
+           p1[0], p1[1], 0.0, p2[0], p2[1], 0.0);
+  if (offset != 0.0) {
+    qh_memfree (p1, qh normal_size);
+    qh_memfree (p2, qh normal_size);
+  }
+  fprintf(fp, "%8.4g %8.4g %8.4g 1.0\n", color[0], color[1], color[2]);
+} /* printfacet2geom_points */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printfacet2math">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printfacet2math( fp, facet, format, notfirst )
+    print 2-d Maple or Mathematica output for a facet
+    may be non-simplicial
+
+  notes:
+    use %16.8f since Mathematica 2.2 does not handle exponential format
+    see qh_printfacet3math
+*/
+void qh_printfacet2math(FILE *fp, facetT *facet, int format, int notfirst) {
+  pointT *point0, *point1;
+  realT mindist;
+  char *pointfmt;
+  
+  qh_facet2point (facet, &point0, &point1, &mindist);
+  if (notfirst)
+    fprintf(fp, ",");
+  if (format == qh_PRINTmaple)
+    pointfmt= "[[%16.8f, %16.8f], [%16.8f, %16.8f]]\n";
+  else
+    pointfmt= "Line[{{%16.8f, %16.8f}, {%16.8f, %16.8f}}]\n";
+  fprintf(fp, pointfmt, point0[0], point0[1], point1[0], point1[1]);
+  qh_memfree (point1, qh normal_size);
+  qh_memfree (point0, qh normal_size);
+} /* printfacet2math */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printfacet3geom_nonsimplicial">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printfacet3geom_nonsimplicial( fp, facet, color )
+    print Geomview OFF for a 3-d nonsimplicial facet.
+    if DOintersections, prints ridges to unvisited neighbors (qh visit_id) 
+
+  notes
+    uses facet->visitid for intersections and ridges
+*/
+void qh_printfacet3geom_nonsimplicial(FILE *fp, facetT *facet, realT color[3]) {
+  ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep;
+  setT *projectedpoints, *vertices;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp, *vertexA, *vertexB;
+  pointT *projpt, *point, **pointp;
+  facetT *neighbor;
+  realT dist, outerplane, innerplane;
+  int cntvertices, k;
+  realT black[3]={0, 0, 0}, green[3]={0, 1, 0};
+
+  qh_geomplanes (facet, &outerplane, &innerplane); 
+  vertices= qh_facet3vertex (facet); /* oriented */
+  cntvertices= qh_setsize(vertices);
+  projectedpoints= qh_settemp(cntvertices);
+  FOREACHvertex_(vertices) {
+    zinc_(Zdistio);
+    qh_distplane(vertex->point, facet, &dist);
+    projpt= qh_projectpoint(vertex->point, facet, dist);
+    qh_setappend (&projectedpoints, projpt);
+  }
+  if (qh PRINTouter || (!qh PRINTnoplanes && !qh PRINTinner))
+    qh_printfacet3geom_points(fp, projectedpoints, facet, outerplane, color);
+  if (qh PRINTinner || (!qh PRINTnoplanes && !qh PRINTouter &&
+                outerplane - innerplane > 2 * qh MAXabs_coord * qh_GEOMepsilon)) {
+    for (k=3; k--; )
+      color[k]= 1.0 - color[k];
+    qh_printfacet3geom_points(fp, projectedpoints, facet, innerplane, color);
+  }
+  FOREACHpoint_(projectedpoints)
+    qh_memfree (point, qh normal_size);
+  qh_settempfree(&projectedpoints);
+  qh_settempfree(&vertices);
+  if ((qh DOintersections || qh PRINTridges)
+  && (!facet->visible || !qh NEWfacets)) {
+    facet->visitid= qh visit_id;
+    FOREACHridge_(facet->ridges) {
+      neighbor= otherfacet_(ridge, facet);
+      if (neighbor->visitid != qh visit_id) {
+        if (qh DOintersections)
+          qh_printhyperplaneintersection(fp, facet, neighbor, ridge->vertices, black);
+        if (qh PRINTridges) {
+          vertexA= SETfirstt_(ridge->vertices, vertexT);
+          vertexB= SETsecondt_(ridge->vertices, vertexT);
+          qh_printline3geom (fp, vertexA->point, vertexB->point, green);
+        }
+      }
+    }
+  }
+} /* printfacet3geom_nonsimplicial */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printfacet3geom_points">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printfacet3geom_points( fp, points, facet, offset )
+    prints a 3-d facet as OFF Geomview object. 
+    offset is relative to the facet's hyperplane
+    Facet is determined as a list of points
+*/
+void qh_printfacet3geom_points(FILE *fp, setT *points, facetT *facet, realT offset, realT color[3]) {
+  int k, n= qh_setsize(points), i;
+  pointT *point, **pointp;
+  setT *printpoints;
+
+  fprintf(fp, "{ OFF %d 1 1 # f%d\n", n, facet->id);
+  if (offset != 0.0) {
+    printpoints= qh_settemp (n);
+    FOREACHpoint_(points) 
+      qh_setappend (&printpoints, qh_projectpoint(point, facet, -offset));
+  }else
+    printpoints= points;
+  FOREACHpoint_(printpoints) {
+    for (k=0; k < qh hull_dim; k++) {
+      if (k == qh DROPdim)
+        fprintf(fp, "0 ");
+      else
+        fprintf(fp, "%8.4g ", point[k]);
+    }
+    if (printpoints != points)
+      qh_memfree (point, qh normal_size);
+    fprintf (fp, "\n");
+  }
+  if (printpoints != points)
+    qh_settempfree (&printpoints);
+  fprintf(fp, "%d ", n);
+  for(i= 0; i < n; i++)
+    fprintf(fp, "%d ", i);
+  fprintf(fp, "%8.4g %8.4g %8.4g 1.0 }\n", color[0], color[1], color[2]);
+} /* printfacet3geom_points */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printfacet3geom_simplicial">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printfacet3geom_simplicial(  )
+    print Geomview OFF for a 3-d simplicial facet.
+
+  notes:
+    may flip color
+    uses facet->visitid for intersections and ridges
+
+    assume precise calculations in io.c with roundoff covered by qh_GEOMepsilon
+    innerplane may be off by qh DISTround.  Maxoutside is calculated elsewhere
+    so a DISTround error may have occured.
+*/
+void qh_printfacet3geom_simplicial(FILE *fp, facetT *facet, realT color[3]) {
+  setT *points, *vertices;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp, *vertexA, *vertexB;
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp;
+  realT outerplane, innerplane;
+  realT black[3]={0, 0, 0}, green[3]={0, 1, 0};
+  int k;
+
+  qh_geomplanes (facet, &outerplane, &innerplane); 
+  vertices= qh_facet3vertex (facet);
+  points= qh_settemp (qh TEMPsize);
+  FOREACHvertex_(vertices)
+    qh_setappend(&points, vertex->point);
+  if (qh PRINTouter || (!qh PRINTnoplanes && !qh PRINTinner))
+    qh_printfacet3geom_points(fp, points, facet, outerplane, color);
+  if (qh PRINTinner || (!qh PRINTnoplanes && !qh PRINTouter &&
+              outerplane - innerplane > 2 * qh MAXabs_coord * qh_GEOMepsilon)) {
+    for (k= 3; k--; )
+      color[k]= 1.0 - color[k];
+    qh_printfacet3geom_points(fp, points, facet, innerplane, color);
+  }
+  qh_settempfree(&points);
+  qh_settempfree(&vertices);
+  if ((qh DOintersections || qh PRINTridges)
+  && (!facet->visible || !qh NEWfacets)) {
+    facet->visitid= qh visit_id;
+    FOREACHneighbor_(facet) {
+      if (neighbor->visitid != qh visit_id) {
+	vertices= qh_setnew_delnthsorted (facet->vertices, qh hull_dim,
+	                  SETindex_(facet->neighbors, neighbor), 0);
+        if (qh DOintersections)
+	   qh_printhyperplaneintersection(fp, facet, neighbor, vertices, black); 
+        if (qh PRINTridges) {
+          vertexA= SETfirstt_(vertices, vertexT);
+          vertexB= SETsecondt_(vertices, vertexT);
+          qh_printline3geom (fp, vertexA->point, vertexB->point, green);
+        }
+	qh_setfree(&vertices);
+      }
+    }
+  }
+} /* printfacet3geom_simplicial */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printfacet3math">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printfacet3math( fp, facet, notfirst )
+    print 3-d Maple or Mathematica output for a facet
+
+  notes:
+    may be non-simplicial
+    use %16.8f since Mathematica 2.2 does not handle exponential format
+    see qh_printfacet2math
+*/
+void qh_printfacet3math (FILE *fp, facetT *facet, int format, int notfirst) {
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  setT *points, *vertices;
+  pointT *point, **pointp;
+  boolT firstpoint= True;
+  realT dist;
+  char *pointfmt, *endfmt;
+  
+  if (notfirst)
+    fprintf(fp, ",\n");
+  vertices= qh_facet3vertex (facet);
+  points= qh_settemp (qh_setsize (vertices));
+  FOREACHvertex_(vertices) {
+    zinc_(Zdistio);
+    qh_distplane(vertex->point, facet, &dist);
+    point= qh_projectpoint(vertex->point, facet, dist);
+    qh_setappend (&points, point);
+  }
+  if (format == qh_PRINTmaple) {
+    fprintf(fp, "[");
+    pointfmt= "[%16.8f, %16.8f, %16.8f]";
+    endfmt= "]";
+  }else {
+    fprintf(fp, "Polygon[{");
+    pointfmt= "{%16.8f, %16.8f, %16.8f}";
+    endfmt= "}]";
+  }
+  FOREACHpoint_(points) {
+    if (firstpoint)
+      firstpoint= False;
+    else
+      fprintf(fp, ",\n");
+    fprintf(fp, pointfmt, point[0], point[1], point[2]);
+  }
+  FOREACHpoint_(points)
+    qh_memfree (point, qh normal_size);
+  qh_settempfree(&points);
+  qh_settempfree(&vertices);
+  fprintf(fp, endfmt);
+} /* printfacet3math */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printfacet3vertex">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printfacet3vertex( fp, facet, format )
+    print vertices in a 3-d facet as point ids
+
+  notes:
+    prints number of vertices first if format == qh_PRINToff
+    the facet may be non-simplicial
+*/
+void qh_printfacet3vertex(FILE *fp, facetT *facet, int format) {
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  setT *vertices;
+
+  vertices= qh_facet3vertex (facet);
+  if (format == qh_PRINToff)
+    fprintf (fp, "%d ", qh_setsize (vertices));
+  FOREACHvertex_(vertices) 
+    fprintf (fp, "%d ", qh_pointid(vertex->point));
+  fprintf (fp, "\n");
+  qh_settempfree(&vertices);
+} /* printfacet3vertex */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printfacet4geom_nonsimplicial">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printfacet4geom_nonsimplicial(  )
+    print Geomview 4OFF file for a 4d nonsimplicial facet
+    prints all ridges to unvisited neighbors (qh.visit_id)
+    if qh.DROPdim
+      prints in OFF format
+  
+  notes:
+    must agree with printend4geom()
+*/
+void qh_printfacet4geom_nonsimplicial(FILE *fp, facetT *facet, realT color[3]) {
+  facetT *neighbor;
+  ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  pointT *point;
+  int k;
+  realT dist;
+  
+  facet->visitid= qh visit_id;
+  if (qh PRINTnoplanes || (facet->visible && qh NEWfacets))
+    return;
+  FOREACHridge_(facet->ridges) {
+    neighbor= otherfacet_(ridge, facet);
+    if (neighbor->visitid == qh visit_id) 
+      continue;
+    if (qh PRINTtransparent && !neighbor->good)
+      continue;  
+    if (qh DOintersections)
+      qh_printhyperplaneintersection(fp, facet, neighbor, ridge->vertices, color);
+    else {
+      if (qh DROPdim >= 0) 
+	fprintf(fp, "OFF 3 1 1 # f%d\n", facet->id);
+      else {
+	qh printoutvar++;
+	fprintf (fp, "# r%d between f%d f%d\n", ridge->id, facet->id, neighbor->id);
+      }
+      FOREACHvertex_(ridge->vertices) {
+	zinc_(Zdistio);
+	qh_distplane(vertex->point,facet, &dist);
+	point=qh_projectpoint(vertex->point,facet, dist);
+	for(k= 0; k < qh hull_dim; k++) {
+	  if (k != qh DROPdim)
+  	    fprintf(fp, "%8.4g ", point[k]);
+  	}
+	fprintf (fp, "\n");
+	qh_memfree (point, qh normal_size);
+      }
+      if (qh DROPdim >= 0)
+        fprintf(fp, "3 0 1 2 %8.4g %8.4g %8.4g\n", color[0], color[1], color[2]);
+    }
+  }
+} /* printfacet4geom_nonsimplicial */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printfacet4geom_simplicial">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printfacet4geom_simplicial( fp, facet, color )
+    print Geomview 4OFF file for a 4d simplicial facet
+    prints triangles for unvisited neighbors (qh.visit_id)
+
+  notes:
+    must agree with printend4geom()
+*/
+void qh_printfacet4geom_simplicial(FILE *fp, facetT *facet, realT color[3]) {
+  setT *vertices;
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  int k;
+  
+  facet->visitid= qh visit_id;
+  if (qh PRINTnoplanes || (facet->visible && qh NEWfacets))
+    return;
+  FOREACHneighbor_(facet) {
+    if (neighbor->visitid == qh visit_id)
+      continue;
+    if (qh PRINTtransparent && !neighbor->good)
+      continue;  
+    vertices= qh_setnew_delnthsorted (facet->vertices, qh hull_dim,
+	                  SETindex_(facet->neighbors, neighbor), 0);
+    if (qh DOintersections)
+      qh_printhyperplaneintersection(fp, facet, neighbor, vertices, color);
+    else {
+      if (qh DROPdim >= 0) 
+	fprintf(fp, "OFF 3 1 1 # ridge between f%d f%d\n",
+		facet->id, neighbor->id);
+      else {
+	qh printoutvar++;
+	fprintf (fp, "# ridge between f%d f%d\n", facet->id, neighbor->id);
+      }
+      FOREACHvertex_(vertices) {
+	for(k= 0; k < qh hull_dim; k++) {
+	  if (k != qh DROPdim)
+  	    fprintf(fp, "%8.4g ", vertex->point[k]);
+  	}
+	fprintf (fp, "\n");
+      }
+      if (qh DROPdim >= 0) 
+        fprintf(fp, "3 0 1 2 %8.4g %8.4g %8.4g\n", color[0], color[1], color[2]);
+    }
+    qh_setfree(&vertices);
+  }
+} /* printfacet4geom_simplicial */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printfacetNvertex_nonsimplicial">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printfacetNvertex_nonsimplicial( fp, facet, id, format )
+    print vertices for an N-d non-simplicial facet
+    triangulates each ridge to the id
+*/
+void qh_printfacetNvertex_nonsimplicial(FILE *fp, facetT *facet, int id, int format) {
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep;
+
+  if (facet->visible && qh NEWfacets)
+    return;
+  FOREACHridge_(facet->ridges) {
+    if (format == qh_PRINTtriangles)
+      fprintf(fp, "%d ", qh hull_dim);
+    fprintf(fp, "%d ", id);
+    if ((ridge->top == facet) ^ qh_ORIENTclock) {
+      FOREACHvertex_(ridge->vertices)
+        fprintf(fp, "%d ", qh_pointid(vertex->point));
+    }else {
+      FOREACHvertexreverse12_(ridge->vertices)
+        fprintf(fp, "%d ", qh_pointid(vertex->point));
+    }
+    fprintf(fp, "\n");
+  }
+} /* printfacetNvertex_nonsimplicial */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printfacetNvertex_simplicial">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printfacetNvertex_simplicial( fp, facet, format )
+    print vertices for an N-d simplicial facet
+    prints vertices for non-simplicial facets
+      2-d facets (orientation preserved by qh_mergefacet2d)
+      PRINToff ('o') for 4-d and higher
+*/
+void qh_printfacetNvertex_simplicial(FILE *fp, facetT *facet, int format) {
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+
+  if (format == qh_PRINToff || format == qh_PRINTtriangles)
+    fprintf (fp, "%d ", qh_setsize (facet->vertices));
+  if ((facet->toporient ^ qh_ORIENTclock) 
+  || (qh hull_dim > 2 && !facet->simplicial)) {
+    FOREACHvertex_(facet->vertices)
+      fprintf(fp, "%d ", qh_pointid(vertex->point));
+  }else {
+    FOREACHvertexreverse12_(facet->vertices)
+      fprintf(fp, "%d ", qh_pointid(vertex->point));
+  }
+  fprintf(fp, "\n");
+} /* printfacetNvertex_simplicial */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printfacetheader">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printfacetheader( fp, facet )
+    prints header fields of a facet to fp
+    
+  notes:
+    for 'f' output and debugging
+*/
+void qh_printfacetheader(FILE *fp, facetT *facet) {
+  pointT *point, **pointp, *furthest;
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp;
+  realT dist;
+
+  if (facet == qh_MERGEridge) {
+    fprintf (fp, " MERGEridge\n");
+    return;
+  }else if (facet == qh_DUPLICATEridge) {
+    fprintf (fp, " DUPLICATEridge\n");
+    return;
+  }else if (!facet) {
+    fprintf (fp, " NULLfacet\n");
+    return;
+  }
+  qh old_randomdist= qh RANDOMdist;
+  qh RANDOMdist= False;
+  fprintf(fp, "- f%d\n", facet->id);
+  fprintf(fp, "    - flags:");
+  if (facet->toporient) 
+    fprintf(fp, " top");
+  else
+    fprintf(fp, " bottom");
+  if (facet->simplicial)
+    fprintf(fp, " simplicial");
+  if (facet->tricoplanar)
+    fprintf(fp, " tricoplanar");
+  if (facet->upperdelaunay)
+    fprintf(fp, " upperDelaunay");
+  if (facet->visible)
+    fprintf(fp, " visible");
+  if (facet->newfacet)
+    fprintf(fp, " new");
+  if (facet->tested)
+    fprintf(fp, " tested");
+  if (!facet->good)
+    fprintf(fp, " notG");
+  if (facet->seen)
+    fprintf(fp, " seen");
+  if (facet->coplanar)
+    fprintf(fp, " coplanar");
+  if (facet->mergehorizon)
+    fprintf(fp, " mergehorizon");
+  if (facet->keepcentrum)
+    fprintf(fp, " keepcentrum");
+  if (facet->dupridge)
+    fprintf(fp, " dupridge");
+  if (facet->mergeridge && !facet->mergeridge2)
+    fprintf(fp, " mergeridge1");
+  if (facet->mergeridge2)
+    fprintf(fp, " mergeridge2");
+  if (facet->newmerge)
+    fprintf(fp, " newmerge");
+  if (facet->flipped) 
+    fprintf(fp, " flipped");
+  if (facet->notfurthest) 
+    fprintf(fp, " notfurthest");
+  if (facet->degenerate)
+    fprintf(fp, " degenerate");
+  if (facet->redundant)
+    fprintf(fp, " redundant");
+  fprintf(fp, "\n");
+  if (facet->isarea)
+    fprintf(fp, "    - area: %2.2g\n", facet->f.area);
+  else if (qh NEWfacets && facet->visible && facet->f.replace)
+    fprintf(fp, "    - replacement: f%d\n", facet->f.replace->id);
+  else if (facet->newfacet) {
+    if (facet->f.samecycle && facet->f.samecycle != facet)
+      fprintf(fp, "    - shares same visible/horizon as f%d\n", facet->f.samecycle->id);
+  }else if (facet->tricoplanar /* !isarea */) {
+    if (facet->f.triowner)
+      fprintf(fp, "    - owner of normal & centrum is facet f%d\n", facet->f.triowner->id);
+  }else if (facet->f.newcycle)
+    fprintf(fp, "    - was horizon to f%d\n", facet->f.newcycle->id);
+  if (facet->nummerge)
+    fprintf(fp, "    - merges: %d\n", facet->nummerge);
+  qh_printpointid(fp, "    - normal: ", qh hull_dim, facet->normal, -1);
+  fprintf(fp, "    - offset: %10.7g\n", facet->offset);
+  if (qh CENTERtype == qh_ASvoronoi || facet->center)
+    qh_printcenter (fp, qh_PRINTfacets, "    - center: ", facet);
+#if qh_MAXoutside
+  if (facet->maxoutside > qh DISTround)
+    fprintf(fp, "    - maxoutside: %10.7g\n", facet->maxoutside);
+#endif
+  if (!SETempty_(facet->outsideset)) {
+    furthest= (pointT*)qh_setlast(facet->outsideset);
+    if (qh_setsize (facet->outsideset) < 6) {
+      fprintf(fp, "    - outside set (furthest p%d):\n", qh_pointid(furthest));
+      FOREACHpoint_(facet->outsideset)
+	qh_printpoint(fp, "     ", point);
+    }else if (qh_setsize (facet->outsideset) < 21) {
+      qh_printpoints(fp, "    - outside set:", facet->outsideset);
+    }else {
+      fprintf(fp, "    - outside set:  %d points.", qh_setsize(facet->outsideset));
+      qh_printpoint(fp, "  Furthest", furthest);
+    }
+#if !qh_COMPUTEfurthest
+    fprintf(fp, "    - furthest distance= %2.2g\n", facet->furthestdist);
+#endif
+  }
+  if (!SETempty_(facet->coplanarset)) {
+    furthest= (pointT*)qh_setlast(facet->coplanarset);
+    if (qh_setsize (facet->coplanarset) < 6) {
+      fprintf(fp, "    - coplanar set (furthest p%d):\n", qh_pointid(furthest));
+      FOREACHpoint_(facet->coplanarset)
+	qh_printpoint(fp, "     ", point);
+    }else if (qh_setsize (facet->coplanarset) < 21) {
+      qh_printpoints(fp, "    - coplanar set:", facet->coplanarset);
+    }else {
+      fprintf(fp, "    - coplanar set:  %d points.", qh_setsize(facet->coplanarset));
+      qh_printpoint(fp, "  Furthest", furthest);
+    }
+    zinc_(Zdistio);
+    qh_distplane (furthest, facet, &dist);
+    fprintf(fp, "      furthest distance= %2.2g\n", dist);
+  }
+  qh_printvertices (fp, "    - vertices:", facet->vertices);
+  fprintf(fp, "    - neighboring facets: ");
+  FOREACHneighbor_(facet) {
+    if (neighbor == qh_MERGEridge)
+      fprintf(fp, " MERGE");
+    else if (neighbor == qh_DUPLICATEridge)
+      fprintf(fp, " DUP");
+    else
+      fprintf(fp, " f%d", neighbor->id);
+  }
+  fprintf(fp, "\n");
+  qh RANDOMdist= qh old_randomdist;
+} /* printfacetheader */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printfacetridges">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printfacetridges( fp, facet )
+    prints ridges of a facet to fp
+
+  notes:
+    ridges printed in neighbor order
+    assumes the ridges exist
+    for 'f' output
+*/
+void qh_printfacetridges(FILE *fp, facetT *facet) {
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp;
+  ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep;
+  int numridges= 0;
+
+
+  if (facet->visible && qh NEWfacets) {
+    fprintf(fp, "    - ridges (ids may be garbage):");
+    FOREACHridge_(facet->ridges)
+      fprintf(fp, " r%d", ridge->id);
+    fprintf(fp, "\n");
+  }else {
+    fprintf(fp, "    - ridges:\n");
+    FOREACHridge_(facet->ridges)
+      ridge->seen= False;
+    if (qh hull_dim == 3) {
+      ridge= SETfirstt_(facet->ridges, ridgeT);
+      while (ridge && !ridge->seen) {
+	ridge->seen= True;
+	qh_printridge(fp, ridge);
+	numridges++;
+	ridge= qh_nextridge3d (ridge, facet, NULL);
+	}
+    }else {
+      FOREACHneighbor_(facet) {
+	FOREACHridge_(facet->ridges) {
+	  if (otherfacet_(ridge,facet) == neighbor) {
+	    ridge->seen= True;
+	    qh_printridge(fp, ridge);
+	    numridges++;
+	  }
+	}
+      }
+    }
+    if (numridges != qh_setsize (facet->ridges)) {
+      fprintf (fp, "     - all ridges:");
+      FOREACHridge_(facet->ridges) 
+	fprintf (fp, " r%d", ridge->id);
+        fprintf (fp, "\n");
+    }
+    FOREACHridge_(facet->ridges) {
+      if (!ridge->seen) 
+	qh_printridge(fp, ridge);
+    }
+  }
+} /* printfacetridges */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printfacets">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printfacets( fp, format, facetlist, facets, printall )
+    prints facetlist and/or facet set in output format
+  
+  notes:
+    also used for specialized formats ('FO' and summary)
+    turns off 'Rn' option since want actual numbers
+*/
+void qh_printfacets(FILE *fp, int format, facetT *facetlist, setT *facets, boolT printall) {
+  int numfacets, numsimplicial, numridges, totneighbors, numcoplanars, numtricoplanars;
+  facetT *facet, **facetp;
+  setT *vertices;
+  coordT *center;
+  realT outerplane, innerplane;
+
+  qh old_randomdist= qh RANDOMdist;
+  qh RANDOMdist= False;
+  if (qh CDDoutput && (format == qh_PRINTcentrums || format == qh_PRINTpointintersect || format == qh_PRINToff))
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: CDD format is not available for centrums, halfspace\nintersections, and OFF file format.\n");
+  if (format == qh_PRINTnone)
+    ; /* print nothing */
+  else if (format == qh_PRINTaverage) {
+    vertices= qh_facetvertices (facetlist, facets, printall);
+    center= qh_getcenter (vertices);
+    fprintf (fp, "%d 1\n", qh hull_dim);
+    qh_printpointid (fp, NULL, qh hull_dim, center, -1);
+    qh_memfree (center, qh normal_size);
+    qh_settempfree (&vertices);
+  }else if (format == qh_PRINTextremes) {
+    if (qh DELAUNAY)
+      qh_printextremes_d (fp, facetlist, facets, printall);
+    else if (qh hull_dim == 2)
+      qh_printextremes_2d (fp, facetlist, facets, printall);
+    else 
+      qh_printextremes (fp, facetlist, facets, printall);
+  }else if (format == qh_PRINToptions)
+    fprintf(fp, "Options selected for Qhull %s:\n%s\n", qh_version, qh qhull_options);
+  else if (format == qh_PRINTpoints && !qh VORONOI)
+    qh_printpoints_out (fp, facetlist, facets, printall);
+  else if (format == qh_PRINTqhull)
+    fprintf (fp, "%s | %s\n", qh rbox_command, qh qhull_command);
+  else if (format == qh_PRINTsize) {
+    fprintf (fp, "0\n2 ");
+    fprintf (fp, qh_REAL_1, qh totarea);
+    fprintf (fp, qh_REAL_1, qh totvol);
+    fprintf (fp, "\n");
+  }else if (format == qh_PRINTsummary) {
+    qh_countfacets (facetlist, facets, printall, &numfacets, &numsimplicial, 
+      &totneighbors, &numridges, &numcoplanars, &numtricoplanars);
+    vertices= qh_facetvertices (facetlist, facets, printall); 
+    fprintf (fp, "10 %d %d %d %d %d %d %d %d %d %d\n2 ", qh hull_dim, 
+                qh num_points + qh_setsize (qh other_points),
+                qh num_vertices, qh num_facets - qh num_visible,
+                qh_setsize (vertices), numfacets, numcoplanars, 
+		numfacets - numsimplicial, zzval_(Zdelvertextot), 
+		numtricoplanars);
+    qh_settempfree (&vertices);
+    qh_outerinner (NULL, &outerplane, &innerplane);
+    fprintf (fp, qh_REAL_2n, outerplane, innerplane);
+  }else if (format == qh_PRINTvneighbors)
+    qh_printvneighbors (fp, facetlist, facets, printall);
+  else if (qh VORONOI && format == qh_PRINToff)
+    qh_printvoronoi (fp, format, facetlist, facets, printall);
+  else if (qh VORONOI && format == qh_PRINTgeom) {
+    qh_printbegin (fp, format, facetlist, facets, printall);
+    qh_printvoronoi (fp, format, facetlist, facets, printall);
+    qh_printend (fp, format, facetlist, facets, printall);
+  }else if (qh VORONOI 
+  && (format == qh_PRINTvertices || format == qh_PRINTinner || format == qh_PRINTouter))
+    qh_printvdiagram (fp, format, facetlist, facets, printall);
+  else {
+    qh_printbegin (fp, format, facetlist, facets, printall);
+    FORALLfacet_(facetlist)
+      qh_printafacet (fp, format, facet, printall);
+    FOREACHfacet_(facets) 
+      qh_printafacet (fp, format, facet, printall);
+    qh_printend (fp, format, facetlist, facets, printall);
+  }
+  qh RANDOMdist= qh old_randomdist;
+} /* printfacets */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printhelp_degenerate">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printhelp_degenerate( fp )
+    prints descriptive message for precision error
+
+  notes:
+    no message if qh_QUICKhelp
+*/
+void qh_printhelp_degenerate(FILE *fp) {
+  
+  if (qh MERGEexact || qh PREmerge || qh JOGGLEmax < REALmax/2) 
+    fprintf(fp, "\n\
+A Qhull error has occurred.  Qhull should have corrected the above\n\
+precision error.  Please send the input and all of the output to\n\
+qhull_bug@qhull.org\n");
+  else if (!qh_QUICKhelp) {
+    fprintf(fp, "\n\
+Precision problems were detected during construction of the convex hull.\n\
+This occurs because convex hull algorithms assume that calculations are\n\
+exact, but floating-point arithmetic has roundoff errors.\n\
+\n\
+To correct for precision problems, do not use 'Q0'.  By default, Qhull\n\
+selects 'C-0' or 'Qx' and merges non-convex facets.  With option 'QJ',\n\
+Qhull joggles the input to prevent precision problems.  See \"Imprecision\n\
+in Qhull\" (qh-impre.htm).\n\
+\n\
+If you use 'Q0', the output may include\n\
+coplanar ridges, concave ridges, and flipped facets.  In 4-d and higher,\n\
+Qhull may produce a ridge with four neighbors or two facets with the same \n\
+vertices.  Qhull reports these events when they occur.  It stops when a\n\
+concave ridge, flipped facet, or duplicate facet occurs.\n");
+#if REALfloat
+    fprintf (fp, "\
+\n\
+Qhull is currently using single precision arithmetic.  The following\n\
+will probably remove the precision problems:\n\
+  - recompile qhull for double precision (#define REALfloat 0 in user.h).\n");
+#endif
+    if (qh DELAUNAY && !qh SCALElast && qh MAXabs_coord > 1e4)
+      fprintf( fp, "\
+\n\
+When computing the Delaunay triangulation of coordinates > 1.0,\n\
+  - use 'Qbb' to scale the last coordinate to [0,m] (max previous coordinate)\n");
+    if (qh DELAUNAY && !qh ATinfinity) 
+      fprintf( fp, "\
+When computing the Delaunay triangulation:\n\
+  - use 'Qz' to add a point at-infinity.  This reduces precision problems.\n");
+ 
+    fprintf(fp, "\
+\n\
+If you need triangular output:\n\
+  - use option 'Qt' to triangulate the output\n\
+  - use option 'QJ' to joggle the input points and remove precision errors\n\
+  - use option 'Ft'.  It triangulates non-simplicial facets with added points.\n\
+\n\
+If you must use 'Q0',\n\
+try one or more of the following options.  They can not guarantee an output.\n\
+  - use 'QbB' to scale the input to a cube.\n\
+  - use 'Po' to produce output and prevent partitioning for flipped facets\n\
+  - use 'V0' to set min. distance to visible facet as 0 instead of roundoff\n\
+  - use 'En' to specify a maximum roundoff error less than %2.2g.\n\
+  - options 'Qf', 'Qbb', and 'QR0' may also help\n",
+               qh DISTround);
+    fprintf(fp, "\
+\n\
+To guarantee simplicial output:\n\
+  - use option 'Qt' to triangulate the output\n\
+  - use option 'QJ' to joggle the input points and remove precision errors\n\
+  - use option 'Ft' to triangulate the output by adding points\n\
+  - use exact arithmetic (see \"Imprecision in Qhull\", qh-impre.htm)\n\
+");
+  }
+} /* printhelp_degenerate */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printhelp_singular">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printhelp_singular( fp )
+    prints descriptive message for singular input
+*/
+void qh_printhelp_singular(FILE *fp) {
+  facetT *facet;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  realT min, max, *coord, dist;
+  int i,k;
+  
+  fprintf(fp, "\n\
+The input to qhull appears to be less than %d dimensional, or a\n\
+computation has overflowed.\n\n\
+Qhull could not construct a clearly convex simplex from points:\n",
+           qh hull_dim);
+  qh_printvertexlist (fp, "", qh facet_list, NULL, qh_ALL);
+  if (!qh_QUICKhelp)
+    fprintf(fp, "\n\
+The center point is coplanar with a facet, or a vertex is coplanar\n\
+with a neighboring facet.  The maximum round off error for\n\
+computing distances is %2.2g.  The center point, facets and distances\n\
+to the center point are as follows:\n\n", qh DISTround);
+  qh_printpointid (fp, "center point", qh hull_dim, qh interior_point, -1);
+  fprintf (fp, "\n");
+  FORALLfacets {
+    fprintf (fp, "facet");
+    FOREACHvertex_(facet->vertices)
+      fprintf (fp, " p%d", qh_pointid(vertex->point));
+    zinc_(Zdistio);
+    qh_distplane(qh interior_point, facet, &dist);
+    fprintf (fp, " distance= %4.2g\n", dist);
+  }
+  if (!qh_QUICKhelp) {
+    if (qh HALFspace) 
+      fprintf (fp, "\n\
+These points are the dual of the given halfspaces.  They indicate that\n\
+the intersection is degenerate.\n");
+    fprintf (fp,"\n\
+These points either have a maximum or minimum x-coordinate, or\n\
+they maximize the determinant for k coordinates.  Trial points\n\
+are first selected from points that maximize a coordinate.\n");
+    if (qh hull_dim >= qh_INITIALmax)
+      fprintf (fp, "\n\
+Because of the high dimension, the min x-coordinate and max-coordinate\n\
+points are used if the determinant is non-zero.  Option 'Qs' will\n\
+do a better, though much slower, job.  Instead of 'Qs', you can change\n\
+the points by randomly rotating the input with 'QR0'.\n");
+  }
+  fprintf (fp, "\nThe min and max coordinates for each dimension are:\n");
+  for (k=0; k < qh hull_dim; k++) {
+    min= REALmax;
+    max= -REALmin;
+    for (i=qh num_points, coord= qh first_point+k; i--; coord += qh hull_dim) {
+      maximize_(max, *coord);
+      minimize_(min, *coord);
+    }
+    fprintf (fp, "  %d:  %8.4g  %8.4g  difference= %4.4g\n", k, min, max, max-min);
+  }
+  if (!qh_QUICKhelp) {
+    fprintf (fp, "\n\
+If the input should be full dimensional, you have several options that\n\
+may determine an initial simplex:\n\
+  - use 'QJ'  to joggle the input and make it full dimensional\n\
+  - use 'QbB' to scale the points to the unit cube\n\
+  - use 'QR0' to randomly rotate the input for different maximum points\n\
+  - use 'Qs'  to search all points for the initial simplex\n\
+  - use 'En'  to specify a maximum roundoff error less than %2.2g.\n\
+  - trace execution with 'T3' to see the determinant for each point.\n",
+                     qh DISTround);
+#if REALfloat
+    fprintf (fp, "\
+  - recompile qhull for double precision (#define REALfloat 0 in qhull.h).\n");
+#endif
+    fprintf (fp, "\n\
+If the input is lower dimensional:\n\
+  - use 'QJ' to joggle the input and make it full dimensional\n\
+  - use 'Qbk:0Bk:0' to delete coordinate k from the input.  You should\n\
+    pick the coordinate with the least range.  The hull will have the\n\
+    correct topology.\n\
+  - determine the flat containing the points, rotate the points\n\
+    into a coordinate plane, and delete the other coordinates.\n\
+  - add one or more points to make the input full dimensional.\n\
+");
+    if (qh DELAUNAY && !qh ATinfinity)
+      fprintf (fp, "\n\n\
+This is a Delaunay triangulation and the input is co-circular or co-spherical:\n\
+  - use 'Qz' to add a point \"at infinity\" (i.e., above the paraboloid)\n\
+  - or use 'QJ' to joggle the input and avoid co-circular data\n");
+  }
+} /* printhelp_singular */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printhyperplaneintersection">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printhyperplaneintersection( fp, facet1, facet2, vertices, color )
+    print Geomview OFF or 4OFF for the intersection of two hyperplanes in 3-d or 4-d
+*/
+void qh_printhyperplaneintersection(FILE *fp, facetT *facet1, facetT *facet2,
+		   setT *vertices, realT color[3]) {
+  realT costheta, denominator, dist1, dist2, s, t, mindenom, p[4];
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  int i, k;
+  boolT nearzero1, nearzero2;
+  
+  costheta= qh_getangle(facet1->normal, facet2->normal);
+  denominator= 1 - costheta * costheta;
+  i= qh_setsize(vertices);
+  if (qh hull_dim == 3)
+    fprintf(fp, "VECT 1 %d 1 %d 1 ", i, i);
+  else if (qh hull_dim == 4 && qh DROPdim >= 0)
+    fprintf(fp, "OFF 3 1 1 ");
+  else
+    qh printoutvar++;
+  fprintf (fp, "# intersect f%d f%d\n", facet1->id, facet2->id);
+  mindenom= 1 / (10.0 * qh MAXabs_coord);
+  FOREACHvertex_(vertices) {
+    zadd_(Zdistio, 2);
+    qh_distplane(vertex->point, facet1, &dist1);
+    qh_distplane(vertex->point, facet2, &dist2);
+    s= qh_divzero (-dist1 + costheta * dist2, denominator,mindenom,&nearzero1);
+    t= qh_divzero (-dist2 + costheta * dist1, denominator,mindenom,&nearzero2);
+    if (nearzero1 || nearzero2)
+      s= t= 0.0;
+    for(k= qh hull_dim; k--; )
+      p[k]= vertex->point[k] + facet1->normal[k] * s + facet2->normal[k] * t;
+    if (qh PRINTdim <= 3) {
+      qh_projectdim3 (p, p);
+      fprintf(fp, "%8.4g %8.4g %8.4g # ", p[0], p[1], p[2]);
+    }else 
+      fprintf(fp, "%8.4g %8.4g %8.4g %8.4g # ", p[0], p[1], p[2], p[3]);
+    if (nearzero1+nearzero2)
+      fprintf (fp, "p%d (coplanar facets)\n", qh_pointid (vertex->point));
+    else
+      fprintf (fp, "projected p%d\n", qh_pointid (vertex->point));
+  }
+  if (qh hull_dim == 3)
+    fprintf(fp, "%8.4g %8.4g %8.4g 1.0\n", color[0], color[1], color[2]); 
+  else if (qh hull_dim == 4 && qh DROPdim >= 0)  
+    fprintf(fp, "3 0 1 2 %8.4g %8.4g %8.4g 1.0\n", color[0], color[1], color[2]);
+} /* printhyperplaneintersection */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printline3geom">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printline3geom( fp, pointA, pointB, color )
+    prints a line as a VECT
+    prints 0's for qh.DROPdim
+  
+  notes:
+    if pointA == pointB, 
+      it's a 1 point VECT
+*/
+void qh_printline3geom (FILE *fp, pointT *pointA, pointT *pointB, realT color[3]) {
+  int k;
+  realT pA[4], pB[4];
+
+  qh_projectdim3(pointA, pA);
+  qh_projectdim3(pointB, pB);
+  if ((fabs(pA[0] - pB[0]) > 1e-3) || 
+      (fabs(pA[1] - pB[1]) > 1e-3) || 
+      (fabs(pA[2] - pB[2]) > 1e-3)) {
+    fprintf (fp, "VECT 1 2 1 2 1\n");
+    for (k= 0; k < 3; k++)
+       fprintf (fp, "%8.4g ", pB[k]);
+    fprintf (fp, " # p%d\n", qh_pointid (pointB));
+  }else
+    fprintf (fp, "VECT 1 1 1 1 1\n");
+  for (k=0; k < 3; k++)
+    fprintf (fp, "%8.4g ", pA[k]);
+  fprintf (fp, " # p%d\n", qh_pointid (pointA));
+  fprintf (fp, "%8.4g %8.4g %8.4g 1\n", color[0], color[1], color[2]);
+}
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printneighborhood">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printneighborhood( fp, format, facetA, facetB, printall )
+    print neighborhood of one or two facets
+
+  notes:
+    calls qh_findgood_all() 
+    bumps qh.visit_id
+*/
+void qh_printneighborhood (FILE *fp, int format, facetT *facetA, facetT *facetB, boolT printall) {
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp, *facet;
+  setT *facets;
+
+  if (format == qh_PRINTnone)
+    return;
+  qh_findgood_all (qh facet_list);
+  if (facetA == facetB)
+    facetB= NULL;
+  facets= qh_settemp (2*(qh_setsize (facetA->neighbors)+1));
+  qh visit_id++;
+  for (facet= facetA; facet; facet= ((facet == facetA) ? facetB : NULL)) {
+    if (facet->visitid != qh visit_id) {
+      facet->visitid= qh visit_id;
+      qh_setappend (&facets, facet);
+    }
+    FOREACHneighbor_(facet) {
+      if (neighbor->visitid == qh visit_id)
+        continue;
+      neighbor->visitid= qh visit_id;
+      if (printall || !qh_skipfacet (neighbor))
+        qh_setappend (&facets, neighbor);
+    }
+  }
+  qh_printfacets (fp, format, NULL, facets, printall);
+  qh_settempfree (&facets);
+} /* printneighborhood */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printpoint">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printpoint( fp, string, point )
+  qh_printpointid( fp, string, dim, point, id )
+    prints the coordinates of a point
+
+  returns:
+    if string is defined
+      prints 'string p%d' (skips p%d if id=-1)
+
+  notes:
+    nop if point is NULL
+    prints id unless it is undefined (-1)
+*/
+void qh_printpoint(FILE *fp, char *string, pointT *point) {
+  int id= qh_pointid( point);
+
+  qh_printpointid( fp, string, qh hull_dim, point, id);
+} /* printpoint */
+
+void qh_printpointid(FILE *fp, char *string, int dim, pointT *point, int id) {
+  int k;
+  realT r; /*bug fix*/
+  
+  if (!point)
+    return;
+  if (string) {
+    fputs (string, fp);
+   if (id != -1)
+      fprintf(fp, " p%d: ", id);
+  }
+  for(k= dim; k--; ) {
+    r= *point++;
+    if (string)
+      fprintf(fp, " %8.4g", r);
+    else
+      fprintf(fp, qh_REAL_1, r);
+  }
+  fprintf(fp, "\n");
+} /* printpointid */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printpoint3">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printpoint3( fp, point )
+    prints 2-d, 3-d, or 4-d point as Geomview 3-d coordinates
+*/
+void qh_printpoint3 (FILE *fp, pointT *point) {
+  int k;
+  realT p[4];
+  
+  qh_projectdim3 (point, p);
+  for (k=0; k < 3; k++)
+    fprintf (fp, "%8.4g ", p[k]);
+  fprintf (fp, " # p%d\n", qh_pointid (point));
+} /* printpoint3 */
+
+/*----------------------------------------
+-printpoints- print pointids for a set of points starting at index 
+   see geom.c
+*/
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printpoints_out">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printpoints_out( fp, facetlist, facets, printall )
+    prints vertices, coplanar/inside points, for facets by their point coordinates
+    allows qh.CDDoutput
+
+  notes:
+    same format as qhull input
+    if no coplanar/interior points,
+      same order as qh_printextremes
+*/
+void qh_printpoints_out (FILE *fp, facetT *facetlist, setT *facets, int printall) {
+  int allpoints= qh num_points + qh_setsize (qh other_points);
+  int numpoints=0, point_i, point_n;
+  setT *vertices, *points;
+  facetT *facet, **facetp;
+  pointT *point, **pointp;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  int id;
+
+  points= qh_settemp (allpoints);
+  qh_setzero (points, 0, allpoints);
+  vertices= qh_facetvertices (facetlist, facets, printall);
+  FOREACHvertex_(vertices) {
+    id= qh_pointid (vertex->point);
+    if (id >= 0)
+      SETelem_(points, id)= vertex->point;
+  }
+  if (qh KEEPinside || qh KEEPcoplanar || qh KEEPnearinside) {
+    FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+      if (!printall && qh_skipfacet(facet))
+        continue;
+      FOREACHpoint_(facet->coplanarset) {
+        id= qh_pointid (point);
+        if (id >= 0)
+          SETelem_(points, id)= point;
+      }
+    }
+    FOREACHfacet_(facets) {
+      if (!printall && qh_skipfacet(facet))
+        continue;
+      FOREACHpoint_(facet->coplanarset) {
+        id= qh_pointid (point);
+        if (id >= 0)
+          SETelem_(points, id)= point;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  qh_settempfree (&vertices);
+  FOREACHpoint_i_(points) {
+    if (point)
+      numpoints++;
+  }
+  if (qh CDDoutput)
+    fprintf (fp, "%s | %s\nbegin\n%d %d real\n", qh rbox_command,
+             qh qhull_command, numpoints, qh hull_dim + 1);
+  else
+    fprintf (fp, "%d\n%d\n", qh hull_dim, numpoints);
+  FOREACHpoint_i_(points) {
+    if (point) {
+      if (qh CDDoutput)
+	fprintf (fp, "1 ");
+      qh_printpoint (fp, NULL, point);
+    }
+  }
+  if (qh CDDoutput)
+    fprintf (fp, "end\n");
+  qh_settempfree (&points);
+} /* printpoints_out */
+  
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printpointvect">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printpointvect( fp, point, normal, center, radius, color )
+    prints a 2-d, 3-d, or 4-d point as 3-d VECT's relative to normal or to center point
+*/
+void qh_printpointvect (FILE *fp, pointT *point, coordT *normal, pointT *center, realT radius, realT color[3]) {
+  realT diff[4], pointA[4];
+  int k;
+  
+  for (k= qh hull_dim; k--; ) {
+    if (center)
+      diff[k]= point[k]-center[k];
+    else if (normal) 
+      diff[k]= normal[k];
+    else
+      diff[k]= 0;
+  }
+  if (center)
+    qh_normalize2 (diff, qh hull_dim, True, NULL, NULL);
+  for (k= qh hull_dim; k--; ) 
+    pointA[k]= point[k]+diff[k] * radius;
+  qh_printline3geom (fp, point, pointA, color);
+} /* printpointvect */  
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printpointvect2">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printpointvect2( fp, point, normal, center, radius )
+    prints a 2-d, 3-d, or 4-d point as 2 3-d VECT's for an imprecise point
+*/
+void qh_printpointvect2 (FILE *fp, pointT *point, coordT *normal, pointT *center, realT radius) {
+  realT red[3]={1, 0, 0}, yellow[3]={1, 1, 0};
+
+  qh_printpointvect (fp, point, normal, center, radius, red);
+  qh_printpointvect (fp, point, normal, center, -radius, yellow);
+} /* printpointvect2 */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printridge">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printridge( fp, ridge )
+    prints the information in a ridge
+
+  notes:
+    for qh_printfacetridges()
+*/
+void qh_printridge(FILE *fp, ridgeT *ridge) {
+  
+  fprintf(fp, "     - r%d", ridge->id);
+  if (ridge->tested)
+    fprintf (fp, " tested");
+  if (ridge->nonconvex)
+    fprintf (fp, " nonconvex");
+  fprintf (fp, "\n");
+  qh_printvertices (fp, "           vertices:", ridge->vertices);
+  if (ridge->top && ridge->bottom)
+    fprintf(fp, "           between f%d and f%d\n",
+	    ridge->top->id, ridge->bottom->id);
+} /* printridge */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printspheres">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printspheres( fp, vertices, radius )
+    prints 3-d vertices as OFF spheres
+
+  notes:
+    inflated octahedron from Stuart Levy earth/mksphere2
+*/
+void qh_printspheres(FILE *fp, setT *vertices, realT radius) {
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+
+  qh printoutnum++;
+  fprintf (fp, "{appearance {-edge -normal normscale 0} {\n\
+INST geom {define vsphere OFF\n\
+18 32 48\n\
+\n\
+0 0 1\n\
+1 0 0\n\
+0 1 0\n\
+-1 0 0\n\
+0 -1 0\n\
+0 0 -1\n\
+0.707107 0 0.707107\n\
+0 -0.707107 0.707107\n\
+0.707107 -0.707107 0\n\
+-0.707107 0 0.707107\n\
+-0.707107 -0.707107 0\n\
+0 0.707107 0.707107\n\
+-0.707107 0.707107 0\n\
+0.707107 0.707107 0\n\
+0.707107 0 -0.707107\n\
+0 0.707107 -0.707107\n\
+-0.707107 0 -0.707107\n\
+0 -0.707107 -0.707107\n\
+\n\
+3 0 6 11\n\
+3 0 7 6	\n\
+3 0 9 7	\n\
+3 0 11 9\n\
+3 1 6 8	\n\
+3 1 8 14\n\
+3 1 13 6\n\
+3 1 14 13\n\
+3 2 11 13\n\
+3 2 12 11\n\
+3 2 13 15\n\
+3 2 15 12\n\
+3 3 9 12\n\
+3 3 10 9\n\
+3 3 12 16\n\
+3 3 16 10\n\
+3 4 7 10\n\
+3 4 8 7\n\
+3 4 10 17\n\
+3 4 17 8\n\
+3 5 14 17\n\
+3 5 15 14\n\
+3 5 16 15\n\
+3 5 17 16\n\
+3 6 13 11\n\
+3 7 8 6\n\
+3 9 10 7\n\
+3 11 12 9\n\
+3 14 8 17\n\
+3 15 13 14\n\
+3 16 12 15\n\
+3 17 10 16\n} transforms { TLIST\n");
+  FOREACHvertex_(vertices) {
+    fprintf(fp, "%8.4g 0 0 0 # v%d\n 0 %8.4g 0 0\n0 0 %8.4g 0\n",
+      radius, vertex->id, radius, radius);
+    qh_printpoint3 (fp, vertex->point);
+    fprintf (fp, "1\n");
+  }
+  fprintf (fp, "}}}\n");
+} /* printspheres */
+
+
+/*----------------------------------------------
+-printsummary-
+                see qhull.c
+*/
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printvdiagram">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printvdiagram( fp, format, facetlist, facets, printall )
+    print voronoi diagram
+      # of pairs of input sites
+      #indices site1 site2 vertex1 ...
+    
+    sites indexed by input point id
+      point 0 is the first input point
+    vertices indexed by 'o' and 'p' order
+      vertex 0 is the 'vertex-at-infinity'
+      vertex 1 is the first Voronoi vertex
+
+  see:
+    qh_printvoronoi()
+    qh_eachvoronoi_all()
+
+  notes:
+    if all facets are upperdelaunay, 
+      prints upper hull (furthest-site Voronoi diagram)
+*/
+void qh_printvdiagram (FILE *fp, int format, facetT *facetlist, setT *facets, boolT printall) {
+  setT *vertices;
+  int totcount, numcenters;
+  boolT islower;
+  qh_RIDGE innerouter= qh_RIDGEall;
+  printvridgeT printvridge= NULL;
+
+  if (format == qh_PRINTvertices) {
+    innerouter= qh_RIDGEall;
+    printvridge= qh_printvridge;
+  }else if (format == qh_PRINTinner) {
+    innerouter= qh_RIDGEinner;
+    printvridge= qh_printvnorm;
+  }else if (format == qh_PRINTouter) {
+    innerouter= qh_RIDGEouter;
+    printvridge= qh_printvnorm;
+  }else {
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "qh_printvdiagram: unknown print format %d.\n", format);
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  vertices= qh_markvoronoi (facetlist, facets, printall, &islower, &numcenters);
+  totcount= qh_printvdiagram2 (NULL, NULL, vertices, innerouter, False);
+  fprintf (fp, "%d\n", totcount);
+  totcount= qh_printvdiagram2 (fp, printvridge, vertices, innerouter, True /* inorder*/);
+  qh_settempfree (&vertices);
+#if 0  /* for testing qh_eachvoronoi_all */
+  fprintf (fp, "\n");
+  totcount= qh_eachvoronoi_all(fp, printvridge, qh UPPERdelaunay, innerouter, True /* inorder*/);
+  fprintf (fp, "%d\n", totcount);
+#endif
+} /* printvdiagram */
+  
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printvdiagram2">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printvdiagram2( fp, printvridge, vertices, innerouter, inorder )
+    visit all pairs of input sites (vertices) for selected Voronoi vertices
+    vertices may include NULLs
+  
+  innerouter:
+    qh_RIDGEall   print inner ridges (bounded) and outer ridges (unbounded)
+    qh_RIDGEinner print only inner ridges
+    qh_RIDGEouter print only outer ridges
+  
+  inorder:
+    print 3-d Voronoi vertices in order
+  
+  assumes:
+    qh_markvoronoi marked facet->visitid for Voronoi vertices
+    all facet->seen= False
+    all facet->seen2= True
+  
+  returns:
+    total number of Voronoi ridges 
+    if printvridge,
+      calls printvridge( fp, vertex, vertexA, centers) for each ridge
+      [see qh_eachvoronoi()]
+  
+  see:
+    qh_eachvoronoi_all()
+*/
+int qh_printvdiagram2 (FILE *fp, printvridgeT printvridge, setT *vertices, qh_RIDGE innerouter, boolT inorder) {
+  int totcount= 0;
+  int vertex_i, vertex_n;
+  vertexT *vertex;
+
+  FORALLvertices 
+    vertex->seen= False;
+  FOREACHvertex_i_(vertices) {
+    if (vertex) {
+      if (qh GOODvertex > 0 && qh_pointid(vertex->point)+1 != qh GOODvertex)
+	continue;
+      totcount += qh_eachvoronoi (fp, printvridge, vertex, !qh_ALL, innerouter, inorder);
+    }
+  }
+  return totcount;
+} /* printvdiagram2 */
+  
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printvertex">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printvertex( fp, vertex )
+    prints the information in a vertex
+*/
+void qh_printvertex(FILE *fp, vertexT *vertex) {
+  pointT *point;
+  int k, count= 0;
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp;
+  realT r; /*bug fix*/
+
+  if (!vertex) {
+    fprintf (fp, "  NULLvertex\n");
+    return;
+  }
+  fprintf(fp, "- p%d (v%d):", qh_pointid(vertex->point), vertex->id);
+  point= vertex->point;
+  if (point) {
+    for(k= qh hull_dim; k--; ) {
+      r= *point++;
+      fprintf(fp, " %5.2g", r);
+    }
+  }
+  if (vertex->deleted)
+    fprintf(fp, " deleted");
+  if (vertex->delridge)
+    fprintf (fp, " ridgedeleted");
+  fprintf(fp, "\n");
+  if (vertex->neighbors) {
+    fprintf(fp, "  neighbors:");
+    FOREACHneighbor_(vertex) {
+      if (++count % 100 == 0)
+	fprintf (fp, "\n     ");
+      fprintf(fp, " f%d", neighbor->id);
+    }
+    fprintf(fp, "\n");
+  }
+} /* printvertex */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printvertexlist">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printvertexlist( fp, string, facetlist, facets, printall )
+    prints vertices used by a facetlist or facet set
+    tests qh_skipfacet() if !printall
+*/
+void qh_printvertexlist (FILE *fp, char* string, facetT *facetlist, 
+                         setT *facets, boolT printall) {
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  setT *vertices;
+  
+  vertices= qh_facetvertices (facetlist, facets, printall);
+  fputs (string, fp);
+  FOREACHvertex_(vertices)
+    qh_printvertex(fp, vertex);
+  qh_settempfree (&vertices);
+} /* printvertexlist */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printvertices">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printvertices( fp, string, vertices )
+    prints vertices in a set
+*/
+void qh_printvertices(FILE *fp, char* string, setT *vertices) {
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  
+  fputs (string, fp);
+  FOREACHvertex_(vertices) 
+    fprintf (fp, " p%d (v%d)", qh_pointid(vertex->point), vertex->id);
+  fprintf(fp, "\n");
+} /* printvertices */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printvneighbors">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printvneighbors( fp, facetlist, facets, printall )
+    print vertex neighbors of vertices in facetlist and facets ('FN')
+
+  notes:
+    qh_countfacets clears facet->visitid for non-printed facets
+
+  design:
+    collect facet count and related statistics
+    if necessary, build neighbor sets for each vertex
+    collect vertices in facetlist and facets
+    build a point array for point->vertex and point->coplanar facet
+    for each point
+      list vertex neighbors or coplanar facet
+*/
+void qh_printvneighbors (FILE *fp, facetT* facetlist, setT *facets, boolT printall) {
+  int numfacets, numsimplicial, numridges, totneighbors, numneighbors, numcoplanars, numtricoplanars;
+  setT *vertices, *vertex_points, *coplanar_points;
+  int numpoints= qh num_points + qh_setsize (qh other_points);
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  int vertex_i, vertex_n;
+  facetT *facet, **facetp, *neighbor, **neighborp;
+  pointT *point, **pointp;
+
+  qh_countfacets (facetlist, facets, printall, &numfacets, &numsimplicial, 
+      &totneighbors, &numridges, &numcoplanars, &numtricoplanars);  /* sets facet->visitid */
+  fprintf (fp, "%d\n", numpoints);
+  qh_vertexneighbors();
+  vertices= qh_facetvertices (facetlist, facets, printall);
+  vertex_points= qh_settemp (numpoints);
+  coplanar_points= qh_settemp (numpoints);
+  qh_setzero (vertex_points, 0, numpoints);
+  qh_setzero (coplanar_points, 0, numpoints);
+  FOREACHvertex_(vertices)
+    qh_point_add (vertex_points, vertex->point, vertex);
+  FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+    FOREACHpoint_(facet->coplanarset)
+      qh_point_add (coplanar_points, point, facet);
+  }
+  FOREACHfacet_(facets) {
+    FOREACHpoint_(facet->coplanarset)
+      qh_point_add (coplanar_points, point, facet);
+  }
+  FOREACHvertex_i_(vertex_points) {
+    if (vertex) { 
+      numneighbors= qh_setsize (vertex->neighbors);
+      fprintf (fp, "%d", numneighbors);
+      if (qh hull_dim == 3)
+        qh_order_vertexneighbors (vertex);
+      else if (qh hull_dim >= 4)
+        qsort (SETaddr_(vertex->neighbors, facetT), numneighbors,
+             sizeof (facetT *), qh_compare_facetvisit);
+      FOREACHneighbor_(vertex) 
+        fprintf (fp, " %d", 
+		 neighbor->visitid ? neighbor->visitid - 1 : - neighbor->id);
+      fprintf (fp, "\n");
+    }else if ((facet= SETelemt_(coplanar_points, vertex_i, facetT)))
+      fprintf (fp, "1 %d\n",
+                  facet->visitid ? facet->visitid - 1 : - facet->id);
+    else
+      fprintf (fp, "0\n");
+  }
+  qh_settempfree (&coplanar_points);
+  qh_settempfree (&vertex_points);
+  qh_settempfree (&vertices);
+} /* printvneighbors */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printvoronoi">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printvoronoi( fp, format, facetlist, facets, printall )
+    print voronoi diagram in 'o' or 'G' format
+    for 'o' format
+      prints voronoi centers for each facet and for infinity
+      for each vertex, lists ids of printed facets or infinity
+      assumes facetlist and facets are disjoint
+    for 'G' format
+      prints an OFF object
+      adds a 0 coordinate to center
+      prints infinity but does not list in vertices
+
+  see:
+    qh_printvdiagram()
+
+  notes:
+    if 'o', 
+      prints a line for each point except "at-infinity"
+    if all facets are upperdelaunay, 
+      reverses lower and upper hull
+*/
+void qh_printvoronoi (FILE *fp, int format, facetT *facetlist, setT *facets, boolT printall) {
+  int k, numcenters, numvertices= 0, numneighbors, numinf, vid=1, vertex_i, vertex_n;
+  facetT *facet, **facetp, *neighbor, **neighborp;
+  setT *vertices;
+  vertexT *vertex;
+  boolT islower;
+  unsigned int numfacets= (unsigned int) qh num_facets;
+
+  vertices= qh_markvoronoi (facetlist, facets, printall, &islower, &numcenters);
+  FOREACHvertex_i_(vertices) {
+    if (vertex) {
+      numvertices++;
+      numneighbors = numinf = 0;
+      FOREACHneighbor_(vertex) {
+        if (neighbor->visitid == 0)
+	  numinf= 1;
+        else if (neighbor->visitid < numfacets)
+          numneighbors++;
+      }
+      if (numinf && !numneighbors) {
+	SETelem_(vertices, vertex_i)= NULL;
+	numvertices--;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  if (format == qh_PRINTgeom) 
+    fprintf (fp, "{appearance {+edge -face} OFF %d %d 1 # Voronoi centers and cells\n", 
+                numcenters, numvertices);
+  else
+    fprintf (fp, "%d\n%d %d 1\n", qh hull_dim-1, numcenters, qh_setsize(vertices));
+  if (format == qh_PRINTgeom) {
+    for (k= qh hull_dim-1; k--; )
+      fprintf (fp, qh_REAL_1, 0.0);
+    fprintf (fp, " 0 # infinity not used\n");
+  }else {
+    for (k= qh hull_dim-1; k--; )
+      fprintf (fp, qh_REAL_1, qh_INFINITE);
+    fprintf (fp, "\n");
+  }
+  FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+    if (facet->visitid && facet->visitid < numfacets) {
+      if (format == qh_PRINTgeom)
+        fprintf (fp, "# %d f%d\n", vid++, facet->id);
+      qh_printcenter (fp, format, NULL, facet);
+    }
+  }
+  FOREACHfacet_(facets) {
+    if (facet->visitid && facet->visitid < numfacets) {
+      if (format == qh_PRINTgeom)
+        fprintf (fp, "# %d f%d\n", vid++, facet->id);
+      qh_printcenter (fp, format, NULL, facet);
+    }
+  }
+  FOREACHvertex_i_(vertices) {
+    numneighbors= 0;
+    numinf=0;
+    if (vertex) {
+      if (qh hull_dim == 3)
+        qh_order_vertexneighbors(vertex);
+      else if (qh hull_dim >= 4)
+        qsort (SETaddr_(vertex->neighbors, vertexT), 
+	     qh_setsize (vertex->neighbors),
+	     sizeof (facetT *), qh_compare_facetvisit);
+      FOREACHneighbor_(vertex) {
+        if (neighbor->visitid == 0)
+	  numinf= 1;
+	else if (neighbor->visitid < numfacets)
+          numneighbors++;
+      }
+    }
+    if (format == qh_PRINTgeom) {
+      if (vertex) {
+	fprintf (fp, "%d", numneighbors);
+	if (vertex) {
+	  FOREACHneighbor_(vertex) {
+	    if (neighbor->visitid && neighbor->visitid < numfacets)
+	      fprintf (fp, " %d", neighbor->visitid);
+	  }
+	}
+	fprintf (fp, " # p%d (v%d)\n", vertex_i, vertex->id);
+      }else
+	fprintf (fp, " # p%d is coplanar or isolated\n", vertex_i);
+    }else {
+      if (numinf)
+	numneighbors++;
+      fprintf (fp, "%d", numneighbors);
+      if (vertex) {
+        FOREACHneighbor_(vertex) {
+  	  if (neighbor->visitid == 0) {
+  	    if (numinf) {
+  	      numinf= 0;
+	      fprintf (fp, " %d", neighbor->visitid);
+	    }
+	  }else if (neighbor->visitid < numfacets)
+	    fprintf (fp, " %d", neighbor->visitid);
+	}
+      }
+      fprintf (fp, "\n");
+    }
+  }
+  if (format == qh_PRINTgeom)
+    fprintf (fp, "}\n");
+  qh_settempfree (&vertices);
+} /* printvoronoi */
+  
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printvnorm">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printvnorm( fp, vertex, vertexA, centers, unbounded )
+    print one separating plane of the Voronoi diagram for a pair of input sites
+    unbounded==True if centers includes vertex-at-infinity
+  
+  assumes:
+    qh_ASvoronoi and qh_vertexneighbors() already set
+    
+  see:
+    qh_printvdiagram()
+    qh_eachvoronoi()
+*/
+void qh_printvnorm (FILE *fp, vertexT *vertex, vertexT *vertexA, setT *centers, boolT unbounded) {
+  pointT *normal;
+  realT offset;
+  int k;
+  
+  normal= qh_detvnorm (vertex, vertexA, centers, &offset);
+  fprintf (fp, "%d %d %d ", 
+      2+qh hull_dim, qh_pointid (vertex->point), qh_pointid (vertexA->point));
+  for (k= 0; k< qh hull_dim-1; k++)
+    fprintf (fp, qh_REAL_1, normal[k]);
+  fprintf (fp, qh_REAL_1, offset);
+  fprintf (fp, "\n");
+} /* printvnorm */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printvridge">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printvridge( fp, vertex, vertexA, centers, unbounded )
+    print one ridge of the Voronoi diagram for a pair of input sites
+    unbounded==True if centers includes vertex-at-infinity
+  
+  see:
+    qh_printvdiagram()
+  
+  notes:
+    the user may use a different function
+*/
+void qh_printvridge (FILE *fp, vertexT *vertex, vertexT *vertexA, setT *centers, boolT unbounded) {
+  facetT *facet, **facetp;
+
+  fprintf (fp, "%d %d %d", qh_setsize (centers)+2, 
+       qh_pointid (vertex->point), qh_pointid (vertexA->point));
+  FOREACHfacet_(centers) 
+    fprintf (fp, " %d", facet->visitid);
+  fprintf (fp, "\n");
+} /* printvridge */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="projectdim3">-</a>
+  
+  qh_projectdim3( source, destination )
+    project 2-d 3-d or 4-d point to a 3-d point
+    uses qh.DROPdim and qh.hull_dim
+    source and destination may be the same
+    
+  notes:
+    allocate 4 elements to destination just in case
+*/
+void qh_projectdim3 (pointT *source, pointT *destination) {
+  int i,k;
+
+  for (k= 0, i=0; k < qh hull_dim; k++) {
+    if (qh hull_dim == 4) {
+      if (k != qh DROPdim)
+        destination[i++]= source[k];
+    }else if (k == qh DROPdim)
+      destination[i++]= 0;
+    else
+      destination[i++]= source[k];
+  }
+  while (i < 3)
+    destination[i++]= 0.0;
+} /* projectdim3 */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="readfeasible">-</a>
+  
+  qh_readfeasible( dim, remainder )
+    read feasible point from remainder string and qh.fin
+
+  returns:
+    number of lines read from qh.fin
+    sets qh.FEASIBLEpoint with malloc'd coordinates
+
+  notes:
+    checks for qh.HALFspace
+    assumes dim > 1
+
+  see:
+    qh_setfeasible
+*/
+int qh_readfeasible (int dim, char *remainder) {
+  boolT isfirst= True;
+  int linecount= 0, tokcount= 0;
+  char *s, *t, firstline[qh_MAXfirst+1];
+  coordT *coords, value;
+
+  if (!qh HALFspace) {
+    fprintf  (qh ferr, "qhull input error: feasible point (dim 1 coords) is only valid for halfspace intersection\n");
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+  }  
+  if (qh feasible_string)
+    fprintf  (qh ferr, "qhull input warning: feasible point (dim 1 coords) overrides 'Hn,n,n' feasible point for halfspace intersection\n");
+  if (!(qh feasible_point= (coordT*)malloc (dim* sizeof(coordT)))) {
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull error: insufficient memory for feasible point\n");
+    qh_errexit(qh_ERRmem, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  coords= qh feasible_point;
+  while ((s= (isfirst ?  remainder : fgets(firstline, qh_MAXfirst, qh fin)))) {
+    if (isfirst)
+      isfirst= False;
+    else
+      linecount++;
+    while (*s) {
+      while (isspace(*s))
+        s++;
+      value= qh_strtod (s, &t);
+      if (s == t)
+        break;
+      s= t;
+      *(coords++)= value;
+      if (++tokcount == dim) {
+        while (isspace (*s))
+          s++;
+        qh_strtod (s, &t);
+        if (s != t) {
+          fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: coordinates for feasible point do not finish out the line: %s\n",
+               s);
+          qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+        }
+        return linecount;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: only %d coordinates.  Could not read %d-d feasible point.\n",
+           tokcount, dim);
+  qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+  return 0;
+} /* readfeasible */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="readpoints">-</a>
+  
+  qh_readpoints( numpoints, dimension, ismalloc )
+    read points from qh.fin into qh.first_point, qh.num_points
+    qh.fin is lines of coordinates, one per vertex, first line number of points
+    if 'rbox D4',
+      gives message
+    if qh.ATinfinity,
+      adds point-at-infinity for Delaunay triangulations
+
+  returns:
+    number of points, array of point coordinates, dimension, ismalloc True
+    if qh.DELAUNAY & !qh.PROJECTinput, projects points to paraboloid
+        and clears qh.PROJECTdelaunay
+    if qh.HALFspace, reads optional feasible point, reads halfspaces,
+        converts to dual.
+
+  for feasible point in "cdd format" in 3-d:
+    3 1
+    coordinates
+    comments
+    begin
+    n 4 real/integer
+    ...
+    end
+
+  notes:
+    dimension will change in qh_initqhull_globals if qh.PROJECTinput
+    uses malloc() since qh_mem not initialized
+    FIXUP: this routine needs rewriting
+*/
+coordT *qh_readpoints(int *numpoints, int *dimension, boolT *ismalloc) {
+  coordT *points, *coords, *infinity= NULL;
+  realT paraboloid, maxboloid= -REALmax, value;
+  realT *coordp= NULL, *offsetp= NULL, *normalp= NULL;
+  char *s, *t, firstline[qh_MAXfirst+1];
+  int diminput=0, numinput=0, dimfeasible= 0, newnum, k, tempi;
+  int firsttext=0, firstshort=0, firstlong=0, firstpoint=0;
+  int tokcount= 0, linecount=0, maxcount, coordcount=0;
+  boolT islong, isfirst= True, wasbegin= False;
+  boolT isdelaunay= qh DELAUNAY && !qh PROJECTinput;
+
+  if (qh CDDinput) {
+    while ((s= fgets(firstline, qh_MAXfirst, qh fin))) {
+      linecount++;
+      if (qh HALFspace && linecount == 1 && isdigit(*s)) {
+	dimfeasible= qh_strtol (s, &s);	
+	while (isspace(*s))
+          s++;
+        if (qh_strtol (s, &s) == 1)
+          linecount += qh_readfeasible (dimfeasible, s);
+        else
+          dimfeasible= 0;
+      }else if (!memcmp (firstline, "begin", 5) || !memcmp (firstline, "BEGIN", 5))
+        break;
+      else if (!*qh rbox_command)
+	strncat(qh rbox_command, s, sizeof (qh rbox_command)-1);
+    }
+    if (!s) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: missing \"begin\" for cdd-formated input\n");
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+  }
+  while(!numinput && (s= fgets(firstline, qh_MAXfirst, qh fin))) {
+    linecount++;
+    if (!memcmp (s, "begin", 5) || !memcmp (s, "BEGIN", 5))
+      wasbegin= True;
+    while (*s) {
+      while (isspace(*s))
+        s++;
+      if (!*s)
+        break;
+      if (!isdigit(*s)) {
+        if (!*qh rbox_command) {
+          strncat(qh rbox_command, s, sizeof (qh rbox_command)-1);
+	  firsttext= linecount;
+        }
+        break;
+      }
+      if (!diminput) 
+        diminput= qh_strtol (s, &s);
+      else {
+        numinput= qh_strtol (s, &s);
+        if (numinput == 1 && diminput >= 2 && qh HALFspace && !qh CDDinput) {
+          linecount += qh_readfeasible (diminput, s); /* checks if ok */
+          dimfeasible= diminput;
+          diminput= numinput= 0;
+        }else 
+          break;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  if (!s) {
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull input error: short input file.  Did not find dimension and number of points\n");
+    qh_errexit(qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  if (diminput > numinput) {
+    tempi= diminput;	/* exchange dim and n, e.g., for cdd input format */
+    diminput= numinput;
+    numinput= tempi;
+  }
+  if (diminput < 2) {
+    fprintf(qh ferr,"qhull input error: dimension %d (first number) should be at least 2\n",
+	    diminput);
+    qh_errexit(qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  if (isdelaunay) {
+    qh PROJECTdelaunay= False;
+    if (qh CDDinput)
+      *dimension= diminput;
+    else
+      *dimension= diminput+1;
+    *numpoints= numinput;
+    if (qh ATinfinity)
+      (*numpoints)++;
+  }else if (qh HALFspace) {
+    *dimension= diminput - 1;
+    *numpoints= numinput;
+    if (diminput < 3) {
+      fprintf(qh ferr,"qhull input error: dimension %d (first number, includes offset) should be at least 3 for halfspaces\n",
+  	    diminput);
+      qh_errexit(qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+    if (dimfeasible) {
+      if (dimfeasible != *dimension) {
+        fprintf(qh ferr,"qhull input error: dimension %d of feasible point is not one less than dimension %d for halfspaces\n",
+          dimfeasible, diminput);
+        qh_errexit(qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+      }
+    }else 
+      qh_setfeasible (*dimension);
+  }else {
+    if (qh CDDinput) 
+      *dimension= diminput-1;
+    else
+      *dimension= diminput;
+    *numpoints= numinput;
+  }
+  qh normal_size= *dimension * sizeof(coordT); /* for tracing with qh_printpoint */
+  if (qh HALFspace) {
+    qh half_space= coordp= (coordT*) malloc (qh normal_size + sizeof(coordT));
+    if (qh CDDinput) {
+      offsetp= qh half_space;
+      normalp= offsetp + 1;
+    }else {
+      normalp= qh half_space;
+      offsetp= normalp + *dimension;
+    }
+  } 
+  qh maxline= diminput * (qh_REALdigits + 5);
+  maximize_(qh maxline, 500);
+  qh line= (char*)malloc ((qh maxline+1) * sizeof (char));
+  *ismalloc= True;  /* use malloc since memory not setup */
+  coords= points= qh temp_malloc= 
+        (coordT*)malloc((*numpoints)*(*dimension)*sizeof(coordT));
+  if (!coords || !qh line || (qh HALFspace && !qh half_space)) {
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull error: insufficient memory to read %d points\n",
+	    numinput);
+    qh_errexit(qh_ERRmem, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  if (isdelaunay && qh ATinfinity) {
+    infinity= points + numinput * (*dimension);
+    for (k= (*dimension) - 1; k--; )
+      infinity[k]= 0.0;
+  }
+  maxcount= numinput * diminput;
+  paraboloid= 0.0;
+  while ((s= (isfirst ?  s : fgets(qh line, qh maxline, qh fin)))) {
+    if (!isfirst) {
+      linecount++;
+      if (*s == 'e' || *s == 'E') {
+	if (!memcmp (s, "end", 3) || !memcmp (s, "END", 3)) {
+	  if (qh CDDinput )
+	    break;
+	  else if (wasbegin) 
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input warning: the input appears to be in cdd format.  If so, use 'Fd'\n");
+	}
+      }
+    }
+    islong= False;
+    while (*s) {
+      while (isspace(*s))
+        s++;
+      value= qh_strtod (s, &t);
+      if (s == t) {
+        if (!*qh rbox_command)
+ 	 strncat(qh rbox_command, s, sizeof (qh rbox_command)-1);
+        if (*s && !firsttext) 
+          firsttext= linecount;
+        if (!islong && !firstshort && coordcount)
+          firstshort= linecount;
+        break;
+      }
+      if (!firstpoint)
+	firstpoint= linecount;
+      s= t;
+      if (++tokcount > maxcount)
+        continue;
+      if (qh HALFspace) {
+	if (qh CDDinput) 
+	  *(coordp++)= -value; /* both coefficients and offset */
+	else
+	  *(coordp++)= value;
+      }else {
+        *(coords++)= value;
+        if (qh CDDinput && !coordcount) {
+          if (value != 1.0) {
+            fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: for cdd format, point at line %d does not start with '1'\n",
+                   linecount);
+            qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+          }
+          coords--;
+        }else if (isdelaunay) {
+	  paraboloid += value * value;
+	  if (qh ATinfinity) {
+	    if (qh CDDinput)
+	      infinity[coordcount-1] += value;
+	    else
+	      infinity[coordcount] += value;
+	  }
+	}
+      }
+      if (++coordcount == diminput) {
+        coordcount= 0;
+        if (isdelaunay) {
+          *(coords++)= paraboloid;
+          maximize_(maxboloid, paraboloid);
+          paraboloid= 0.0;
+        }else if (qh HALFspace) {
+          if (!qh_sethalfspace (*dimension, coords, &coords, normalp, offsetp, qh feasible_point)) {
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "The halfspace was on line %d\n", linecount);
+	    if (wasbegin)
+	      fprintf (qh ferr, "The input appears to be in cdd format.  If so, you should use option 'Fd'\n");
+	    qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+	  }
+          coordp= qh half_space;
+        }          
+        while (isspace(*s))
+          s++;
+        if (*s) {
+          islong= True;
+          if (!firstlong)
+            firstlong= linecount;
+	}
+      }
+    }
+    if (!islong && !firstshort && coordcount)
+      firstshort= linecount;
+    if (!isfirst && s - qh line >= qh maxline) {
+      fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull input error: line %d contained more than %d characters\n", 
+	      linecount, (int) (s - qh line));
+      qh_errexit(qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+    isfirst= False;
+  }
+  if (tokcount != maxcount) {
+    newnum= fmin_(numinput, tokcount/diminput);
+    fprintf(qh ferr,"\
+qhull warning: instead of %d %d-dimensional points, input contains\n\
+%d points and %d extra coordinates.  Line %d is the first\npoint",
+       numinput, diminput, tokcount/diminput, tokcount % diminput, firstpoint);
+    if (firsttext)
+      fprintf(qh ferr, ", line %d is the first comment", firsttext);
+    if (firstshort)
+      fprintf(qh ferr, ", line %d is the first short\nline", firstshort);
+    if (firstlong)
+      fprintf(qh ferr, ", line %d is the first long line", firstlong);
+    fprintf(qh ferr, ".  Continue with %d points.\n", newnum);
+    numinput= newnum;
+    if (isdelaunay && qh ATinfinity) {
+      for (k= tokcount % diminput; k--; )
+	infinity[k] -= *(--coords);
+      *numpoints= newnum+1;
+    }else {
+      coords -= tokcount % diminput;
+      *numpoints= newnum;
+    }
+  }
+  if (isdelaunay && qh ATinfinity) {
+    for (k= (*dimension) -1; k--; )
+      infinity[k] /= numinput;
+    if (coords == infinity)
+      coords += (*dimension) -1;
+    else {
+      for (k= 0; k < (*dimension) -1; k++)
+	*(coords++)= infinity[k];
+    }
+    *(coords++)= maxboloid * 1.1;
+  }
+  if (qh rbox_command[0]) {
+    qh rbox_command[strlen(qh rbox_command)-1]= '\0';
+    if (!strcmp (qh rbox_command, "./rbox D4")) 
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "\n\
+This is the qhull test case.  If any errors or core dumps occur,\n\
+recompile qhull with 'make new'.  If errors still occur, there is\n\
+an incompatibility.  You should try a different compiler.  You can also\n\
+change the choices in user.h.  If you discover the source of the problem,\n\
+please send mail to qhull_bug@qhull.org.\n\
+\n\
+Type 'qhull' for a short list of options.\n");
+  }
+  free (qh line);
+  qh line= NULL;
+  if (qh half_space) {
+    free (qh half_space);
+    qh half_space= NULL;
+  }
+  qh temp_malloc= NULL;
+  trace1((qh ferr,"qh_readpoints: read in %d %d-dimensional points\n",
+	  numinput, diminput));
+  return(points);
+} /* readpoints */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="setfeasible">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setfeasible( dim )
+    set qh.FEASIBLEpoint from qh.feasible_string in "n,n,n" or "n n n" format
+
+  notes:
+    "n,n,n" already checked by qh_initflags()
+    see qh_readfeasible()
+*/
+void qh_setfeasible (int dim) {
+  int tokcount= 0;
+  char *s;
+  coordT *coords, value;
+
+  if (!(s= qh feasible_string)) {
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "\
+qhull input error: halfspace intersection needs a feasible point.\n\
+Either prepend the input with 1 point or use 'Hn,n,n'.  See manual.\n");
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  if (!(qh feasible_point= (pointT*)malloc (dim* sizeof(coordT)))) {
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull error: insufficient memory for 'Hn,n,n'\n");
+    qh_errexit(qh_ERRmem, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  coords= qh feasible_point;
+  while (*s) {
+    value= qh_strtod (s, &s);
+    if (++tokcount > dim) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input warning: more coordinates for 'H%s' than dimension %d\n",
+          qh feasible_string, dim);
+      break;
+    }
+    *(coords++)= value;
+    if (*s)
+      s++;
+  }
+  while (++tokcount <= dim)    
+    *(coords++)= 0.0;
+} /* setfeasible */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="skipfacet">-</a>
+  
+  qh_skipfacet( facet )
+    returns 'True' if this facet is not to be printed 
+
+  notes:
+    based on the user provided slice thresholds and 'good' specifications
+*/
+boolT qh_skipfacet(facetT *facet) {
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp;
+
+  if (qh PRINTneighbors) {
+    if (facet->good)
+      return !qh PRINTgood;
+    FOREACHneighbor_(facet) {
+      if (neighbor->good)
+	return False;
+    }
+    return True;
+  }else if (qh PRINTgood)
+    return !facet->good;
+  else if (!facet->normal)
+    return True;
+  return (!qh_inthresholds (facet->normal, NULL));
+} /* skipfacet */
+

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/io.h
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/io.h	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/io.h	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,154 @@
+/*<html><pre>  -<a                             href="qh-io.htm"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="TOP">-</a>
+
+   io.h 
+   declarations of Input/Output functions
+
+   see README, qhull.h and io.c
+
+   copyright (c) 1993-2003, The Geometry Center
+*/
+
+#ifndef qhDEFio
+#define qhDEFio 1
+
+/*============ constants and flags ==================*/
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="qh_MAXfirst">-</a>
+  
+  qh_MAXfirst
+    maximum length of first two lines of stdin
+*/
+#define qh_MAXfirst  200
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="qh_MINradius">-</a>
+  
+  qh_MINradius
+    min radius for Gp and Gv, fraction of maxcoord
+*/
+#define qh_MINradius 0.02
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="qh_GEOMepsilon">-</a>
+  
+  qh_GEOMepsilon
+    adjust outer planes for 'lines closer' and geomview roundoff.  
+    This prevents bleed through.
+*/
+#define qh_GEOMepsilon 2e-3
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="qh_WHITESPACE">-</a>
+  
+  qh_WHITESPACE
+    possible values of white space
+*/
+#define qh_WHITESPACE " \n\t\v\r\f"
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="RIDGE">-</a>
+  
+  qh_RIDGE
+    to select which ridges to print in qh_eachvoronoi
+*/
+typedef enum
+{
+    qh_RIDGEall = 0, qh_RIDGEinner, qh_RIDGEouter
+}
+qh_RIDGE;
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-io.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="printvridgeT">-</a>
+  
+  printvridgeT
+    prints results of qh_printvdiagram
+
+  see:
+    <a href="io.c#printvridge">qh_printvridge</a> for an example
+*/
+typedef void (*printvridgeT)(FILE *fp, vertexT *vertex, vertexT *vertexA, setT *centers, boolT unbounded);
+
+/*============== -prototypes in alphabetical order =========*/
+
+void    dfacet( unsigned id);
+void    dvertex( unsigned id);
+int	qh_compare_facetarea(const void *p1, const void *p2);
+int	qh_compare_facetmerge(const void *p1, const void *p2);
+int	qh_compare_facetvisit(const void *p1, const void *p2);
+int	qh_compare_vertexpoint(const void *p1, const void *p2); /* not used */
+
+void    qh_countfacets (facetT *facetlist, setT *facets, boolT printall, 
+              int *numfacetsp, int *numsimplicialp, int *totneighborsp, 
+              int *numridgesp, int *numcoplanarsp, int *numnumtricoplanarsp);
+pointT *qh_detvnorm (vertexT *vertex, vertexT *vertexA, setT *centers, realT *offsetp);
+setT   *qh_detvridge (vertexT *vertex);
+setT   *qh_detvridge3 (vertexT *atvertex, vertexT *vertex);
+int     qh_eachvoronoi (FILE *fp, printvridgeT printvridge, vertexT *atvertex, boolT visitall, qh_RIDGE innerouter, boolT inorder);
+int     qh_eachvoronoi_all (FILE *fp, printvridgeT printvridge, boolT isupper, qh_RIDGE innerouter, boolT inorder);
+void	qh_facet2point(facetT *facet, pointT **point0, pointT **point1, realT *mindist);
+setT   *qh_facetvertices (facetT *facetlist, setT *facets, boolT allfacets);
+void    qh_geomplanes (facetT *facet, realT *outerplane, realT *innerplane);
+void    qh_markkeep (facetT *facetlist);
+setT   *qh_markvoronoi (facetT *facetlist, setT *facets, boolT printall, boolT *islowerp, int *numcentersp);
+void    qh_order_vertexneighbors(vertexT *vertex);
+void	qh_printafacet(FILE *fp, int format, facetT *facet, boolT printall);
+void    qh_printbegin (FILE *fp, int format, facetT *facetlist, setT *facets, boolT printall);
+void 	qh_printcenter (FILE *fp, int format, char *string, facetT *facet);
+void    qh_printcentrum (FILE *fp, facetT *facet, realT radius);
+void    qh_printend (FILE *fp, int format, facetT *facetlist, setT *facets, boolT printall);
+void    qh_printend4geom (FILE *fp, facetT *facet, int *num, boolT printall);
+void    qh_printextremes (FILE *fp, facetT *facetlist, setT *facets, int printall);
+void    qh_printextremes_2d (FILE *fp, facetT *facetlist, setT *facets, int printall);
+void    qh_printextremes_d (FILE *fp, facetT *facetlist, setT *facets, int printall);
+void	qh_printfacet(FILE *fp, facetT *facet);
+void	qh_printfacet2math(FILE *fp, facetT *facet, int format, int notfirst);
+void	qh_printfacet2geom(FILE *fp, facetT *facet, realT color[3]);
+void    qh_printfacet2geom_points(FILE *fp, pointT *point1, pointT *point2,
+			       facetT *facet, realT offset, realT color[3]);
+void	qh_printfacet3math (FILE *fp, facetT *facet, int format, int notfirst);
+void	qh_printfacet3geom_nonsimplicial(FILE *fp, facetT *facet, realT color[3]);
+void	qh_printfacet3geom_points(FILE *fp, setT *points, facetT *facet, realT offset, realT color[3]);
+void	qh_printfacet3geom_simplicial(FILE *fp, facetT *facet, realT color[3]);
+void	qh_printfacet3vertex(FILE *fp, facetT *facet, int format);
+void	qh_printfacet4geom_nonsimplicial(FILE *fp, facetT *facet, realT color[3]);
+void	qh_printfacet4geom_simplicial(FILE *fp, facetT *facet, realT color[3]);
+void	qh_printfacetNvertex_nonsimplicial(FILE *fp, facetT *facet, int id, int format);
+void	qh_printfacetNvertex_simplicial(FILE *fp, facetT *facet, int format);
+void    qh_printfacetheader(FILE *fp, facetT *facet);
+void    qh_printfacetridges(FILE *fp, facetT *facet);
+void	qh_printfacets(FILE *fp, int format, facetT *facetlist, setT *facets, boolT printall);
+void	qh_printhelp_degenerate(FILE *fp);
+void	qh_printhelp_singular(FILE *fp);
+void	qh_printhyperplaneintersection(FILE *fp, facetT *facet1, facetT *facet2,
+  		   setT *vertices, realT color[3]);
+void	qh_printneighborhood (FILE *fp, int format, facetT *facetA, facetT *facetB, boolT printall);
+void    qh_printline3geom (FILE *fp, pointT *pointA, pointT *pointB, realT color[3]);
+void	qh_printpoint(FILE *fp, char *string, pointT *point);
+void	qh_printpointid(FILE *fp, char *string, int dim, pointT *point, int id);
+void    qh_printpoint3 (FILE *fp, pointT *point);
+void    qh_printpoints_out (FILE *fp, facetT *facetlist, setT *facets, int printall);
+void    qh_printpointvect (FILE *fp, pointT *point, coordT *normal, pointT *center, realT radius, realT color[3]);
+void    qh_printpointvect2 (FILE *fp, pointT *point, coordT *normal, pointT *center, realT radius);
+void	qh_printridge(FILE *fp, ridgeT *ridge);
+void    qh_printspheres(FILE *fp, setT *vertices, realT radius);
+void    qh_printvdiagram (FILE *fp, int format, facetT *facetlist, setT *facets, boolT printall);
+int     qh_printvdiagram2 (FILE *fp, printvridgeT printvridge, setT *vertices, qh_RIDGE innerouter, boolT inorder);
+void	qh_printvertex(FILE *fp, vertexT *vertex);
+void	qh_printvertexlist (FILE *fp, char* string, facetT *facetlist,
+                         setT *facets, boolT printall);
+void	qh_printvertices (FILE *fp, char* string, setT *vertices);
+void    qh_printvneighbors (FILE *fp, facetT* facetlist, setT *facets, boolT printall);
+void    qh_printvoronoi (FILE *fp, int format, facetT *facetlist, setT *facets, boolT printall);
+void    qh_printvnorm (FILE *fp, vertexT *vertex, vertexT *vertexA, setT *centers, boolT unbounded);
+void    qh_printvridge (FILE *fp, vertexT *vertex, vertexT *vertexA, setT *centers, boolT unbounded);
+void	qh_produce_output(void);
+void    qh_projectdim3 (pointT *source, pointT *destination);
+int     qh_readfeasible (int dim, char *remainder);
+coordT *qh_readpoints(int *numpoints, int *dimension, boolT *ismalloc);
+void    qh_setfeasible (int dim);
+boolT	qh_skipfacet(facetT *facet);
+
+#endif /* qhDEFio */

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/mem.c
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/mem.c	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/mem.c	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,450 @@
+/*<html><pre>  -<a                             href="qh-mem.htm"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="TOP">-</a>
+
+  mem.c 
+    memory management routines for qhull
+
+  This is a standalone program.
+   
+  To initialize memory:
+
+    qh_meminit (stderr);  
+    qh_meminitbuffers (qh IStracing, qh_MEMalign, 7, qh_MEMbufsize,qh_MEMinitbuf);
+    qh_memsize(sizeof(facetT));
+    qh_memsize(sizeof(facetT));
+    ...
+    qh_memsetup();
+    
+  To free up all memory buffers:
+    qh_memfreeshort (&curlong, &totlong);
+         
+  if qh_NOmem, 
+    malloc/free is used instead of mem.c
+
+  notes: 
+    uses Quickfit algorithm (freelists for commonly allocated sizes)
+    assumes small sizes for freelists (it discards the tail of memory buffers)
+   
+  see:
+    qh-mem.htm and mem.h
+    global.c (qh_initbuffers) for an example of using mem.c 
+   
+  copyright (c) 1993-2003 The Geometry Center
+*/
+
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include "mem.h"
+
+#ifndef qhDEFqhull
+typedef struct ridgeT ridgeT;
+typedef struct facetT facetT;
+void    qh_errexit(int exitcode, facetT *, ridgeT *);
+#endif
+
+/*============ -global data structure ==============
+    see mem.h for definition
+*/
+
+qhmemT qhmem= {0};     /* remove "= {0}" if this causes a compiler error */
+
+#ifndef qh_NOmem
+
+/*============= internal functions ==============*/
+  
+static int qh_intcompare(const void *i, const void *j);
+
+/*========== functions in alphabetical order ======== */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-mem.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="intcompare">-</a>
+  
+  qh_intcompare( i, j )
+    used by qsort and bsearch to compare two integers
+*/
+static int qh_intcompare(const void *i, const void *j) {
+  return(*((int *)i) - *((int *)j));
+} /* intcompare */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-mem.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="memalloc">-</a>
+   
+  qh_memalloc( insize )  
+    returns object of insize bytes
+    qhmem is the global memory structure 
+    
+  returns:
+    pointer to allocated memory 
+    errors if insufficient memory
+
+  notes:
+    use explicit type conversion to avoid type warnings on some compilers
+    actual object may be larger than insize
+    use qh_memalloc_() for inline code for quick allocations
+    logs allocations if 'T5'
+  
+  design:
+    if size < qhmem.LASTsize
+      if qhmem.freelists[size] non-empty
+        return first object on freelist
+      else
+        round up request to size of qhmem.freelists[size]
+        allocate new allocation buffer if necessary
+        allocate object from allocation buffer
+    else
+      allocate object with malloc()
+*/
+void *qh_memalloc(int insize) {
+  void **freelistp, *newbuffer;
+  int index, size;
+  int outsize, bufsize;
+  void *object;
+
+  if ((unsigned) insize <= (unsigned) qhmem.LASTsize) {
+    index= qhmem.indextable[insize];
+    freelistp= qhmem.freelists+index;
+    if ((object= *freelistp)) {
+      qhmem.cntquick++;  
+      *freelistp= *((void **)*freelistp);  /* replace freelist with next object */
+      return (object);
+    }else {
+      outsize= qhmem.sizetable[index];
+      qhmem.cntshort++;
+      if (outsize > qhmem .freesize) {
+	if (!qhmem.curbuffer)
+	  bufsize= qhmem.BUFinit;
+        else
+	  bufsize= qhmem.BUFsize;
+        qhmem.totshort += bufsize;
+	if (!(newbuffer= malloc(bufsize))) {
+	  fprintf(qhmem.ferr, "qhull error (qh_memalloc): insufficient memory\n");
+	  qh_errexit(qhmem_ERRmem, NULL, NULL);
+	} 
+	*((void **)newbuffer)= qhmem.curbuffer;  /* prepend newbuffer to curbuffer 
+						    list */
+	qhmem.curbuffer= newbuffer;
+        size= (sizeof(void **) + qhmem.ALIGNmask) & ~qhmem.ALIGNmask;
+	qhmem.freemem= (void *)((char *)newbuffer+size);
+	qhmem.freesize= bufsize - size;
+      }
+      object= qhmem.freemem;
+      qhmem.freemem= (void *)((char *)qhmem.freemem + outsize);
+      qhmem.freesize -= outsize;
+      return object;
+    }
+  }else {                     /* long allocation */
+    if (!qhmem.indextable) {
+      fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_memalloc): qhmem has not been initialized.\n");
+      qh_errexit(qhmem_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+    outsize= insize;
+    qhmem .cntlong++;
+    qhmem .curlong++;
+    qhmem .totlong += outsize;
+    if (qhmem.maxlong < qhmem.totlong)
+      qhmem.maxlong= qhmem.totlong;
+    if (!(object= malloc(outsize))) {
+      fprintf(qhmem.ferr, "qhull error (qh_memalloc): insufficient memory\n");
+      qh_errexit(qhmem_ERRmem, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+    if (qhmem.IStracing >= 5)
+      fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qh_memalloc long: %d bytes at %p\n", outsize, object);
+  }
+  return (object);
+} /* memalloc */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-mem.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="memfree">-</a>
+   
+  qh_memfree( object, size ) 
+    free up an object of size bytes
+    size is insize from qh_memalloc
+
+  notes:
+    object may be NULL
+    type checking warns if using (void **)object
+    use qh_memfree_() for quick free's of small objects
+ 
+  design:
+    if size <= qhmem.LASTsize
+      append object to corresponding freelist
+    else
+      call free(object)
+*/
+void qh_memfree(void *object, int size) {
+  void **freelistp;
+
+  if (!object)
+    return;
+  if (size <= qhmem.LASTsize) {
+    qhmem .freeshort++;
+    freelistp= qhmem.freelists + qhmem.indextable[size];
+    *((void **)object)= *freelistp;
+    *freelistp= object;
+  }else {
+    qhmem .freelong++;
+    qhmem .totlong -= size;
+    free (object);
+    if (qhmem.IStracing >= 5)
+      fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qh_memfree long: %d bytes at %p\n", size, object);
+  }
+} /* memfree */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-mem.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="memfreeshort">-</a>
+  
+  qh_memfreeshort( curlong, totlong )
+    frees up all short and qhmem memory allocations
+
+  returns:
+    number and size of current long allocations
+*/
+void qh_memfreeshort (int *curlong, int *totlong) {
+  void *buffer, *nextbuffer;
+  FILE *ferr;
+
+  *curlong= qhmem .cntlong - qhmem .freelong;
+  *totlong= qhmem .totlong;
+  for(buffer= qhmem.curbuffer; buffer; buffer= nextbuffer) {
+    nextbuffer= *((void **) buffer);
+    free(buffer);
+  }
+  qhmem.curbuffer= NULL;
+  if (qhmem .LASTsize) {
+    free (qhmem .indextable);
+    free (qhmem .freelists);
+    free (qhmem .sizetable);
+  }
+  ferr= qhmem.ferr;
+  memset((char *)&qhmem, 0, sizeof qhmem);  /* every field is 0, FALSE, NULL */
+  qhmem.ferr= ferr;
+} /* memfreeshort */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-mem.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="meminit">-</a>
+   
+  qh_meminit( ferr )
+    initialize qhmem and test sizeof( void*)
+*/
+void qh_meminit (FILE *ferr) {
+  
+  memset((char *)&qhmem, 0, sizeof qhmem);  /* every field is 0, FALSE, NULL */
+  qhmem.ferr= ferr;
+  if (sizeof(void*) < sizeof(int)) {
+    fprintf (ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_meminit): sizeof(void*) < sizeof(int).  qset.c will not work\n");
+    exit (1);  /* can not use qh_errexit() */
+  }
+} /* meminit */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-mem.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="meminitbuffers">-</a>
+  
+  qh_meminitbuffers( tracelevel, alignment, numsizes, bufsize, bufinit )
+    initialize qhmem
+    if tracelevel >= 5, trace memory allocations
+    alignment= desired address alignment for memory allocations
+    numsizes= number of freelists
+    bufsize=  size of additional memory buffers for short allocations
+    bufinit=  size of initial memory buffer for short allocations
+*/
+void qh_meminitbuffers (int tracelevel, int alignment, int numsizes, int bufsize, int bufinit) {
+
+  qhmem.IStracing= tracelevel;
+  qhmem.NUMsizes= numsizes;
+  qhmem.BUFsize= bufsize;
+  qhmem.BUFinit= bufinit;
+  qhmem.ALIGNmask= alignment-1;
+  if (qhmem.ALIGNmask & ~qhmem.ALIGNmask) {
+    fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_meminit): memory alignment %d is not a power of 2\n", alignment);
+    qh_errexit (qhmem_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  qhmem.sizetable= (int *) calloc (numsizes, sizeof(int));
+  qhmem.freelists= (void **) calloc (numsizes, sizeof(void *));
+  if (!qhmem.sizetable || !qhmem.freelists) {
+    fprintf(qhmem.ferr, "qhull error (qh_meminit): insufficient memory\n");
+    qh_errexit (qhmem_ERRmem, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  if (qhmem.IStracing >= 1)
+    fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qh_meminitbuffers: memory initialized with alignment %d\n", alignment);
+} /* meminitbuffers */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-mem.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="memsetup">-</a>
+  
+  qh_memsetup()
+    set up memory after running memsize()
+*/
+void qh_memsetup (void) {
+  int k,i;
+
+  qsort(qhmem.sizetable, qhmem.TABLEsize, sizeof(int), qh_intcompare);
+  qhmem.LASTsize= qhmem.sizetable[qhmem.TABLEsize-1];
+  if (qhmem .LASTsize >= qhmem .BUFsize || qhmem.LASTsize >= qhmem .BUFinit) {
+    fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qhull error (qh_memsetup): largest mem size %d is >= buffer size %d or initial buffer size %d\n",
+            qhmem .LASTsize, qhmem .BUFsize, qhmem .BUFinit);
+    qh_errexit(qhmem_ERRmem, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  if (!(qhmem.indextable= (int *)malloc((qhmem.LASTsize+1) * sizeof(int)))) {
+    fprintf(qhmem.ferr, "qhull error (qh_memsetup): insufficient memory\n");
+    qh_errexit(qhmem_ERRmem, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  for(k=qhmem.LASTsize+1; k--; )
+    qhmem.indextable[k]= k;
+  i= 0;
+  for(k= 0; k <= qhmem.LASTsize; k++) {
+    if (qhmem.indextable[k] <= qhmem.sizetable[i])
+      qhmem.indextable[k]= i;
+    else
+      qhmem.indextable[k]= ++i;
+  }
+} /* memsetup */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-mem.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="memsize">-</a>
+  
+  qh_memsize( size )
+    define a free list for this size
+*/
+void qh_memsize(int size) {
+  int k;
+
+  if (qhmem .LASTsize) {
+    fprintf (qhmem .ferr, "qhull error (qh_memsize): called after qhmem_setup\n");
+    qh_errexit (qhmem_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  size= (size + qhmem.ALIGNmask) & ~qhmem.ALIGNmask;
+  for(k= qhmem.TABLEsize; k--; ) {
+    if (qhmem.sizetable[k] == size)
+      return;
+  }
+  if (qhmem.TABLEsize < qhmem.NUMsizes)
+    qhmem.sizetable[qhmem.TABLEsize++]= size;
+  else
+    fprintf(qhmem.ferr, "qhull warning (memsize): free list table has room for only %d sizes\n", qhmem.NUMsizes);
+} /* memsize */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-mem.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="memstatistics">-</a>
+  
+  qh_memstatistics( fp )
+    print out memory statistics
+
+  notes:
+    does not account for wasted memory at the end of each block
+*/
+void qh_memstatistics (FILE *fp) {
+  int i, count, totfree= 0;
+  void *object;
+  
+  for (i=0; i < qhmem.TABLEsize; i++) {
+    count=0;
+    for (object= qhmem .freelists[i]; object; object= *((void **)object))
+      count++;
+    totfree += qhmem.sizetable[i] * count;
+  }
+  fprintf (fp, "\nmemory statistics:\n\
+%7d quick allocations\n\
+%7d short allocations\n\
+%7d long allocations\n\
+%7d short frees\n\
+%7d long frees\n\
+%7d bytes of short memory in use\n\
+%7d bytes of short memory in freelists\n\
+%7d bytes of long memory allocated (except for input)\n\
+%7d bytes of long memory in use (in %d pieces)\n\
+%7d bytes per memory buffer (initially %d bytes)\n",
+	   qhmem .cntquick, qhmem.cntshort, qhmem.cntlong,
+	   qhmem .freeshort, qhmem.freelong, 
+	   qhmem .totshort - qhmem .freesize - totfree,
+	   totfree,
+	   qhmem .maxlong, qhmem .totlong, qhmem .cntlong - qhmem .freelong,
+	   qhmem .BUFsize, qhmem .BUFinit);
+  if (qhmem.cntlarger) {
+    fprintf (fp, "%7d calls to qh_setlarger\n%7.2g     average copy size\n",
+	   qhmem.cntlarger, ((float) qhmem.totlarger)/ qhmem.cntlarger);
+    fprintf (fp, "  freelists (bytes->count):");
+  }
+  for (i=0; i < qhmem.TABLEsize; i++) {
+    count=0;
+    for (object= qhmem .freelists[i]; object; object= *((void **)object))
+      count++;
+    fprintf (fp, " %d->%d", qhmem.sizetable[i], count);
+  }
+  fprintf (fp, "\n\n");
+} /* memstatistics */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-mem.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="NOmem">-</a>
+  
+  qh_NOmem
+    turn off quick-fit memory allocation
+
+  notes:
+    uses malloc() and free() instead
+*/
+#else /* qh_NOmem */
+
+void *qh_memalloc(int insize) {
+  void *object;
+
+  if (!(object= malloc(insize))) {
+    fprintf(qhmem.ferr, "qhull error (qh_memalloc): insufficient memory\n");
+    qh_errexit(qhmem_ERRmem, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  if (qhmem.IStracing >= 5)
+    fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qh_memalloc long: %d bytes at %p\n", insize, object);
+  return object;
+}
+
+void qh_memfree(void *object, int size) {
+
+  if (!object)
+    return;
+  free (object);
+  if (qhmem.IStracing >= 5)
+    fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qh_memfree long: %d bytes at %p\n", size, object);
+}
+
+void qh_memfreeshort (int *curlong, int *totlong) {
+
+  memset((char *)&qhmem, 0, sizeof qhmem);  /* every field is 0, FALSE, NULL */
+  *curlong= 0;
+  *totlong= 0;
+}
+
+void qh_meminit (FILE *ferr) {
+
+  memset((char *)&qhmem, 0, sizeof qhmem);  /* every field is 0, FALSE, NULL */
+  qhmem.ferr= ferr;
+  if (sizeof(void*) < sizeof(int)) {
+    fprintf (ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_meminit): sizeof(void*) < sizeof(int).  qset.c will not work\n");
+    qh_errexit (qhmem_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+}
+
+void qh_meminitbuffers (int tracelevel, int alignment, int numsizes, int bufsize, int bufinit) {
+
+  qhmem.IStracing= tracelevel;
+
+}
+
+void qh_memsetup (void) {
+
+}
+
+void qh_memsize(int size) {
+
+}
+
+void qh_memstatistics (FILE *fp) {
+
+}
+
+#endif /* qh_NOmem */

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/mem.h
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/mem.h	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/mem.h	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,174 @@
+/*<html><pre>  -<a                             href="qh-mem.htm"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="TOP">-</a>
+
+   mem.h 
+     prototypes for memory management functions
+
+   see qh-mem.htm, mem.c and qset.h
+
+   for error handling, writes message and calls
+     qh_errexit (qhmem_ERRmem, NULL, NULL) if insufficient memory
+       and
+     qh_errexit (qhmem_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL) otherwise
+
+   copyright (c) 1993-2003, The Geometry Center
+*/
+
+#ifndef qhDEFmem
+#define qhDEFmem
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-mem.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="NOmem">-</a>
+  
+  qh_NOmem
+    turn off quick-fit memory allocation
+
+  notes:
+    mem.c implements Quickfit memory allocation for about 20% time
+    savings.  If it fails on your machine, try to locate the
+    problem, and send the answer to qhull@qhull.org.  If this can
+    not be done, define qh_NOmem to use malloc/free instead.
+
+   #define qh_NOmem
+*/
+
+/*-------------------------------------------
+    to avoid bus errors, memory allocation must consider alignment requirements.
+    malloc() automatically takes care of alignment.   Since mem.c manages
+    its own memory, we need to explicitly specify alignment in
+    qh_meminitbuffers().
+
+    A safe choice is sizeof(double).  sizeof(float) may be used if doubles 
+    do not occur in data structures and pointers are the same size.  Be careful
+    of machines (e.g., DEC Alpha) with large pointers.  If gcc is available, 
+    use __alignof__(double) or fmax_(__alignof__(float), __alignof__(void *)).
+
+   see <a href="user.h#MEMalign">qh_MEMalign</a> in user.h for qhull's alignment
+*/
+
+#define qhmem_ERRmem 4    /* matches qh_ERRmem in qhull.h */
+#define qhmem_ERRqhull 5  /* matches qh_ERRqhull in qhull.h */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-mem.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="ptr_intT">-</a>
+  
+  ptr_intT
+    for casting a void* to an integer-type
+  
+  notes:
+    On 64-bit machines, a pointer may be larger than an 'int'.  
+    qh_meminit() checks that 'long' holds a 'void*'
+*/
+typedef unsigned long ptr_intT;
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-mem.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="qhmemT">-</a>
+ 
+  qhmemT
+    global memory structure for mem.c
+ 
+ notes:
+   users should ignore qhmem except for writing extensions
+   qhmem is allocated in mem.c 
+   
+   qhmem could be swapable like qh and qhstat, but then
+   multiple qh's and qhmem's would need to keep in synch.  
+   A swapable qhmem would also waste memory buffers.  As long
+   as memory operations are atomic, there is no problem with
+   multiple qh structures being active at the same time.
+   If you need separate address spaces, you can swap the
+   contents of qhmem.
+*/
+typedef struct qhmemT qhmemT;
+extern qhmemT qhmem; 
+
+struct qhmemT {               /* global memory management variables */
+  int      BUFsize;	      /* size of memory allocation buffer */
+  int      BUFinit;	      /* initial size of memory allocation buffer */
+  int      TABLEsize;         /* actual number of sizes in free list table */
+  int      NUMsizes;          /* maximum number of sizes in free list table */
+  int      LASTsize;          /* last size in free list table */
+  int      ALIGNmask;         /* worst-case alignment, must be 2^n-1 */
+  void	 **freelists;          /* free list table, linked by offset 0 */
+  int     *sizetable;         /* size of each freelist */
+  int     *indextable;        /* size->index table */
+  void    *curbuffer;         /* current buffer, linked by offset 0 */
+  void    *freemem;           /*   free memory in curbuffer */
+  int 	   freesize;          /*   size of free memory in bytes */
+  void 	  *tempstack;         /* stack of temporary memory, managed by users */
+  FILE    *ferr;              /* file for reporting errors */
+  int      IStracing;         /* =5 if tracing memory allocations */
+  int      cntquick;          /* count of quick allocations */
+                              /* remove statistics doesn't effect speed */
+  int      cntshort;          /* count of short allocations */
+  int      cntlong;           /* count of long allocations */
+  int      curlong;           /* current count of inuse, long allocations */
+  int      freeshort;	      /* count of short memfrees */
+  int      freelong;	      /* count of long memfrees */
+  int      totshort;          /* total size of short allocations */
+  int      totlong;           /* total size of long allocations */
+  int      maxlong;           /* maximum totlong */
+  int      cntlarger;         /* count of setlarger's */
+  int      totlarger;         /* total copied by setlarger */
+};
+
+
+/*==================== -macros ====================*/
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-mem.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="memalloc_">-</a>
+   
+  qh_memalloc_(size, object, type)  
+    returns object of size bytes 
+	assumes size<=qhmem.LASTsize and void **freelistp is a temp
+*/
+
+#ifdef qh_NOmem
+#define qh_memalloc_(size, freelistp, object, type) {\
+  object= (type*)qh_memalloc (size); }
+#else /* !qh_NOmem */
+
+#define qh_memalloc_(size, freelistp, object, type) {\
+  freelistp= qhmem.freelists + qhmem.indextable[size];\
+  if ((object= (type*)*freelistp)) {\
+    qhmem.cntquick++;  \
+    *freelistp= *((void **)*freelistp);\
+  }else object= (type*)qh_memalloc (size);}
+#endif
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-mem.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="memfree_">-</a>
+   
+  qh_memfree_(object, size) 
+    free up an object
+
+  notes:
+    object may be NULL
+    assumes size<=qhmem.LASTsize and void **freelistp is a temp
+*/
+#ifdef qh_NOmem
+#define qh_memfree_(object, size, freelistp) {\
+  qh_memfree (object, size); }
+#else /* !qh_NOmem */
+
+#define qh_memfree_(object, size, freelistp) {\
+  if (object) { \
+    qhmem .freeshort++;\
+    freelistp= qhmem.freelists + qhmem.indextable[size];\
+    *((void **)object)= *freelistp;\
+    *freelistp= object;}}
+#endif
+
+/*=============== prototypes in alphabetical order ============*/
+
+void *qh_memalloc(int insize);
+void qh_memfree (void *object, int size);
+void qh_memfreeshort (int *curlong, int *totlong);
+void qh_meminit (FILE *ferr);
+void qh_meminitbuffers (int tracelevel, int alignment, int numsizes,
+			int bufsize, int bufinit);
+void qh_memsetup (void);
+void qh_memsize(int size);
+void qh_memstatistics (FILE *fp);
+
+#endif /* qhDEFmem */

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/merge.c
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/merge.c	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/merge.c	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,3619 @@
+/*<html><pre>  -<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="TOP">-</a>
+
+   merge.c 
+   merges non-convex facets
+
+   see qh-merge.htm and merge.h
+
+   other modules call qh_premerge() and qh_postmerge()
+
+   the user may call qh_postmerge() to perform additional merges.
+
+   To remove deleted facets and vertices (qhull() in qhull.c):
+     qh_partitionvisible (!qh_ALL, &numoutside);  // visible_list, newfacet_list
+     qh_deletevisible ();         // qh.visible_list
+     qh_resetlists (False, qh_RESETvisible);       // qh.visible_list newvertex_list newfacet_list 
+
+   assumes qh.CENTERtype= centrum
+
+   merges occur in qh_mergefacet and in qh_mergecycle
+   vertex->neighbors not set until the first merge occurs
+
+   copyright (c) 1993-2003 The Geometry Center        
+*/
+
+#include "qhull_a.h"
+
+#ifndef qh_NOmerge
+
+/*===== functions (alphabetical after premerge and postmerge) ======*/
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="premerge">-</a>
+  
+  qh_premerge( apex, maxcentrum )
+    pre-merge nonconvex facets in qh.newfacet_list for apex
+    maxcentrum defines coplanar and concave (qh_test_appendmerge)
+
+  returns:
+    deleted facets added to qh.visible_list with facet->visible set
+
+  notes:
+    uses globals, qh.MERGEexact, qh.PREmerge
+
+  design:
+    mark duplicate ridges in qh.newfacet_list
+    merge facet cycles in qh.newfacet_list
+    merge duplicate ridges and concave facets in qh.newfacet_list
+    check merged facet cycles for degenerate and redundant facets
+    merge degenerate and redundant facets
+    collect coplanar and concave facets
+    merge concave, coplanar, degenerate, and redundant facets
+*/
+void qh_premerge (vertexT *apex, realT maxcentrum, realT maxangle) {
+  boolT othermerge= False;
+  facetT *newfacet;
+  
+  if (qh ZEROcentrum && qh_checkzero(!qh_ALL))
+    return;    
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_premerge: premerge centrum %2.2g angle %2.2g for apex v%d facetlist f%d\n",
+	    maxcentrum, maxangle, apex->id, getid_(qh newfacet_list)));
+  if (qh IStracing >= 4 && qh num_facets < 50)
+    qh_printlists();
+  qh centrum_radius= maxcentrum;
+  qh cos_max= maxangle;
+  qh degen_mergeset= qh_settemp (qh TEMPsize);
+  qh facet_mergeset= qh_settemp (qh TEMPsize);
+  if (qh hull_dim >=3) { 
+    qh_mark_dupridges (qh newfacet_list); /* facet_mergeset */
+    qh_mergecycle_all (qh newfacet_list, &othermerge);
+    qh_forcedmerges (&othermerge /* qh facet_mergeset */); 
+    FORALLnew_facets {  /* test samecycle merges */
+      if (!newfacet->simplicial && !newfacet->mergeridge)
+	qh_degen_redundant_neighbors (newfacet, NULL);
+    }
+    if (qh_merge_degenredundant())
+      othermerge= True;
+  }else /* qh hull_dim == 2 */
+    qh_mergecycle_all (qh newfacet_list, &othermerge);
+  qh_flippedmerges (qh newfacet_list, &othermerge);
+  if (!qh MERGEexact || zzval_(Ztotmerge)) {
+    zinc_(Zpremergetot);
+    qh POSTmerging= False;
+    qh_getmergeset_initial (qh newfacet_list);
+    qh_all_merges (othermerge, False);
+  }
+  qh_settempfree(&qh facet_mergeset);
+  qh_settempfree(&qh degen_mergeset);
+} /* premerge */
+  
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="postmerge">-</a>
+  
+  qh_postmerge( reason, maxcentrum, maxangle, vneighbors )
+    post-merge nonconvex facets as defined by maxcentrum and maxangle
+    'reason' is for reporting progress
+    if vneighbors, 
+      calls qh_test_vneighbors at end of qh_all_merge 
+    if firstmerge, 
+      calls qh_reducevertices before qh_getmergeset
+
+  returns:
+    if first call (qh.visible_list != qh.facet_list), 
+      builds qh.facet_newlist, qh.newvertex_list
+    deleted facets added to qh.visible_list with facet->visible
+    qh.visible_list == qh.facet_list
+
+  notes:
+
+
+  design:
+    if first call
+      set qh.visible_list and qh.newfacet_list to qh.facet_list
+      add all facets to qh.newfacet_list
+      mark non-simplicial facets, facet->newmerge
+      set qh.newvertext_list to qh.vertex_list
+      add all vertices to qh.newvertex_list
+      if a pre-merge occured
+        set vertex->delridge {will retest the ridge}
+        if qh.MERGEexact
+          call qh_reducevertices()
+      if no pre-merging 
+        merge flipped facets
+    determine non-convex facets
+    merge all non-convex facets
+*/
+void qh_postmerge (char *reason, realT maxcentrum, realT maxangle, 
+                      boolT vneighbors) {
+  facetT *newfacet;
+  boolT othermerges= False;
+  vertexT *vertex;
+
+  if (qh REPORTfreq || qh IStracing) {
+    qh_buildtracing (NULL, NULL);
+    qh_printsummary (qh ferr);
+    if (qh PRINTstatistics) 
+      qh_printallstatistics (qh ferr, "reason");
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "\n%s with 'C%.2g' and 'A%.2g'\n", 
+        reason, maxcentrum, maxangle);
+  }
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_postmerge: postmerge.  test vneighbors? %d\n",
+	    vneighbors));
+  qh centrum_radius= maxcentrum;
+  qh cos_max= maxangle;
+  qh POSTmerging= True;
+  qh degen_mergeset= qh_settemp (qh TEMPsize);
+  qh facet_mergeset= qh_settemp (qh TEMPsize);
+  if (qh visible_list != qh facet_list) {  /* first call */
+    qh NEWfacets= True;
+    qh visible_list= qh newfacet_list= qh facet_list;
+    FORALLnew_facets {
+      newfacet->newfacet= True;
+       if (!newfacet->simplicial)
+        newfacet->newmerge= True;
+     zinc_(Zpostfacets);
+    }
+    qh newvertex_list= qh vertex_list;
+    FORALLvertices
+      vertex->newlist= True;
+    if (qh VERTEXneighbors) { /* a merge has occurred */
+      FORALLvertices
+	vertex->delridge= True; /* test for redundant, needed? */
+      if (qh MERGEexact) {
+	if (qh hull_dim <= qh_DIMreduceBuild)
+	  qh_reducevertices(); /* was skipped during pre-merging */
+      }
+    }
+    if (!qh PREmerge && !qh MERGEexact) 
+      qh_flippedmerges (qh newfacet_list, &othermerges);
+  }
+  qh_getmergeset_initial (qh newfacet_list);
+  qh_all_merges (False, vneighbors);
+  qh_settempfree(&qh facet_mergeset);
+  qh_settempfree(&qh degen_mergeset);
+} /* post_merge */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="all_merges">-</a>
+  
+  qh_all_merges( othermerge, vneighbors )
+    merge all non-convex facets
+    
+    set othermerge if already merged facets (for qh_reducevertices)
+    if vneighbors
+      tests vertex neighbors for convexity at end
+    qh.facet_mergeset lists the non-convex ridges in qh_newfacet_list
+    qh.degen_mergeset is defined
+    if qh.MERGEexact && !qh.POSTmerging, 
+      does not merge coplanar facets
+
+  returns:
+    deleted facets added to qh.visible_list with facet->visible
+    deleted vertices added qh.delvertex_list with vertex->delvertex
+  
+  notes:
+    unless !qh.MERGEindependent, 
+      merges facets in independent sets
+    uses qh.newfacet_list as argument since merges call qh_removefacet()
+
+  design:
+    while merges occur
+      for each merge in qh.facet_mergeset
+        unless one of the facets was already merged in this pass
+          merge the facets
+        test merged facets for additional merges
+        add merges to qh.facet_mergeset
+      if vertices record neighboring facets
+        rename redundant vertices
+          update qh.facet_mergeset
+    if vneighbors ??
+      tests vertex neighbors for convexity at end
+*/
+void qh_all_merges (boolT othermerge, boolT vneighbors) {
+  facetT *facet1, *facet2;
+  mergeT *merge;
+  boolT wasmerge= True, isreduce;
+  void **freelistp;  /* used !qh_NOmem */
+  vertexT *vertex;
+  mergeType mergetype;
+  int numcoplanar=0, numconcave=0, numdegenredun= 0, numnewmerges= 0;
+  
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_all_merges: starting to merge facets beginning from f%d\n",
+	    getid_(qh newfacet_list)));
+  while (True) {
+    wasmerge= False;
+    while (qh_setsize (qh facet_mergeset)) {
+      while ((merge= (mergeT*)qh_setdellast(qh facet_mergeset))) {
+	facet1= merge->facet1;
+	facet2= merge->facet2;
+	mergetype= merge->type;
+	qh_memfree_(merge, sizeof(mergeT), freelistp);
+	if (facet1->visible || facet2->visible) /*deleted facet*/
+	  continue;  
+	if ((facet1->newfacet && !facet1->tested)
+	        || (facet2->newfacet && !facet2->tested)) {
+	  if (qh MERGEindependent && mergetype <= MRGanglecoplanar)
+	    continue;      /* perform independent sets of merges */
+	}
+	qh_merge_nonconvex (facet1, facet2, mergetype);
+        numdegenredun += qh_merge_degenredundant();
+        numnewmerges++;
+        wasmerge= True;
+	if (mergetype == MRGconcave)
+	  numconcave++;
+	else /* MRGcoplanar or MRGanglecoplanar */
+	  numcoplanar++;
+      } /* while setdellast */
+      if (qh POSTmerging && qh hull_dim <= qh_DIMreduceBuild 
+      && numnewmerges > qh_MAXnewmerges) {
+	numnewmerges= 0;
+	qh_reducevertices();  /* otherwise large post merges too slow */
+      }
+      qh_getmergeset (qh newfacet_list); /* facet_mergeset */
+    } /* while mergeset */
+    if (qh VERTEXneighbors) {
+      isreduce= False;
+      if (qh hull_dim >=4 && qh POSTmerging) {
+	FORALLvertices  
+	  vertex->delridge= True;
+	isreduce= True;
+      }
+      if ((wasmerge || othermerge) && (!qh MERGEexact || qh POSTmerging) 
+	  && qh hull_dim <= qh_DIMreduceBuild) {
+	othermerge= False;
+	isreduce= True;
+      }
+      if (isreduce) {
+	if (qh_reducevertices()) {
+	  qh_getmergeset (qh newfacet_list); /* facet_mergeset */
+	  continue;
+	}
+      }
+    }
+    if (vneighbors && qh_test_vneighbors(/* qh newfacet_list */)) 
+      continue;
+    break;
+  } /* while (True) */
+  if (qh CHECKfrequently && !qh MERGEexact) {
+    qh old_randomdist= qh RANDOMdist;
+    qh RANDOMdist= False;
+    qh_checkconvex (qh newfacet_list, qh_ALGORITHMfault);
+    /* qh_checkconnect (); [this is slow and it changes the facet order] */
+    qh RANDOMdist= qh old_randomdist;
+  }
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_all_merges: merged %d coplanar facets %d concave facets and %d degen or redundant facets.\n",
+    numcoplanar, numconcave, numdegenredun));
+  if (qh IStracing >= 4 && qh num_facets < 50)
+    qh_printlists ();
+} /* all_merges */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="appendmergeset">-</a>
+  
+  qh_appendmergeset( facet, neighbor, mergetype, angle )
+    appends an entry to qh.facet_mergeset or qh.degen_mergeset
+
+    angle ignored if NULL or !qh.ANGLEmerge
+
+  returns:
+    merge appended to facet_mergeset or degen_mergeset
+      sets ->degenerate or ->redundant if degen_mergeset
+  
+  see:
+    qh_test_appendmerge()
+
+  design:
+    allocate merge entry
+    if regular merge
+      append to qh.facet_mergeset
+    else if degenerate merge and qh.facet_mergeset is all degenerate
+      append to qh.degen_mergeset 
+    else if degenerate merge
+      prepend to qh.degen_mergeset 
+    else if redundant merge
+      append to qh.degen_mergeset 
+*/
+void qh_appendmergeset(facetT *facet, facetT *neighbor, mergeType mergetype, realT *angle) {
+  mergeT *merge, *lastmerge;
+  void **freelistp; /* used !qh_NOmem */
+
+  if (facet->redundant)
+    return;
+  if (facet->degenerate && mergetype == MRGdegen)
+    return;
+  qh_memalloc_(sizeof(mergeT), freelistp, merge, mergeT);
+  merge->facet1= facet;
+  merge->facet2= neighbor;
+  merge->type= mergetype;
+  if (angle && qh ANGLEmerge)
+    merge->angle= *angle;
+  if (mergetype < MRGdegen)
+    qh_setappend (&(qh facet_mergeset), merge);
+  else if (mergetype == MRGdegen) {
+    facet->degenerate= True;
+    if (!(lastmerge= (mergeT*)qh_setlast (qh degen_mergeset)) 
+    || lastmerge->type == MRGdegen)
+      qh_setappend (&(qh degen_mergeset), merge);
+    else
+      qh_setaddnth (&(qh degen_mergeset), 0, merge);
+  }else if (mergetype == MRGredundant) {
+    facet->redundant= True;
+    qh_setappend (&(qh degen_mergeset), merge);
+  }else /* mergetype == MRGmirror */ {
+    if (facet->redundant || neighbor->redundant) {
+      fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull error (qh_appendmergeset): facet f%d or f%d is already a mirrored facet\n",
+	   facet->id, neighbor->id);
+      qh_errexit2 (qh_ERRqhull, facet, neighbor);
+    }
+    if (!qh_setequal (facet->vertices, neighbor->vertices)) {
+      fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull error (qh_appendmergeset): mirrored facets f%d and f%d do not have the same vertices\n",
+	   facet->id, neighbor->id);
+      qh_errexit2 (qh_ERRqhull, facet, neighbor);
+    }
+    facet->redundant= True;
+    neighbor->redundant= True;
+    qh_setappend (&(qh degen_mergeset), merge);
+  }
+} /* appendmergeset */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="basevertices">-</a>
+  
+  qh_basevertices( samecycle )
+    return temporary set of base vertices for samecycle
+    samecycle is first facet in the cycle
+    assumes apex is SETfirst_( samecycle->vertices )
+
+  returns:
+    vertices (settemp)
+    all ->seen are cleared
+
+  notes:
+    uses qh_vertex_visit;
+
+  design:
+    for each facet in samecycle
+      for each unseen vertex in facet->vertices
+        append to result  
+*/
+setT *qh_basevertices (facetT *samecycle) {
+  facetT *same;
+  vertexT *apex, *vertex, **vertexp;
+  setT *vertices= qh_settemp (qh TEMPsize);
+  
+  apex= SETfirstt_(samecycle->vertices, vertexT);
+  apex->visitid= ++qh vertex_visit;
+  FORALLsame_cycle_(samecycle) {
+    if (same->mergeridge)
+      continue;
+    FOREACHvertex_(same->vertices) {
+      if (vertex->visitid != qh vertex_visit) {
+        qh_setappend (&vertices, vertex);
+        vertex->visitid= qh vertex_visit;
+        vertex->seen= False;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_basevertices: found %d vertices\n", 
+         qh_setsize (vertices)));
+  return vertices;
+} /* basevertices */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="checkconnect">-</a>
+  
+  qh_checkconnect()
+    check that new facets are connected
+    new facets are on qh.newfacet_list
+    
+  notes:
+    this is slow and it changes the order of the facets
+    uses qh.visit_id
+
+  design:
+    move first new facet to end of qh.facet_list
+    for all newly appended facets
+      append unvisited neighbors to end of qh.facet_list
+    for all new facets
+      report error if unvisited
+*/
+void qh_checkconnect (void /* qh newfacet_list */) {
+  facetT *facet, *newfacet, *errfacet= NULL, *neighbor, **neighborp;
+
+  facet= qh newfacet_list;
+  qh_removefacet (facet);
+  qh_appendfacet (facet);
+  facet->visitid= ++qh visit_id;
+  FORALLfacet_(facet) {
+    FOREACHneighbor_(facet) {
+      if (neighbor->visitid != qh visit_id) {
+        qh_removefacet (neighbor);
+        qh_appendfacet (neighbor);
+        neighbor->visitid= qh visit_id;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  FORALLnew_facets {
+    if (newfacet->visitid == qh visit_id)
+      break;
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull error: f%d is not attached to the new facets\n",
+         newfacet->id);
+    errfacet= newfacet;
+  }
+  if (errfacet)
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, errfacet, NULL);
+} /* checkconnect */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="checkzero">-</a>
+  
+  qh_checkzero( testall )
+    check that facets are clearly convex for qh.DISTround with qh.MERGEexact
+
+    if testall, 
+      test all facets for qh.MERGEexact post-merging
+    else 
+      test qh.newfacet_list
+      
+    if qh.MERGEexact, 
+      allows coplanar ridges
+      skips convexity test while qh.ZEROall_ok
+
+  returns:
+    True if all facets !flipped, !dupridge, normal
+         if all horizon facets are simplicial
+         if all vertices are clearly below neighbor
+         if all opposite vertices of horizon are below 
+    clears qh.ZEROall_ok if any problems or coplanar facets
+
+  notes:
+    uses qh.vertex_visit
+    horizon facets may define multiple new facets
+
+  design:
+    for all facets in qh.newfacet_list or qh.facet_list
+      check for flagged faults (flipped, etc.)
+    for all facets in qh.newfacet_list or qh.facet_list
+      for each neighbor of facet
+        skip horizon facets for qh.newfacet_list
+        test the opposite vertex
+      if qh.newfacet_list
+        test the other vertices in the facet's horizon facet
+*/
+boolT qh_checkzero (boolT testall) {
+  facetT *facet, *neighbor, **neighborp;
+  facetT *horizon, *facetlist;
+  int neighbor_i;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  realT dist;
+
+  if (testall) 
+    facetlist= qh facet_list;
+  else {
+    facetlist= qh newfacet_list;
+    FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+      horizon= SETfirstt_(facet->neighbors, facetT);
+      if (!horizon->simplicial)
+        goto LABELproblem;
+      if (facet->flipped || facet->dupridge || !facet->normal)
+        goto LABELproblem;
+    }
+    if (qh MERGEexact && qh ZEROall_ok) {
+      trace2((qh ferr, "qh_checkzero: skip convexity check until first pre-merge\n"));
+      return True;
+    }
+  }
+  FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+    qh vertex_visit++;
+    neighbor_i= 0;
+    horizon= NULL;
+    FOREACHneighbor_(facet) {
+      if (!neighbor_i && !testall) {
+        horizon= neighbor;
+	neighbor_i++;
+        continue; /* horizon facet tested in qh_findhorizon */
+      }
+      vertex= SETelemt_(facet->vertices, neighbor_i++, vertexT);
+      vertex->visitid= qh vertex_visit;
+      zzinc_(Zdistzero);
+      qh_distplane (vertex->point, neighbor, &dist);
+      if (dist >= -qh DISTround) {
+        qh ZEROall_ok= False;
+        if (!qh MERGEexact || testall || dist > qh DISTround)
+          goto LABELnonconvex;
+      }
+    }
+    if (!testall) {
+      FOREACHvertex_(horizon->vertices) {
+	if (vertex->visitid != qh vertex_visit) {
+	  zzinc_(Zdistzero);
+	  qh_distplane (vertex->point, facet, &dist);
+	  if (dist >= -qh DISTround) {
+	    qh ZEROall_ok= False;
+	    if (!qh MERGEexact || dist > qh DISTround)
+	      goto LABELnonconvex;
+	  }
+	  break;
+	}
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_checkzero: testall %d, facets are %s\n", testall,
+        (qh MERGEexact && !testall) ? 
+           "not concave, flipped, or duplicate ridged" : "clearly convex"));
+  return True;
+
+ LABELproblem:
+  qh ZEROall_ok= False;
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_checkzero: facet f%d needs pre-merging\n",
+       facet->id));
+  return False;
+
+ LABELnonconvex:
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_checkzero: facet f%d and f%d are not clearly convex.  v%d dist %.2g\n",
+         facet->id, neighbor->id, vertex->id, dist));
+  return False;
+} /* checkzero */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="compareangle">-</a>
+  
+  qh_compareangle( angle1, angle2 )
+    used by qsort() to order merges by angle
+*/
+int qh_compareangle(const void *p1, const void *p2) {
+  mergeT *a= *((mergeT **)p1), *b= *((mergeT **)p2);
+ 
+  return ((a->angle > b->angle) ? 1 : -1);
+} /* compareangle */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="comparemerge">-</a>
+  
+  qh_comparemerge( merge1, merge2 )
+    used by qsort() to order merges
+*/
+int qh_comparemerge(const void *p1, const void *p2) {
+  mergeT *a= *((mergeT **)p1), *b= *((mergeT **)p2);
+ 
+  return (a->type - b->type);
+} /* comparemerge */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="comparevisit">-</a>
+  
+  qh_comparevisit( vertex1, vertex2 )
+    used by qsort() to order vertices by their visitid
+*/
+int qh_comparevisit (const void *p1, const void *p2) {
+  vertexT *a= *((vertexT **)p1), *b= *((vertexT **)p2);
+ 
+  return (a->visitid - b->visitid);
+} /* comparevisit */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="copynonconvex">-</a>
+  
+  qh_copynonconvex( atridge )
+    set non-convex flag on other ridges (if any) between same neighbors
+
+  notes:
+    may be faster if use smaller ridge set
+
+  design:
+    for each ridge of atridge's top facet
+      if ridge shares the same neighbor
+        set nonconvex flag
+*/
+void qh_copynonconvex (ridgeT *atridge) {
+  facetT *facet, *otherfacet;
+  ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep;
+
+  facet= atridge->top;
+  otherfacet= atridge->bottom;
+  FOREACHridge_(facet->ridges) {
+    if (otherfacet == otherfacet_(ridge, facet) && ridge != atridge) {
+      ridge->nonconvex= True;
+      trace4((qh ferr, "qh_copynonconvex: moved nonconvex flag from r%d to r%d\n",
+	      atridge->id, ridge->id));
+      break;
+    }
+  }
+} /* copynonconvex */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="degen_redundant_facet">-</a>
+  
+  qh_degen_redundant_facet( facet )
+    check facet for degen. or redundancy
+
+  notes:
+    bumps vertex_visit
+    called if a facet was redundant but no longer is (qh_merge_degenredundant)
+    qh_appendmergeset() only appends first reference to facet (i.e., redundant)
+
+  see:
+    qh_degen_redundant_neighbors()
+
+  design:
+    test for redundant neighbor
+    test for degenerate facet
+*/
+void qh_degen_redundant_facet (facetT *facet) {
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp;
+
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_degen_redundant_facet: test facet f%d for degen/redundant\n",
+	  facet->id));
+  FOREACHneighbor_(facet) {
+    qh vertex_visit++;
+    FOREACHvertex_(neighbor->vertices)
+      vertex->visitid= qh vertex_visit;
+    FOREACHvertex_(facet->vertices) {
+      if (vertex->visitid != qh vertex_visit)
+	break;
+    }
+    if (!vertex) {
+      qh_appendmergeset (facet, neighbor, MRGredundant, NULL);
+      trace2((qh ferr, "qh_degen_redundant_facet: f%d is contained in f%d.  merge\n", facet->id, neighbor->id)); 
+      return;
+    }
+  }
+  if (qh_setsize (facet->neighbors) < qh hull_dim) {
+    qh_appendmergeset (facet, facet, MRGdegen, NULL);
+    trace2((qh ferr, "qh_degen_redundant_neighbors: f%d is degenerate.\n", facet->id));
+  }
+} /* degen_redundant_facet */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="degen_redundant_neighbors">-</a>
+  
+  qh_degen_redundant_neighbors( facet, delfacet,  )
+    append degenerate and redundant neighbors to facet_mergeset
+    if delfacet, 
+      only checks neighbors of both delfacet and facet
+    also checks current facet for degeneracy
+
+  notes:
+    bumps vertex_visit
+    called for each qh_mergefacet() and qh_mergecycle()
+    merge and statistics occur in merge_nonconvex
+    qh_appendmergeset() only appends first reference to facet (i.e., redundant)
+      it appends redundant facets after degenerate ones
+
+    a degenerate facet has fewer than hull_dim neighbors
+    a redundant facet's vertices is a subset of its neighbor's vertices
+    tests for redundant merges first (appendmergeset is nop for others)
+    in a merge, only needs to test neighbors of merged facet
+  
+  see:
+    qh_merge_degenredundant() and qh_degen_redundant_facet()
+
+  design:
+    test for degenerate facet
+    test for redundant neighbor
+    test for degenerate neighbor
+*/
+void qh_degen_redundant_neighbors (facetT *facet, facetT *delfacet) {
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp;
+  int size;
+
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_degen_redundant_neighbors: test neighbors of f%d with delfacet f%d\n", 
+	  facet->id, getid_(delfacet)));
+  if ((size= qh_setsize (facet->neighbors)) < qh hull_dim) {
+    qh_appendmergeset (facet, facet, MRGdegen, NULL);
+    trace2((qh ferr, "qh_degen_redundant_neighbors: f%d is degenerate with %d neighbors.\n", facet->id, size));
+  }
+  if (!delfacet)
+    delfacet= facet;
+  qh vertex_visit++;
+  FOREACHvertex_(facet->vertices)
+    vertex->visitid= qh vertex_visit;
+  FOREACHneighbor_(delfacet) {
+    /* uses early out instead of checking vertex count */
+    if (neighbor == facet)
+      continue;
+    FOREACHvertex_(neighbor->vertices) {
+      if (vertex->visitid != qh vertex_visit)
+        break;
+    }
+    if (!vertex) {
+      qh_appendmergeset (neighbor, facet, MRGredundant, NULL);
+      trace2((qh ferr, "qh_degen_redundant_neighbors: f%d is contained in f%d.  merge\n", neighbor->id, facet->id)); 
+    }
+  }
+  FOREACHneighbor_(delfacet) {   /* redundant merges occur first */
+    if (neighbor == facet)
+      continue;
+    if ((size= qh_setsize (neighbor->neighbors)) < qh hull_dim) {
+      qh_appendmergeset (neighbor, neighbor, MRGdegen, NULL);
+      trace2((qh ferr, "qh_degen_redundant_neighbors: f%d is degenerate with %d neighbors.  Neighbor of f%d.\n", neighbor->id, size, facet->id)); 
+    }
+  }
+} /* degen_redundant_neighbors */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="find_newvertex">-</a>
+  
+  qh_find_newvertex( oldvertex, vertices, ridges )
+    locate new vertex for renaming old vertex
+    vertices is a set of possible new vertices
+      vertices sorted by number of deleted ridges
+
+  returns:
+    newvertex or NULL
+      each ridge includes both vertex and oldvertex
+    vertices sorted by number of deleted ridges
+      
+  notes:
+    modifies vertex->visitid
+    new vertex is in one of the ridges
+    renaming will not cause a duplicate ridge
+    renaming will minimize the number of deleted ridges
+    newvertex may not be adjacent in the dual (though unlikely)
+
+  design:
+    for each vertex in vertices
+      set vertex->visitid to number of references in ridges
+    remove unvisited vertices 
+    set qh.vertex_visit above all possible values
+    sort vertices by number of references in ridges
+    add each ridge to qh.hash_table
+    for each vertex in vertices
+      look for a vertex that would not cause a duplicate ridge after a rename
+*/
+vertexT *qh_find_newvertex (vertexT *oldvertex, setT *vertices, setT *ridges) {
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  setT *newridges;
+  ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep;
+  int size, hashsize;
+  int hash;
+
+#ifndef qh_NOtrace
+  if (qh IStracing >= 4) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_find_newvertex: find new vertex for v%d from ",
+	     oldvertex->id);
+    FOREACHvertex_(vertices) 
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "v%d ", vertex->id);
+    FOREACHridge_(ridges)
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "r%d ", ridge->id);
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "\n");
+  }
+#endif
+  FOREACHvertex_(vertices) 
+    vertex->visitid= 0;
+  FOREACHridge_(ridges) {
+    FOREACHvertex_(ridge->vertices) 
+      vertex->visitid++;
+  }
+  FOREACHvertex_(vertices) {
+    if (!vertex->visitid) {
+      qh_setdelnth (vertices, SETindex_(vertices,vertex));
+      vertexp--; /* repeat since deleted this vertex */
+    }
+  }
+  qh vertex_visit += qh_setsize (ridges);
+  if (!qh_setsize (vertices)) {
+    trace4((qh ferr, "qh_find_newvertex: vertices not in ridges for v%d\n",
+	    oldvertex->id));
+    return NULL;
+  }
+  qsort (SETaddr_(vertices, vertexT), qh_setsize (vertices),
+	        sizeof (vertexT *), qh_comparevisit);
+  /* can now use qh vertex_visit */
+  if (qh PRINTstatistics) {
+    size= qh_setsize (vertices);
+    zinc_(Zintersect);
+    zadd_(Zintersecttot, size);
+    zmax_(Zintersectmax, size);
+  }
+  hashsize= qh_newhashtable (qh_setsize (ridges));
+  FOREACHridge_(ridges)
+    qh_hashridge (qh hash_table, hashsize, ridge, oldvertex);
+  FOREACHvertex_(vertices) {
+    newridges= qh_vertexridges (vertex);
+    FOREACHridge_(newridges) {
+      if (qh_hashridge_find (qh hash_table, hashsize, ridge, vertex, oldvertex, &hash)) {
+	zinc_(Zdupridge);
+	break;
+      }
+    }
+    qh_settempfree (&newridges);
+    if (!ridge)
+      break;  /* found a rename */
+  }
+  if (vertex) {
+    /* counted in qh_renamevertex */
+    trace2((qh ferr, "qh_find_newvertex: found v%d for old v%d from %d vertices and %d ridges.\n",
+      vertex->id, oldvertex->id, qh_setsize (vertices), qh_setsize (ridges)));
+  }else {
+    zinc_(Zfindfail);
+    trace0((qh ferr, "qh_find_newvertex: no vertex for renaming v%d (all duplicated ridges) during p%d\n",
+      oldvertex->id, qh furthest_id));
+  }
+  qh_setfree (&qh hash_table);
+  return vertex;
+} /* find_newvertex */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="findbest_test">-</a>
+  
+  qh_findbest_test( testcentrum, facet, neighbor, bestfacet, dist, mindist, maxdist )
+    test neighbor of facet for qh_findbestneighbor()
+    if testcentrum,
+      tests centrum (assumes it is defined)
+    else 
+      tests vertices
+
+  returns:
+    if a better facet (i.e., vertices/centrum of facet closer to neighbor)
+      updates bestfacet, dist, mindist, and maxdist
+*/
+void qh_findbest_test (boolT testcentrum, facetT *facet, facetT *neighbor,
+      facetT **bestfacet, realT *distp, realT *mindistp, realT *maxdistp) {
+  realT dist, mindist, maxdist;
+
+  if (testcentrum) {
+    zzinc_(Zbestdist);
+    qh_distplane(facet->center, neighbor, &dist);
+    dist *= qh hull_dim; /* estimate furthest vertex */
+    if (dist < 0) {
+      maxdist= 0;
+      mindist= dist;
+      dist= -dist;
+    }else
+      maxdist= dist;
+  }else
+    dist= qh_getdistance (facet, neighbor, &mindist, &maxdist);
+  if (dist < *distp) {
+    *bestfacet= neighbor;
+    *mindistp= mindist;
+    *maxdistp= maxdist;
+    *distp= dist;
+  }
+} /* findbest_test */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="findbestneighbor">-</a>
+  
+  qh_findbestneighbor( facet, dist, mindist, maxdist )
+    finds best neighbor (least dist) of a facet for merging
+
+  returns:
+    returns min and max distances and their max absolute value
+  
+  notes:
+    avoids merging old into new
+    assumes ridge->nonconvex only set on one ridge between a pair of facets
+    could use an early out predicate but not worth it
+
+  design:
+    if a large facet
+      will test centrum
+    else
+      will test vertices
+    if a large facet
+      test nonconvex neighbors for best merge
+    else
+      test all neighbors for the best merge
+    if testing centrum
+      get distance information
+*/
+facetT *qh_findbestneighbor(facetT *facet, realT *distp, realT *mindistp, realT *maxdistp) {
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp, *bestfacet= NULL;
+  ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep;
+  boolT nonconvex= True, testcentrum= False;
+  int size= qh_setsize (facet->vertices);
+
+  *distp= REALmax;
+  if (size > qh_BESTcentrum2 * qh hull_dim + qh_BESTcentrum) {
+    testcentrum= True;
+    zinc_(Zbestcentrum);
+    if (!facet->center)
+       facet->center= qh_getcentrum (facet);
+  }
+  if (size > qh hull_dim + qh_BESTnonconvex) {
+    FOREACHridge_(facet->ridges) {
+      if (ridge->nonconvex) {
+        neighbor= otherfacet_(ridge, facet);
+	qh_findbest_test (testcentrum, facet, neighbor,
+			  &bestfacet, distp, mindistp, maxdistp);
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  if (!bestfacet) {     
+    nonconvex= False;
+    FOREACHneighbor_(facet)
+      qh_findbest_test (testcentrum, facet, neighbor,
+			&bestfacet, distp, mindistp, maxdistp);
+  }
+  if (!bestfacet) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_findbestneighbor): no neighbors for f%d\n", facet->id);
+    
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, facet, NULL);
+  }
+  if (testcentrum) 
+    qh_getdistance (facet, bestfacet, mindistp, maxdistp);
+  trace3((qh ferr, "qh_findbestneighbor: f%d is best neighbor for f%d testcentrum? %d nonconvex? %d dist %2.2g min %2.2g max %2.2g\n",
+     bestfacet->id, facet->id, testcentrum, nonconvex, *distp, *mindistp, *maxdistp));
+  return(bestfacet);
+} /* findbestneighbor */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="flippedmerges">-</a>
+  
+  qh_flippedmerges( facetlist, wasmerge )
+    merge flipped facets into best neighbor
+    assumes qh.facet_mergeset at top of temporary stack
+
+  returns:
+    no flipped facets on facetlist
+    sets wasmerge if merge occurred
+    degen/redundant merges passed through
+
+  notes:
+    othermerges not needed since qh.facet_mergeset is empty before & after
+      keep it in case of change
+
+  design:
+    append flipped facets to qh.facetmergeset
+    for each flipped merge
+      find best neighbor
+      merge facet into neighbor
+      merge degenerate and redundant facets
+    remove flipped merges from qh.facet_mergeset
+*/
+void qh_flippedmerges(facetT *facetlist, boolT *wasmerge) {
+  facetT *facet, *neighbor, *facet1;
+  realT dist, mindist, maxdist;
+  mergeT *merge, **mergep;
+  setT *othermerges;
+  int nummerge=0;
+
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_flippedmerges: begin\n"));
+  FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+    if (facet->flipped && !facet->visible) 
+      qh_appendmergeset (facet, facet, MRGflip, NULL);
+  }
+  othermerges= qh_settemppop(); /* was facet_mergeset */
+  qh facet_mergeset= qh_settemp (qh TEMPsize);
+  qh_settemppush (othermerges);
+  FOREACHmerge_(othermerges) {
+    facet1= merge->facet1;
+    if (merge->type != MRGflip || facet1->visible) 
+      continue;
+    if (qh TRACEmerge-1 == zzval_(Ztotmerge))
+      qhmem.IStracing= qh IStracing= qh TRACElevel;
+    neighbor= qh_findbestneighbor (facet1, &dist, &mindist, &maxdist);
+    trace0((qh ferr, "qh_flippedmerges: merge flipped f%d into f%d dist %2.2g during p%d\n",
+      facet1->id, neighbor->id, dist, qh furthest_id));
+    qh_mergefacet (facet1, neighbor, &mindist, &maxdist, !qh_MERGEapex);
+    nummerge++;
+    if (qh PRINTstatistics) {
+      zinc_(Zflipped);
+      wadd_(Wflippedtot, dist);
+      wmax_(Wflippedmax, dist);
+    }
+    qh_merge_degenredundant();
+  }
+  FOREACHmerge_(othermerges) {
+    if (merge->facet1->visible || merge->facet2->visible)
+      qh_memfree (merge, sizeof(mergeT));
+    else
+      qh_setappend (&qh facet_mergeset, merge);
+  }
+  qh_settempfree (&othermerges);
+  if (nummerge)
+    *wasmerge= True;
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_flippedmerges: merged %d flipped facets into a good neighbor\n", nummerge));
+} /* flippedmerges */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="forcedmerges">-</a>
+  
+  qh_forcedmerges( wasmerge )
+    merge duplicated ridges
+
+  returns:
+    removes all duplicate ridges on facet_mergeset
+    wasmerge set if merge
+    qh.facet_mergeset may include non-forced merges (none for now)
+    qh.degen_mergeset includes degen/redun merges
+
+  notes: 
+    duplicate ridges occur when the horizon is pinched,
+        i.e. a subridge occurs in more than two horizon ridges.
+     could rename vertices that pinch the horizon
+    assumes qh_merge_degenredundant() has not be called
+    othermerges isn't needed since facet_mergeset is empty afterwards
+      keep it in case of change
+
+  design:
+    for each duplicate ridge
+      find current facets by chasing f.replace links
+      determine best direction for facet
+      merge one facet into the other
+      remove duplicate ridges from qh.facet_mergeset
+*/
+void qh_forcedmerges(boolT *wasmerge) {
+  facetT *facet1, *facet2;
+  mergeT *merge, **mergep;
+  realT dist1, dist2, mindist1, mindist2, maxdist1, maxdist2;
+  setT *othermerges;
+  int nummerge=0, numflip=0;
+
+  if (qh TRACEmerge-1 == zzval_(Ztotmerge))
+    qhmem.IStracing= qh IStracing= qh TRACElevel;
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_forcedmerges: begin\n"));  
+  othermerges= qh_settemppop(); /* was facet_mergeset */
+  qh facet_mergeset= qh_settemp (qh TEMPsize);
+  qh_settemppush (othermerges);
+  FOREACHmerge_(othermerges) {
+    if (merge->type != MRGridge) 
+    	continue;
+    facet1= merge->facet1;
+    facet2= merge->facet2;
+    while (facet1->visible)    	 /* must exist, no qh_merge_degenredunant */
+      facet1= facet1->f.replace; /* previously merged facet */
+    while (facet2->visible)
+      facet2= facet2->f.replace; /* previously merged facet */
+    if (facet1 == facet2)
+      continue;
+    if (!qh_setin (facet2->neighbors, facet1)) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_forcedmerges): f%d and f%d had a duplicate ridge but as f%d and f%d they are no longer neighbors\n",
+	       merge->facet1->id, merge->facet2->id, facet1->id, facet2->id);
+      qh_errexit2 (qh_ERRqhull, facet1, facet2);
+    }
+    if (qh TRACEmerge-1 == zzval_(Ztotmerge))
+      qhmem.IStracing= qh IStracing= qh TRACElevel;
+    dist1= qh_getdistance (facet1, facet2, &mindist1, &maxdist1);
+    dist2= qh_getdistance (facet2, facet1, &mindist2, &maxdist2);
+    trace0((qh ferr, "qh_forcedmerges: duplicate ridge between f%d and f%d, dist %2.2g and reverse dist %2.2g during p%d\n",
+	    facet1->id, facet2->id, dist1, dist2, qh furthest_id));
+    if (dist1 < dist2) 
+      qh_mergefacet (facet1, facet2, &mindist1, &maxdist1, !qh_MERGEapex);
+    else {
+      qh_mergefacet (facet2, facet1, &mindist2, &maxdist2, !qh_MERGEapex);
+      dist1= dist2;
+      facet1= facet2;
+    }
+    if (facet1->flipped) {
+      zinc_(Zmergeflipdup);
+      numflip++;
+    }else
+      nummerge++;
+    if (qh PRINTstatistics) {
+      zinc_(Zduplicate);
+      wadd_(Wduplicatetot, dist1);
+      wmax_(Wduplicatemax, dist1);
+    }
+  }
+  FOREACHmerge_(othermerges) {
+    if (merge->type == MRGridge)
+      qh_memfree (merge, sizeof(mergeT));
+    else
+      qh_setappend (&qh facet_mergeset, merge);
+  }
+  qh_settempfree (&othermerges);
+  if (nummerge)
+    *wasmerge= True;
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_forcedmerges: merged %d facets and %d flipped facets across duplicated ridges\n", 
+                nummerge, numflip));
+} /* forcedmerges */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="getmergeset">-</a>
+  
+  qh_getmergeset( facetlist )
+    determines nonconvex facets on facetlist
+    tests !tested ridges and nonconvex ridges of !tested facets
+
+  returns:
+    returns sorted qh.facet_mergeset of facet-neighbor pairs to be merged
+    all ridges tested
+  
+  notes:
+    assumes no nonconvex ridges with both facets tested
+    uses facet->tested/ridge->tested to prevent duplicate tests
+    can not limit tests to modified ridges since the centrum changed
+    uses qh.visit_id
+  
+  see:
+    qh_getmergeset_initial()
+
+  design:
+    for each facet on facetlist
+      for each ridge of facet
+        if untested ridge
+          test ridge for convexity
+          if non-convex
+            append ridge to qh.facet_mergeset
+    sort qh.facet_mergeset by angle  
+*/
+void qh_getmergeset(facetT *facetlist) {
+  facetT *facet, *neighbor, **neighborp;
+  ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep;
+  int nummerges;
+  
+  nummerges= qh_setsize (qh facet_mergeset);
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_getmergeset: started.\n"));
+  qh visit_id++;
+  FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+    if (facet->tested)
+      continue;
+    facet->visitid= qh visit_id;
+    facet->tested= True;  /* must be non-simplicial due to merge */
+    FOREACHneighbor_(facet)
+      neighbor->seen= False;
+    FOREACHridge_(facet->ridges) {
+      if (ridge->tested && !ridge->nonconvex)
+	continue;
+      /* if tested & nonconvex, need to append merge */
+      neighbor= otherfacet_(ridge, facet);
+      if (neighbor->seen) {
+	ridge->tested= True;
+	ridge->nonconvex= False;
+      }else if (neighbor->visitid != qh visit_id) {
+        ridge->tested= True;
+        ridge->nonconvex= False;
+	neighbor->seen= True;      /* only one ridge is marked nonconvex */
+	if (qh_test_appendmerge (facet, neighbor))
+	  ridge->nonconvex= True;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  nummerges= qh_setsize (qh facet_mergeset);
+  if (qh ANGLEmerge)
+    qsort(SETaddr_(qh facet_mergeset, mergeT), nummerges,sizeof(mergeT *),qh_compareangle);
+  else
+    qsort(SETaddr_(qh facet_mergeset, mergeT), nummerges,sizeof(mergeT *),qh_comparemerge);
+  if (qh POSTmerging) {
+    zadd_(Zmergesettot2, nummerges);
+  }else {
+    zadd_(Zmergesettot, nummerges);
+    zmax_(Zmergesetmax, nummerges);
+  }
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_getmergeset: %d merges found\n", nummerges));
+} /* getmergeset */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="getmergeset_initial">-</a>
+  
+  qh_getmergeset_initial( facetlist )
+    determine initial qh.facet_mergeset for facets
+    tests all facet/neighbor pairs on facetlist
+
+  returns:
+    sorted qh.facet_mergeset with nonconvex ridges
+    sets facet->tested, ridge->tested, and ridge->nonconvex
+
+  notes:
+    uses visit_id, assumes ridge->nonconvex is False
+
+  see:
+    qh_getmergeset()
+
+  design:
+    for each facet on facetlist
+      for each untested neighbor of facet
+        test facet and neighbor for convexity
+        if non-convex
+          append merge to qh.facet_mergeset
+          mark one of the ridges as nonconvex
+    sort qh.facet_mergeset by angle
+*/
+void qh_getmergeset_initial (facetT *facetlist) {
+  facetT *facet, *neighbor, **neighborp;
+  ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep;
+  int nummerges;
+
+  qh visit_id++;
+  FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+    facet->visitid= qh visit_id;
+    facet->tested= True;
+    FOREACHneighbor_(facet) {
+      if (neighbor->visitid != qh visit_id) {
+        if (qh_test_appendmerge (facet, neighbor)) {
+          FOREACHridge_(neighbor->ridges) {
+            if (facet == otherfacet_(ridge, neighbor)) {
+              ridge->nonconvex= True;
+              break;	/* only one ridge is marked nonconvex */
+            }
+          }
+        }
+      }
+    }
+    FOREACHridge_(facet->ridges)
+      ridge->tested= True;
+  }
+  nummerges= qh_setsize (qh facet_mergeset);
+  if (qh ANGLEmerge)
+    qsort(SETaddr_(qh facet_mergeset, mergeT), nummerges,sizeof(mergeT *),qh_compareangle);
+  else
+    qsort(SETaddr_(qh facet_mergeset, mergeT), nummerges,sizeof(mergeT *),qh_comparemerge);
+  if (qh POSTmerging) {
+    zadd_(Zmergeinittot2, nummerges);
+  }else {
+    zadd_(Zmergeinittot, nummerges);
+    zmax_(Zmergeinitmax, nummerges);
+  }
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_getmergeset_initial: %d merges found\n", nummerges));
+} /* getmergeset_initial */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="hashridge">-</a>
+  
+  qh_hashridge( hashtable, hashsize, ridge, oldvertex )
+    add ridge to hashtable without oldvertex
+
+  notes:
+    assumes hashtable is large enough
+
+  design:
+    determine hash value for ridge without oldvertex
+    find next empty slot for ridge
+*/
+void qh_hashridge (setT *hashtable, int hashsize, ridgeT *ridge, vertexT *oldvertex) {
+  int hash;
+  ridgeT *ridgeA;
+
+  hash= (int)qh_gethash (hashsize, ridge->vertices, qh hull_dim-1, 0, oldvertex);
+  while (True) {
+    if (!(ridgeA= SETelemt_(hashtable, hash, ridgeT))) {
+      SETelem_(hashtable, hash)= ridge;
+      break;
+    }else if (ridgeA == ridge)
+      break;
+    if (++hash == hashsize)
+      hash= 0;
+  }
+} /* hashridge */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="hashridge_find">-</a>
+  
+  qh_hashridge_find( hashtable, hashsize, ridge, vertex, oldvertex, hashslot )
+    returns matching ridge without oldvertex in hashtable 
+      for ridge without vertex
+    if oldvertex is NULL 
+      matches with any one skip
+
+  returns:
+    matching ridge or NULL
+    if no match,
+      if ridge already in   table
+        hashslot= -1 
+      else 
+        hashslot= next NULL index
+        
+  notes:
+    assumes hashtable is large enough
+    can't match ridge to itself
+
+  design:
+    get hash value for ridge without vertex
+    for each hashslot
+      return match if ridge matches ridgeA without oldvertex
+*/
+ridgeT *qh_hashridge_find (setT *hashtable, int hashsize, ridgeT *ridge, 
+              vertexT *vertex, vertexT *oldvertex, int *hashslot) {
+  int hash;
+  ridgeT *ridgeA;
+
+  *hashslot= 0;
+  zinc_(Zhashridge);
+  hash= (int)qh_gethash (hashsize, ridge->vertices, qh hull_dim-1, 0, vertex);
+  while ((ridgeA= SETelemt_(hashtable, hash, ridgeT))) {
+    if (ridgeA == ridge)
+      *hashslot= -1;      
+    else {
+      zinc_(Zhashridgetest);
+      if (qh_setequal_except (ridge->vertices, vertex, ridgeA->vertices, oldvertex))
+        return ridgeA;
+    }
+    if (++hash == hashsize)
+      hash= 0;
+  }
+  if (!*hashslot)
+    *hashslot= hash;
+  return NULL;
+} /* hashridge_find */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="makeridges">-</a>
+  
+  qh_makeridges( facet )
+    creates explicit ridges between simplicial facets
+
+  returns:
+    facet with ridges and without qh_MERGEridge
+    ->simplicial is False
+  
+  notes:
+    allows qh_MERGEridge flag
+    uses existing ridges
+    duplicate neighbors ok if ridges already exist (qh_mergecycle_ridges)
+
+  see:
+    qh_mergecycle_ridges()
+
+  design:
+    look for qh_MERGEridge neighbors
+    mark neighbors that already have ridges
+    for each unprocessed neighbor of facet    
+      create a ridge for neighbor and facet
+    if any qh_MERGEridge neighbors
+      delete qh_MERGEridge flags (already handled by qh_mark_dupridges)
+*/
+void qh_makeridges(facetT *facet) {
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp;
+  ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep;
+  int neighbor_i, neighbor_n;
+  boolT toporient, mergeridge= False;
+  
+  if (!facet->simplicial)
+    return;
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_makeridges: make ridges for f%d\n", facet->id));
+  facet->simplicial= False;
+  FOREACHneighbor_(facet) {
+    if (neighbor == qh_MERGEridge)
+      mergeridge= True;
+    else
+      neighbor->seen= False;
+  }
+  FOREACHridge_(facet->ridges)
+    otherfacet_(ridge, facet)->seen= True;
+  FOREACHneighbor_i_(facet) {
+    if (neighbor == qh_MERGEridge)
+      continue;  /* fixed by qh_mark_dupridges */
+    else if (!neighbor->seen) {  /* no current ridges */
+      ridge= qh_newridge();
+      ridge->vertices= qh_setnew_delnthsorted (facet->vertices, qh hull_dim,
+					                  neighbor_i, 0);
+      toporient= facet->toporient ^ (neighbor_i & 0x1);
+      if (toporient) {
+        ridge->top= facet;
+        ridge->bottom= neighbor;
+      }else {
+        ridge->top= neighbor;
+        ridge->bottom= facet;
+      }
+#if 0 /* this also works */
+      flip= (facet->toporient ^ neighbor->toporient)^(skip1 & 0x1) ^ (skip2 & 0x1);
+      if (facet->toporient ^ (skip1 & 0x1) ^ flip) {
+        ridge->top= neighbor;
+        ridge->bottom= facet;
+      }else {
+        ridge->top= facet;
+        ridge->bottom= neighbor;
+      }
+#endif
+      qh_setappend(&(facet->ridges), ridge);
+      qh_setappend(&(neighbor->ridges), ridge);
+    }
+  }
+  if (mergeridge) {
+    while (qh_setdel (facet->neighbors, qh_MERGEridge))
+      ; /* delete each one */
+  }
+} /* makeridges */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="mark_dupridges">-</a>
+  
+  qh_mark_dupridges( facetlist )
+    add duplicated ridges to qh.facet_mergeset
+    facet->dupridge is true
+
+  returns:
+    duplicate ridges on qh.facet_mergeset
+    ->mergeridge/->mergeridge2 set
+    duplicate ridges marked by qh_MERGEridge and both sides facet->dupridge
+    no MERGEridges in neighbor sets
+    
+  notes:
+    duplicate ridges occur when the horizon is pinched,
+        i.e. a subridge occurs in more than two horizon ridges.
+    could rename vertices that pinch the horizon
+    uses qh.visit_id
+
+  design:
+    for all facets on facetlist
+      if facet contains a duplicate ridge
+        for each neighbor of facet
+          if neighbor marked qh_MERGEridge (one side of the merge)
+            set facet->mergeridge      
+          else
+            if neighbor contains a duplicate ridge 
+            and the back link is qh_MERGEridge
+              append duplicate ridge to qh.facet_mergeset
+   for each duplicate ridge
+     make ridge sets in preparation for merging
+     remove qh_MERGEridge from neighbor set
+   for each duplicate ridge
+     restore the missing neighbor from the neighbor set that was qh_MERGEridge
+     add the missing ridge for this neighbor
+*/
+void qh_mark_dupridges(facetT *facetlist) {
+  facetT *facet, *neighbor, **neighborp;
+  int nummerge=0;
+  mergeT *merge, **mergep;
+  
+
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_mark_dupridges: identify duplicate ridges\n"));  
+  FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+    if (facet->dupridge) {
+      FOREACHneighbor_(facet) {
+        if (neighbor == qh_MERGEridge) {
+	  facet->mergeridge= True;
+	  continue;
+	}
+        if (neighbor->dupridge
+	&& !qh_setin (neighbor->neighbors, facet)) { /* qh_MERGEridge */
+	  qh_appendmergeset (facet, neighbor, MRGridge, NULL);
+	  facet->mergeridge2= True;
+	  facet->mergeridge= True;
+	  nummerge++;
+	}
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  if (!nummerge)
+    return;
+  FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {            /* gets rid of qh_MERGEridge */
+    if (facet->mergeridge && !facet->mergeridge2)   
+      qh_makeridges (facet);
+  }
+  FOREACHmerge_(qh facet_mergeset) {   /* restore the missing neighbors */
+    if (merge->type == MRGridge) {
+      qh_setappend (&merge->facet2->neighbors, merge->facet1);
+      qh_makeridges (merge->facet1);   /* and the missing ridges */
+    }
+  }
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_mark_dupridges: found %d duplicated ridges\n", 
+                nummerge));
+} /* mark_dupridges */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="maydropneighbor">-</a>
+  
+  qh_maydropneighbor( facet )
+    drop neighbor relationship if no ridge between facet and neighbor
+
+  returns:
+    neighbor sets updated
+    appends degenerate facets to qh.facet_mergeset
+  
+  notes:
+    won't cause redundant facets since vertex inclusion is the same
+    may drop vertex and neighbor if no ridge
+    uses qh.visit_id
+
+  design:
+    visit all neighbors with ridges
+    for each unvisited neighbor of facet
+      delete neighbor and facet from the neighbor sets
+      if neighbor becomes degenerate
+        append neighbor to qh.degen_mergeset
+    if facet is degenerate
+      append facet to qh.degen_mergeset
+*/
+void qh_maydropneighbor (facetT *facet) {
+  ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep;
+  realT angledegen= qh_ANGLEdegen;
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp;
+
+  qh visit_id++;
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_maydropneighbor: test f%d for no ridges to a neighbor\n",
+	  facet->id));
+  FOREACHridge_(facet->ridges) {
+    ridge->top->visitid= qh visit_id;
+    ridge->bottom->visitid= qh visit_id;
+  }
+  FOREACHneighbor_(facet) {
+    if (neighbor->visitid != qh visit_id) {
+      trace0((qh ferr, "qh_maydropneighbor: facets f%d and f%d are no longer neighbors during p%d\n",
+	    facet->id, neighbor->id, qh furthest_id));
+      zinc_(Zdropneighbor);
+      qh_setdel (facet->neighbors, neighbor);
+      neighborp--;  /* repeat, deleted a neighbor */
+      qh_setdel (neighbor->neighbors, facet);
+      if (qh_setsize (neighbor->neighbors) < qh hull_dim) {
+        zinc_(Zdropdegen);
+        qh_appendmergeset (neighbor, neighbor, MRGdegen, &angledegen);
+        trace2((qh ferr, "qh_maydropneighbors: f%d is degenerate.\n", neighbor->id));
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  if (qh_setsize (facet->neighbors) < qh hull_dim) {
+    zinc_(Zdropdegen);
+    qh_appendmergeset (facet, facet, MRGdegen, &angledegen);
+    trace2((qh ferr, "qh_maydropneighbors: f%d is degenerate.\n", facet->id));
+  }
+} /* maydropneighbor */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="merge_degenredundant">-</a>
+  
+  qh_merge_degenredundant()
+    merge all degenerate and redundant facets
+    qh.degen_mergeset contains merges from qh_degen_redundant_neighbors()
+
+  returns:
+    number of merges performed
+    resets facet->degenerate/redundant
+    if deleted (visible) facet has no neighbors
+      sets ->f.replace to NULL
+
+  notes:
+    redundant merges happen before degenerate ones
+    merging and renaming vertices can result in degen/redundant facets
+
+  design:
+    for each merge on qh.degen_mergeset
+      if redundant merge
+        if non-redundant facet merged into redundant facet
+          recheck facet for redundancy
+        else
+          merge redundant facet into other facet
+*/
+int qh_merge_degenredundant (void) {
+  int size;
+  mergeT *merge;
+  facetT *bestneighbor, *facet1, *facet2;
+  realT dist, mindist, maxdist;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  int nummerges= 0;
+  mergeType mergetype;
+
+  while ((merge= (mergeT*)qh_setdellast (qh degen_mergeset))) {
+    facet1= merge->facet1;
+    facet2= merge->facet2;
+    mergetype= merge->type;
+    qh_memfree (merge, sizeof(mergeT));
+    if (facet1->visible)
+      continue;
+    facet1->degenerate= False; 
+    facet1->redundant= False; 
+    if (qh TRACEmerge-1 == zzval_(Ztotmerge))
+      qhmem.IStracing= qh IStracing= qh TRACElevel;
+    if (mergetype == MRGredundant) {
+      zinc_(Zneighbor);
+      while (facet2->visible) {
+        if (!facet2->f.replace) {
+          fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_merge_degenredunant): f%d redundant but f%d has no replacement\n",
+	       facet1->id, facet2->id);
+          qh_errexit2 (qh_ERRqhull, facet1, facet2);
+        }
+        facet2= facet2->f.replace;
+      }
+      if (facet1 == facet2) {
+	qh_degen_redundant_facet (facet1); /* in case of others */
+	continue;
+      }
+      trace2((qh ferr, "qh_merge_degenredundant: facet f%d is contained in f%d, will merge\n",
+	    facet1->id, facet2->id));
+      qh_mergefacet(facet1, facet2, NULL, NULL, !qh_MERGEapex);
+      /* merge distance is already accounted for */
+      nummerges++;
+    }else {  /* mergetype == MRGdegen, other merges may have fixed */
+      if (!(size= qh_setsize (facet1->neighbors))) {
+        zinc_(Zdelfacetdup);
+        trace2((qh ferr, "qh_merge_degenredundant: facet f%d has no neighbors.  Deleted\n", facet1->id));
+        qh_willdelete (facet1, NULL);
+        FOREACHvertex_(facet1->vertices) {
+  	  qh_setdel (vertex->neighbors, facet1);
+	  if (!SETfirst_(vertex->neighbors)) {
+	    zinc_(Zdegenvertex);
+	    trace2((qh ferr, "qh_merge_degenredundant: deleted v%d because f%d has no neighbors\n",
+         	 vertex->id, facet1->id));
+	    vertex->deleted= True;
+	    qh_setappend (&qh del_vertices, vertex);
+	  }
+        }
+        nummerges++;
+      }else if (size < qh hull_dim) {
+        bestneighbor= qh_findbestneighbor(facet1, &dist, &mindist, &maxdist);
+        trace2((qh ferr, "qh_merge_degenredundant: facet f%d has %d neighbors, merge into f%d dist %2.2g\n",
+	      facet1->id, size, bestneighbor->id, dist));
+        qh_mergefacet(facet1, bestneighbor, &mindist, &maxdist, !qh_MERGEapex);
+        nummerges++;
+        if (qh PRINTstatistics) {
+	  zinc_(Zdegen);
+	  wadd_(Wdegentot, dist);
+	  wmax_(Wdegenmax, dist);
+        }
+      }	/* else, another merge fixed the degeneracy and redundancy tested */
+    }
+  }
+  return nummerges;
+} /* merge_degenredundant */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="merge_nonconvex">-</a>
+  
+  qh_merge_nonconvex( facet1, facet2, mergetype )
+    remove non-convex ridge between facet1 into facet2 
+    mergetype gives why the facet's are non-convex
+
+  returns:
+    merges one of the facets into the best neighbor
+    
+  design:
+    if one of the facets is a new facet
+      prefer merging new facet into old facet
+    find best neighbors for both facets
+    merge the nearest facet into its best neighbor
+    update the statistics
+*/
+void qh_merge_nonconvex (facetT *facet1, facetT *facet2, mergeType mergetype) {
+  facetT *bestfacet, *bestneighbor, *neighbor;
+  realT dist, dist2, mindist, mindist2, maxdist, maxdist2;
+
+  if (qh TRACEmerge-1 == zzval_(Ztotmerge))
+    qhmem.IStracing= qh IStracing= qh TRACElevel;
+  trace3((qh ferr, "qh_merge_nonconvex: merge #%d for f%d and f%d type %d\n",
+      zzval_(Ztotmerge) + 1, facet1->id, facet2->id, mergetype));
+  /* concave or coplanar */
+  if (!facet1->newfacet) {
+    bestfacet= facet2;   /* avoid merging old facet if new is ok */
+    facet2= facet1;
+    facet1= bestfacet;
+  }else
+    bestfacet= facet1;
+  bestneighbor= qh_findbestneighbor(bestfacet, &dist, &mindist, &maxdist);
+  neighbor= qh_findbestneighbor(facet2, &dist2, &mindist2, &maxdist2);
+  if (dist < dist2) {
+    qh_mergefacet(bestfacet, bestneighbor, &mindist, &maxdist, !qh_MERGEapex);
+  }else if (qh AVOIDold && !facet2->newfacet
+  && ((mindist >= -qh MAXcoplanar && maxdist <= qh max_outside)
+       || dist * 1.5 < dist2)) {
+    zinc_(Zavoidold);
+    wadd_(Wavoidoldtot, dist);
+    wmax_(Wavoidoldmax, dist);
+    trace2((qh ferr, "qh_merge_nonconvex: avoid merging old facet f%d dist %2.2g.  Use f%d dist %2.2g instead\n",
+           facet2->id, dist2, facet1->id, dist2));
+    qh_mergefacet(bestfacet, bestneighbor, &mindist, &maxdist, !qh_MERGEapex);
+  }else {
+    qh_mergefacet(facet2, neighbor, &mindist2, &maxdist2, !qh_MERGEapex);
+    dist= dist2;
+  }
+  if (qh PRINTstatistics) {
+    if (mergetype == MRGanglecoplanar) {
+      zinc_(Zacoplanar);
+      wadd_(Wacoplanartot, dist);
+      wmax_(Wacoplanarmax, dist);
+    }else if (mergetype == MRGconcave) {
+      zinc_(Zconcave);
+      wadd_(Wconcavetot, dist);
+      wmax_(Wconcavemax, dist);
+    }else { /* MRGcoplanar */
+      zinc_(Zcoplanar);
+      wadd_(Wcoplanartot, dist);
+      wmax_(Wcoplanarmax, dist);
+    }
+  }
+} /* merge_nonconvex */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="mergecycle">-</a>
+  
+  qh_mergecycle( samecycle, newfacet )
+    merge a cycle of facets starting at samecycle into a newfacet 
+    newfacet is a horizon facet with ->normal
+    samecycle facets are simplicial from an apex
+
+  returns:
+    initializes vertex neighbors on first merge
+    samecycle deleted (placed on qh.visible_list)
+    newfacet at end of qh.facet_list
+    deleted vertices on qh.del_vertices
+
+  see:
+    qh_mergefacet()
+    called by qh_mergecycle_all() for multiple, same cycle facets
+
+  design:
+    make vertex neighbors if necessary
+    make ridges for newfacet
+    merge neighbor sets of samecycle into newfacet
+    merge ridges of samecycle into newfacet
+    merge vertex neighbors of samecycle into newfacet
+    make apex of samecycle the apex of newfacet
+    if newfacet wasn't a new facet
+      add its vertices to qh.newvertex_list
+    delete samecycle facets a make newfacet a newfacet
+*/
+void qh_mergecycle (facetT *samecycle, facetT *newfacet) {
+  int traceonce= False, tracerestore= 0;
+  vertexT *apex;
+#ifndef qh_NOtrace
+  facetT *same;
+#endif
+
+  if (newfacet->tricoplanar) {
+    if (!qh TRInormals) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_mergecycle: does not work for tricoplanar facets.  Use option 'Q11'\n");
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, newfacet, NULL);
+    }
+    newfacet->tricoplanar= False;
+    newfacet->keepcentrum= False;
+  }
+  if (!qh VERTEXneighbors)
+    qh_vertexneighbors();
+  zzinc_(Ztotmerge);
+  if (qh REPORTfreq2 && qh POSTmerging) {
+    if (zzval_(Ztotmerge) > qh mergereport + qh REPORTfreq2)
+      qh_tracemerging();
+  }
+#ifndef qh_NOtrace
+  if (qh TRACEmerge == zzval_(Ztotmerge))
+    qhmem.IStracing= qh IStracing= qh TRACElevel;
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_mergecycle: merge #%d for facets from cycle f%d into coplanar horizon f%d\n", 
+        zzval_(Ztotmerge), samecycle->id, newfacet->id));
+  if (newfacet == qh tracefacet) {
+    tracerestore= qh IStracing;
+    qh IStracing= 4;
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_mergecycle: ========= trace merge %d of samecycle %d into trace f%d, furthest is p%d\n",
+	       zzval_(Ztotmerge), samecycle->id, newfacet->id,  qh furthest_id);
+    traceonce= True;
+  }
+  if (qh IStracing >=4) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "  same cycle:");
+    FORALLsame_cycle_(samecycle)
+      fprintf(qh ferr, " f%d", same->id);
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "\n");
+  }
+  if (qh IStracing >=4)
+    qh_errprint ("MERGING CYCLE", samecycle, newfacet, NULL, NULL);
+#endif /* !qh_NOtrace */
+  apex= SETfirstt_(samecycle->vertices, vertexT);
+  qh_makeridges (newfacet);
+  qh_mergecycle_neighbors (samecycle, newfacet);
+  qh_mergecycle_ridges (samecycle, newfacet);
+  qh_mergecycle_vneighbors (samecycle, newfacet);
+  if (SETfirstt_(newfacet->vertices, vertexT) != apex) 
+    qh_setaddnth (&newfacet->vertices, 0, apex);  /* apex has last id */
+  if (!newfacet->newfacet)
+    qh_newvertices (newfacet->vertices);
+  qh_mergecycle_facets (samecycle, newfacet);
+  qh_tracemerge (samecycle, newfacet);
+  /* check for degen_redundant_neighbors after qh_forcedmerges() */
+  if (traceonce) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_mergecycle: end of trace facet\n");
+    qh IStracing= tracerestore;
+  }
+} /* mergecycle */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="mergecycle_all">-</a>
+  
+  qh_mergecycle_all( facetlist, wasmerge )
+    merge all samecycles of coplanar facets into horizon
+    don't merge facets with ->mergeridge (these already have ->normal)
+    all facets are simplicial from apex
+    all facet->cycledone == False
+
+  returns:
+    all newfacets merged into coplanar horizon facets
+    deleted vertices on  qh.del_vertices
+    sets wasmerge if any merge
+
+  see:
+    calls qh_mergecycle for multiple, same cycle facets
+
+  design:
+    for each facet on facetlist
+      skip facets with duplicate ridges and normals
+      check that facet is in a samecycle (->mergehorizon)
+      if facet only member of samecycle
+	sets vertex->delridge for all vertices except apex
+        merge facet into horizon
+      else
+        mark all facets in samecycle
+        remove facets with duplicate ridges from samecycle
+        merge samecycle into horizon (deletes facets from facetlist)
+*/
+void qh_mergecycle_all (facetT *facetlist, boolT *wasmerge) {
+  facetT *facet, *same, *prev, *horizon;
+  facetT *samecycle= NULL, *nextfacet, *nextsame;
+  vertexT *apex, *vertex, **vertexp;
+  int cycles=0, total=0, facets, nummerge;
+
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_mergecycle_all: begin\n"));
+  for (facet= facetlist; facet && (nextfacet= facet->next); facet= nextfacet) {
+    if (facet->normal)
+      continue;
+    if (!facet->mergehorizon) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_mergecycle_all: f%d without normal\n", facet->id);
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, facet, NULL);
+    }
+    horizon= SETfirstt_(facet->neighbors, facetT);
+    if (facet->f.samecycle == facet) {
+      zinc_(Zonehorizon);  
+      /* merge distance done in qh_findhorizon */
+      apex= SETfirstt_(facet->vertices, vertexT);
+      FOREACHvertex_(facet->vertices) {
+	if (vertex != apex)
+          vertex->delridge= True;
+      }
+      horizon->f.newcycle= NULL;
+      qh_mergefacet (facet, horizon, NULL, NULL, qh_MERGEapex);
+    }else {
+      samecycle= facet;
+      facets= 0;
+      prev= facet;
+      for (same= facet->f.samecycle; same;  /* FORALLsame_cycle_(facet) */
+	   same= (same == facet ? NULL :nextsame)) { /* ends at facet */
+	nextsame= same->f.samecycle;
+        if (same->cycledone || same->visible)
+          qh_infiniteloop (same);
+        same->cycledone= True;
+        if (same->normal) { 
+          prev->f.samecycle= same->f.samecycle; /* unlink ->mergeridge */
+	  same->f.samecycle= NULL;
+        }else {
+          prev= same;
+	  facets++;
+	}
+      }
+      while (nextfacet && nextfacet->cycledone)  /* will delete samecycle */
+	nextfacet= nextfacet->next;
+      horizon->f.newcycle= NULL;
+      qh_mergecycle (samecycle, horizon);
+      nummerge= horizon->nummerge + facets;
+      if (nummerge > qh_MAXnummerge) 
+      	horizon->nummerge= qh_MAXnummerge;
+      else
+        horizon->nummerge= nummerge;
+      zzinc_(Zcyclehorizon);
+      total += facets;
+      zzadd_(Zcyclefacettot, facets);
+      zmax_(Zcyclefacetmax, facets);
+    }
+    cycles++;
+  }
+  if (cycles)
+    *wasmerge= True;
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_mergecycle_all: merged %d same cycles or facets into coplanar horizons\n", cycles));
+} /* mergecycle_all */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="mergecycle_facets">-</a>
+  
+  qh_mergecycle_facets( samecycle, newfacet )
+    finish merge of samecycle into newfacet
+
+  returns:
+    samecycle prepended to visible_list for later deletion and partitioning
+      each facet->f.replace == newfacet
+      
+    newfacet moved to end of qh.facet_list
+      makes newfacet a newfacet (get's facet1->id if it was old)
+      sets newfacet->newmerge
+      clears newfacet->center (unless merging into a large facet)
+      clears newfacet->tested and ridge->tested for facet1
+      
+    adds neighboring facets to facet_mergeset if redundant or degenerate
+
+  design:
+    make newfacet a new facet and set its flags
+    move samecycle facets to qh.visible_list for later deletion
+    unless newfacet is large
+      remove its centrum
+*/
+void qh_mergecycle_facets (facetT *samecycle, facetT *newfacet) {
+  facetT *same, *next;
+  
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_mergecycle_facets: make newfacet new and samecycle deleted\n"));  
+  qh_removefacet(newfacet);  /* append as a newfacet to end of qh facet_list */
+  qh_appendfacet(newfacet);
+  newfacet->newfacet= True;
+  newfacet->simplicial= False;
+  newfacet->newmerge= True;
+  
+  for (same= samecycle->f.samecycle; same; same= (same == samecycle ?  NULL : next)) {
+    next= same->f.samecycle;  /* reused by willdelete */
+    qh_willdelete (same, newfacet);
+  }
+  if (newfacet->center 
+      && qh_setsize (newfacet->vertices) <= qh hull_dim + qh_MAXnewcentrum) {
+    qh_memfree (newfacet->center, qh normal_size);
+    newfacet->center= NULL;
+  }
+  trace3((qh ferr, "qh_mergecycle_facets: merged facets from cycle f%d into f%d\n", 
+             samecycle->id, newfacet->id));
+} /* mergecycle_facets */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="mergecycle_neighbors">-</a>
+  
+  qh_mergecycle_neighbors( samecycle, newfacet )
+    add neighbors for samecycle facets to newfacet
+
+  returns:
+    newfacet with updated neighbors and vice-versa
+    newfacet has ridges
+    all neighbors of newfacet marked with qh.visit_id
+    samecycle facets marked with qh.visit_id-1
+    ridges updated for simplicial neighbors of samecycle with a ridge
+
+  notes:
+    assumes newfacet not in samecycle
+    usually, samecycle facets are new, simplicial facets without internal ridges 
+      not so if horizon facet is coplanar to two different samecycles
+  
+  see:
+    qh_mergeneighbors()
+
+  design:
+    check samecycle
+    delete neighbors from newfacet that are also in samecycle
+    for each neighbor of a facet in samecycle
+      if neighbor is simplicial
+        if first visit
+          move the neighbor relation to newfacet
+          update facet links for its ridges
+        else
+          make ridges for neighbor
+          remove samecycle reference
+      else
+        update neighbor sets
+*/
+void qh_mergecycle_neighbors(facetT *samecycle, facetT *newfacet) {
+  facetT *same, *neighbor, **neighborp;
+  int delneighbors= 0, newneighbors= 0;
+  unsigned int samevisitid;
+  ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep;
+
+  samevisitid= ++qh visit_id;
+  FORALLsame_cycle_(samecycle) {
+    if (same->visitid == samevisitid || same->visible)
+      qh_infiniteloop (samecycle);
+    same->visitid= samevisitid;
+  }
+  newfacet->visitid= ++qh visit_id;
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_mergecycle_neighbors: delete shared neighbors from newfacet\n"));  
+  FOREACHneighbor_(newfacet) {
+    if (neighbor->visitid == samevisitid) {
+      SETref_(neighbor)= NULL;  /* samecycle neighbors deleted */
+      delneighbors++;
+    }else
+      neighbor->visitid= qh visit_id;
+  }
+  qh_setcompact (newfacet->neighbors);
+
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_mergecycle_neighbors: update neighbors\n"));  
+  FORALLsame_cycle_(samecycle) {
+    FOREACHneighbor_(same) {
+      if (neighbor->visitid == samevisitid)
+	continue;
+      if (neighbor->simplicial) {
+	if (neighbor->visitid != qh visit_id) {
+	  qh_setappend (&newfacet->neighbors, neighbor);
+	  qh_setreplace (neighbor->neighbors, same, newfacet);
+	  newneighbors++;
+	  neighbor->visitid= qh visit_id;
+	  FOREACHridge_(neighbor->ridges) { /* update ridge in case of qh_makeridges */
+	    if (ridge->top == same) {
+	      ridge->top= newfacet;
+	      break;
+	    }else if (ridge->bottom == same) {
+	      ridge->bottom= newfacet;
+	      break;
+	    }
+	  }
+	}else {
+	  qh_makeridges (neighbor);
+	  qh_setdel (neighbor->neighbors, same);
+	  /* same can't be horizon facet for neighbor */
+	}
+      }else { /* non-simplicial neighbor */
+        qh_setdel (neighbor->neighbors, same);
+        if (neighbor->visitid != qh visit_id) {
+          qh_setappend (&neighbor->neighbors, newfacet);
+          qh_setappend (&newfacet->neighbors, neighbor);
+          neighbor->visitid= qh visit_id;
+          newneighbors++;
+        } 
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_mergecycle_neighbors: deleted %d neighbors and added %d\n", 
+             delneighbors, newneighbors));
+} /* mergecycle_neighbors */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="mergecycle_ridges">-</a>
+  
+  qh_mergecycle_ridges( samecycle, newfacet )
+    add ridges/neighbors for facets in samecycle to newfacet
+    all new/old neighbors of newfacet marked with qh.visit_id
+    facets in samecycle marked with qh.visit_id-1
+    newfacet marked with qh.visit_id
+
+  returns:
+    newfacet has merged ridges
+  
+  notes:
+    ridge already updated for simplicial neighbors of samecycle with a ridge
+
+  see:
+    qh_mergeridges()
+    qh_makeridges()
+
+  design:
+    remove ridges between newfacet and samecycle
+    for each facet in samecycle
+      for each ridge in facet
+        update facet pointers in ridge
+        skip ridges processed in qh_mergecycle_neighors
+        free ridges between newfacet and samecycle
+        free ridges between facets of samecycle (on 2nd visit)
+        append remaining ridges to newfacet
+      if simpilicial facet
+        for each neighbor of facet
+          if simplicial facet
+          and not samecycle facet or newfacet
+            make ridge between neighbor and newfacet
+*/
+void qh_mergecycle_ridges(facetT *samecycle, facetT *newfacet) {
+  facetT *same, *neighbor= NULL;
+  int numold=0, numnew=0;
+  int neighbor_i, neighbor_n;
+  unsigned int samevisitid;
+  ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep;
+  boolT toporient;
+  void **freelistp; /* used !qh_NOmem */
+
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_mergecycle_ridges: delete shared ridges from newfacet\n"));  
+  samevisitid= qh visit_id -1;
+  FOREACHridge_(newfacet->ridges) {
+    neighbor= otherfacet_(ridge, newfacet);
+    if (neighbor->visitid == samevisitid)
+      SETref_(ridge)= NULL; /* ridge free'd below */  
+  }
+  qh_setcompact (newfacet->ridges);
+  
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_mergecycle_ridges: add ridges to newfacet\n"));  
+  FORALLsame_cycle_(samecycle) {
+    FOREACHridge_(same->ridges) {
+      if (ridge->top == same) {
+        ridge->top= newfacet;
+	neighbor= ridge->bottom;
+      }else if (ridge->bottom == same) {
+	ridge->bottom= newfacet;
+	neighbor= ridge->top;
+      }else if (ridge->top == newfacet || ridge->bottom == newfacet) {
+        qh_setappend (&newfacet->ridges, ridge);
+        numold++;  /* already set by qh_mergecycle_neighbors */
+	continue;  
+      }else {
+	fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_mergecycle_ridges): bad ridge r%d\n", ridge->id);
+	qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, ridge);
+      }
+      if (neighbor == newfacet) {
+        qh_setfree(&(ridge->vertices)); 
+        qh_memfree_(ridge, sizeof(ridgeT), freelistp);
+        numold++;
+      }else if (neighbor->visitid == samevisitid) {
+	qh_setdel (neighbor->ridges, ridge);
+	qh_setfree(&(ridge->vertices)); 
+	qh_memfree_(ridge, sizeof(ridgeT), freelistp);
+	numold++;
+      }else {
+        qh_setappend (&newfacet->ridges, ridge);
+        numold++;
+      }
+    }
+    if (same->ridges)
+      qh_settruncate (same->ridges, 0);
+    if (!same->simplicial)
+      continue;
+    FOREACHneighbor_i_(same) {       /* note: !newfact->simplicial */
+      if (neighbor->visitid != samevisitid && neighbor->simplicial) {
+        ridge= qh_newridge();
+        ridge->vertices= qh_setnew_delnthsorted (same->vertices, qh hull_dim,
+  					                  neighbor_i, 0);
+        toporient= same->toporient ^ (neighbor_i & 0x1);
+        if (toporient) {
+          ridge->top= newfacet;
+          ridge->bottom= neighbor;
+        }else {
+          ridge->top= neighbor;
+          ridge->bottom= newfacet;
+        }
+        qh_setappend(&(newfacet->ridges), ridge);
+        qh_setappend(&(neighbor->ridges), ridge);
+        numnew++;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_mergecycle_ridges: found %d old ridges and %d new ones\n", 
+             numold, numnew));
+} /* mergecycle_ridges */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="mergecycle_vneighbors">-</a>
+  
+  qh_mergecycle_vneighbors( samecycle, newfacet )
+    create vertex neighbors for newfacet from vertices of facets in samecycle
+    samecycle marked with visitid == qh.visit_id - 1
+
+  returns:
+    newfacet vertices with updated neighbors
+    marks newfacet with qh.visit_id-1
+    deletes vertices that are merged away
+    sets delridge on all vertices (faster here than in mergecycle_ridges)
+
+  see:
+    qh_mergevertex_neighbors()
+
+  design:
+    for each vertex of samecycle facet
+      set vertex->delridge
+      delete samecycle facets from vertex neighbors
+      append newfacet to vertex neighbors
+      if vertex only in newfacet
+        delete it from newfacet
+        add it to qh.del_vertices for later deletion
+*/
+void qh_mergecycle_vneighbors (facetT *samecycle, facetT *newfacet) {
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp;
+  unsigned int mergeid;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp, *apex;
+  setT *vertices;
+  
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_mergecycle_vneighbors: update vertex neighbors for newfacet\n"));  
+  mergeid= qh visit_id - 1;
+  newfacet->visitid= mergeid;
+  vertices= qh_basevertices (samecycle); /* temp */
+  apex= SETfirstt_(samecycle->vertices, vertexT);
+  qh_setappend (&vertices, apex);
+  FOREACHvertex_(vertices) {
+    vertex->delridge= True;
+    FOREACHneighbor_(vertex) {
+      if (neighbor->visitid == mergeid)
+        SETref_(neighbor)= NULL;
+    }
+    qh_setcompact (vertex->neighbors);
+    qh_setappend (&vertex->neighbors, newfacet);
+    if (!SETsecond_(vertex->neighbors)) {
+      zinc_(Zcyclevertex);
+      trace2((qh ferr, "qh_mergecycle_vneighbors: deleted v%d when merging cycle f%d into f%d\n",
+        vertex->id, samecycle->id, newfacet->id));
+      qh_setdelsorted (newfacet->vertices, vertex);
+      vertex->deleted= True;
+      qh_setappend (&qh del_vertices, vertex);
+    }
+  }
+  qh_settempfree (&vertices);
+  trace3((qh ferr, "qh_mergecycle_vneighbors: merged vertices from cycle f%d into f%d\n", 
+             samecycle->id, newfacet->id));
+} /* mergecycle_vneighbors */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="mergefacet">-</a>
+  
+  qh_mergefacet( facet1, facet2, mindist, maxdist, mergeapex )
+    merges facet1 into facet2
+    mergeapex==qh_MERGEapex if merging new facet into coplanar horizon
+    
+  returns:
+    qh.max_outside and qh.min_vertex updated
+    initializes vertex neighbors on first merge
+
+  returns:
+    facet2 contains facet1's vertices, neighbors, and ridges
+      facet2 moved to end of qh.facet_list
+      makes facet2 a newfacet
+      sets facet2->newmerge set
+      clears facet2->center (unless merging into a large facet)
+      clears facet2->tested and ridge->tested for facet1
+
+    facet1 prepended to visible_list for later deletion and partitioning
+      facet1->f.replace == facet2
+
+    adds neighboring facets to facet_mergeset if redundant or degenerate
+
+  notes: 
+    mindist/maxdist may be NULL
+    traces merge if fmax_(maxdist,-mindist) > TRACEdist
+
+  see: 
+    qh_mergecycle()
+
+  design:
+    trace merge and check for degenerate simplex
+    make ridges for both facets
+    update qh.max_outside, qh.max_vertex, qh.min_vertex
+    update facet2->maxoutside and keepcentrum
+    update facet2->nummerge
+    update tested flags for facet2
+    if facet1 is simplicial
+      merge facet1 into facet2
+    else
+      merge facet1's neighbors into facet2
+      merge facet1's ridges into facet2
+      merge facet1's vertices into facet2
+      merge facet1's vertex neighbors into facet2
+      add facet2's vertices to qh.new_vertexlist
+      unless qh_MERGEapex
+        test facet2 for degenerate or redundant neighbors
+      move facet1 to qh.visible_list for later deletion
+      move facet2 to end of qh.newfacet_list
+*/
+void qh_mergefacet(facetT *facet1, facetT *facet2, realT *mindist, realT *maxdist, boolT mergeapex) {
+  boolT traceonce= False;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  int tracerestore=0, nummerge;
+
+  if (facet1->tricoplanar || facet2->tricoplanar) {
+    if (!qh TRInormals) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_mergefacet: does not work for tricoplanar facets.  Use option 'Q11'\n");
+      qh_errexit2 (qh_ERRqhull, facet1, facet2);
+    }
+    if (facet2->tricoplanar) {
+      facet2->tricoplanar= False;
+      facet2->keepcentrum= False;
+    }
+  }
+  zzinc_(Ztotmerge);
+  if (qh REPORTfreq2 && qh POSTmerging) {
+    if (zzval_(Ztotmerge) > qh mergereport + qh REPORTfreq2)
+      qh_tracemerging();
+  }
+#ifndef qh_NOtrace
+  if (qh build_cnt >= qh RERUN) {
+    if (mindist && (-*mindist > qh TRACEdist || *maxdist > qh TRACEdist)) {
+      tracerestore= 0;
+      qh IStracing= qh TRACElevel;
+      traceonce= True;
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_mergefacet: ========= trace wide merge #%d (%2.2g) for f%d into f%d, last point was p%d\n", zzval_(Ztotmerge),
+	     fmax_(-*mindist, *maxdist), facet1->id, facet2->id, qh furthest_id);
+    }else if (facet1 == qh tracefacet || facet2 == qh tracefacet) {
+      tracerestore= qh IStracing;
+      qh IStracing= 4;
+      traceonce= True;
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_mergefacet: ========= trace merge #%d involving f%d, furthest is p%d\n",
+		 zzval_(Ztotmerge), qh tracefacet_id,  qh furthest_id);
+    }
+  }
+  if (qh IStracing >= 2) {
+    realT mergemin= -2;
+    realT mergemax= -2;
+    
+    if (mindist) {
+      mergemin= *mindist;
+      mergemax= *maxdist;
+    }
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_mergefacet: #%d merge f%d into f%d, mindist= %2.2g, maxdist= %2.2g\n", 
+    zzval_(Ztotmerge), facet1->id, facet2->id, mergemin, mergemax);
+  }
+#endif /* !qh_NOtrace */
+  if (facet1 == facet2 || facet1->visible || facet2->visible) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_mergefacet): either f%d and f%d are the same or one is a visible facet\n",
+	     facet1->id, facet2->id);
+    qh_errexit2 (qh_ERRqhull, facet1, facet2);
+  }
+  if (qh num_facets - qh num_visible <= qh hull_dim + 1) {
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "\n\
+qhull precision error: Only %d facets remain.  Can not merge another\n\
+pair.  The input is too degenerate or the convexity constraints are\n\
+too strong.\n", qh hull_dim+1);
+    if (qh hull_dim >= 5 && !qh MERGEexact)
+      fprintf(qh ferr, "Option 'Qx' may avoid this problem.\n");
+    qh_errexit(qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  if (!qh VERTEXneighbors)
+    qh_vertexneighbors();
+  qh_makeridges(facet1);
+  qh_makeridges(facet2);
+  if (qh IStracing >=4)
+    qh_errprint ("MERGING", facet1, facet2, NULL, NULL);
+  if (mindist) {
+    maximize_(qh max_outside, *maxdist);
+    maximize_(qh max_vertex, *maxdist);
+#if qh_MAXoutside
+    maximize_(facet2->maxoutside, *maxdist);
+#endif
+    minimize_(qh min_vertex, *mindist);
+    if (!facet2->keepcentrum 
+    && (*maxdist > qh WIDEfacet || *mindist < -qh WIDEfacet)) {
+      facet2->keepcentrum= True;
+      zinc_(Zwidefacet);
+    }
+  }
+  nummerge= facet1->nummerge + facet2->nummerge + 1;
+  if (nummerge >= qh_MAXnummerge) 
+    facet2->nummerge= qh_MAXnummerge;
+  else
+    facet2->nummerge= nummerge;
+  facet2->newmerge= True;
+  facet2->dupridge= False;
+  qh_updatetested  (facet1, facet2);
+  if (qh hull_dim > 2 && qh_setsize (facet1->vertices) == qh hull_dim)
+    qh_mergesimplex (facet1, facet2, mergeapex);
+  else {
+    qh vertex_visit++;
+    FOREACHvertex_(facet2->vertices)
+      vertex->visitid= qh vertex_visit;
+    if (qh hull_dim == 2) 
+      qh_mergefacet2d(facet1, facet2);
+    else {
+      qh_mergeneighbors(facet1, facet2);
+      qh_mergevertices(facet1->vertices, &facet2->vertices);
+    }
+    qh_mergeridges(facet1, facet2);
+    qh_mergevertex_neighbors(facet1, facet2);
+    if (!facet2->newfacet)
+      qh_newvertices (facet2->vertices);
+  }
+  if (!mergeapex)
+    qh_degen_redundant_neighbors (facet2, facet1);
+  if (facet2->coplanar || !facet2->newfacet) {
+    zinc_(Zmergeintohorizon);
+  }else if (!facet1->newfacet && facet2->newfacet) {
+    zinc_(Zmergehorizon);
+  }else {
+    zinc_(Zmergenew);
+  }
+  qh_willdelete (facet1, facet2);
+  qh_removefacet(facet2);  /* append as a newfacet to end of qh facet_list */
+  qh_appendfacet(facet2);
+  facet2->newfacet= True;
+  facet2->tested= False;
+  qh_tracemerge (facet1, facet2);
+  if (traceonce) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_mergefacet: end of wide tracing\n");
+    qh IStracing= tracerestore;
+  }
+} /* mergefacet */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="mergefacet2d">-</a>
+  
+  qh_mergefacet2d( facet1, facet2 )
+    in 2d, merges neighbors and vertices of facet1 into facet2
+    
+  returns:
+    build ridges for neighbors if necessary
+    facet2 looks like a simplicial facet except for centrum, ridges
+      neighbors are opposite the corresponding vertex
+      maintains orientation of facet2
+
+  notes:
+    qh_mergefacet() retains non-simplicial structures
+      they are not needed in 2d, but later routines may use them
+    preserves qh.vertex_visit for qh_mergevertex_neighbors()
+  
+  design:
+    get vertices and neighbors
+    determine new vertices and neighbors
+    set new vertices and neighbors and adjust orientation
+    make ridges for new neighbor if needed
+*/
+void qh_mergefacet2d (facetT *facet1, facetT *facet2) {
+  vertexT *vertex1A, *vertex1B, *vertex2A, *vertex2B, *vertexA, *vertexB;
+  facetT *neighbor1A, *neighbor1B, *neighbor2A, *neighbor2B, *neighborA, *neighborB;
+
+  vertex1A= SETfirstt_(facet1->vertices, vertexT);
+  vertex1B= SETsecondt_(facet1->vertices, vertexT);
+  vertex2A= SETfirstt_(facet2->vertices, vertexT);
+  vertex2B= SETsecondt_(facet2->vertices, vertexT);
+  neighbor1A= SETfirstt_(facet1->neighbors, facetT);
+  neighbor1B= SETsecondt_(facet1->neighbors, facetT);
+  neighbor2A= SETfirstt_(facet2->neighbors, facetT);
+  neighbor2B= SETsecondt_(facet2->neighbors, facetT);
+  if (vertex1A == vertex2A) {
+    vertexA= vertex1B;
+    vertexB= vertex2B;
+    neighborA= neighbor2A;
+    neighborB= neighbor1A;
+  }else if (vertex1A == vertex2B) {
+    vertexA= vertex1B;
+    vertexB= vertex2A;
+    neighborA= neighbor2B;
+    neighborB= neighbor1A;
+  }else if (vertex1B == vertex2A) {
+    vertexA= vertex1A;
+    vertexB= vertex2B;
+    neighborA= neighbor2A;
+    neighborB= neighbor1B;
+  }else { /* 1B == 2B */
+    vertexA= vertex1A;
+    vertexB= vertex2A;
+    neighborA= neighbor2B;
+    neighborB= neighbor1B;
+  }
+  /* vertexB always from facet2, neighborB always from facet1 */
+  if (vertexA->id > vertexB->id) {
+    SETfirst_(facet2->vertices)= vertexA;
+    SETsecond_(facet2->vertices)= vertexB;
+    if (vertexB == vertex2A)
+      facet2->toporient= !facet2->toporient;
+    SETfirst_(facet2->neighbors)= neighborA;
+    SETsecond_(facet2->neighbors)= neighborB;
+  }else {
+    SETfirst_(facet2->vertices)= vertexB;
+    SETsecond_(facet2->vertices)= vertexA;
+    if (vertexB == vertex2B)
+      facet2->toporient= !facet2->toporient;
+    SETfirst_(facet2->neighbors)= neighborB;
+    SETsecond_(facet2->neighbors)= neighborA;
+  }
+  qh_makeridges (neighborB);
+  qh_setreplace(neighborB->neighbors, facet1, facet2);
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_mergefacet2d: merged v%d and neighbor f%d of f%d into f%d\n",
+       vertexA->id, neighborB->id, facet1->id, facet2->id));
+} /* mergefacet2d */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="mergeneighbors">-</a>
+  
+  qh_mergeneighbors( facet1, facet2 )
+    merges the neighbors of facet1 into facet2
+
+  see: 
+    qh_mergecycle_neighbors()
+
+  design:
+    for each neighbor of facet1
+      if neighbor is also a neighbor of facet2
+        if neighbor is simpilicial
+          make ridges for later deletion as a degenerate facet
+        update its neighbor set
+      else
+        move the neighbor relation to facet2
+    remove the neighbor relation for facet1 and facet2
+*/
+void qh_mergeneighbors(facetT *facet1, facetT *facet2) {
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp;
+
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_mergeneighbors: merge neighbors of f%d and f%d\n",
+	  facet1->id, facet2->id));
+  qh visit_id++;
+  FOREACHneighbor_(facet2) {
+    neighbor->visitid= qh visit_id;
+  }
+  FOREACHneighbor_(facet1) {
+    if (neighbor->visitid == qh visit_id) {
+      if (neighbor->simplicial)    /* is degen, needs ridges */
+	qh_makeridges (neighbor);
+      if (SETfirstt_(neighbor->neighbors, facetT) != facet1) /*keep newfacet->horizon*/
+	qh_setdel (neighbor->neighbors, facet1);
+      else {
+        qh_setdel(neighbor->neighbors, facet2);
+        qh_setreplace(neighbor->neighbors, facet1, facet2);
+      }
+    }else if (neighbor != facet2) {
+      qh_setappend(&(facet2->neighbors), neighbor);
+      qh_setreplace(neighbor->neighbors, facet1, facet2);
+    }
+  }
+  qh_setdel(facet1->neighbors, facet2);  /* here for makeridges */
+  qh_setdel(facet2->neighbors, facet1);
+} /* mergeneighbors */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="mergeridges">-</a>
+  
+  qh_mergeridges( facet1, facet2 )
+    merges the ridge set of facet1 into facet2
+
+  returns:
+    may delete all ridges for a vertex
+    sets vertex->delridge on deleted ridges
+
+  see:
+    qh_mergecycle_ridges()
+
+  design:
+    delete ridges between facet1 and facet2
+      mark (delridge) vertices on these ridges for later testing   
+    for each remaining ridge
+      rename facet1 to facet2  
+*/
+void qh_mergeridges(facetT *facet1, facetT *facet2) {
+  ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_mergeridges: merge ridges of f%d and f%d\n",
+	  facet1->id, facet2->id));
+  FOREACHridge_(facet2->ridges) {
+    if ((ridge->top == facet1) || (ridge->bottom == facet1)) {
+      FOREACHvertex_(ridge->vertices)
+        vertex->delridge= True;
+      qh_delridge(ridge);  /* expensive in high-d, could rebuild */
+      ridgep--; /*repeat*/
+    }
+  }
+  FOREACHridge_(facet1->ridges) {
+    if (ridge->top == facet1)
+      ridge->top= facet2;
+    else
+      ridge->bottom= facet2;
+    qh_setappend(&(facet2->ridges), ridge);
+  }
+} /* mergeridges */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="mergesimplex">-</a>
+  
+  qh_mergesimplex( facet1, facet2, mergeapex )
+    merge simplicial facet1 into facet2
+    mergeapex==qh_MERGEapex if merging samecycle into horizon facet
+      vertex id is latest (most recently created)
+    facet1 may be contained in facet2
+    ridges exist for both facets
+
+  returns:
+    facet2 with updated vertices, ridges, neighbors
+    updated neighbors for facet1's vertices
+    facet1 not deleted
+    sets vertex->delridge on deleted ridges
+  
+  notes:
+    special case code since this is the most common merge
+    called from qh_mergefacet()
+
+  design:
+    if qh_MERGEapex
+      add vertices of facet2 to qh.new_vertexlist if necessary
+      add apex to facet2
+    else
+      for each ridge between facet1 and facet2
+        set vertex->delridge
+      determine the apex for facet1 (i.e., vertex to be merged)
+      unless apex already in facet2
+        insert apex into vertices for facet2
+      add vertices of facet2 to qh.new_vertexlist if necessary
+      add apex to qh.new_vertexlist if necessary
+      for each vertex of facet1
+        if apex
+          rename facet1 to facet2 in its vertex neighbors
+        else
+          delete facet1 from vertex neighors
+          if only in facet2
+            add vertex to qh.del_vertices for later deletion
+      for each ridge of facet1
+        delete ridges between facet1 and facet2
+        append other ridges to facet2 after renaming facet to facet2
+*/
+void qh_mergesimplex(facetT *facet1, facetT *facet2, boolT mergeapex) {
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp, *apex;
+  ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep;
+  boolT issubset= False;
+  int vertex_i= -1, vertex_n;
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp, *otherfacet;
+
+  if (mergeapex) {
+    if (!facet2->newfacet)
+      qh_newvertices (facet2->vertices);  /* apex is new */
+    apex= SETfirstt_(facet1->vertices, vertexT);
+    if (SETfirstt_(facet2->vertices, vertexT) != apex) 
+      qh_setaddnth (&facet2->vertices, 0, apex);  /* apex has last id */
+    else
+      issubset= True;
+  }else {
+    zinc_(Zmergesimplex);
+    FOREACHvertex_(facet1->vertices)
+      vertex->seen= False;
+    FOREACHridge_(facet1->ridges) {
+      if (otherfacet_(ridge, facet1) == facet2) {
+	FOREACHvertex_(ridge->vertices) {
+	  vertex->seen= True;
+	  vertex->delridge= True;
+	}
+	break;
+      }
+    }
+    FOREACHvertex_(facet1->vertices) {
+      if (!vertex->seen)
+	break;  /* must occur */
+    }
+    apex= vertex;
+    trace4((qh ferr, "qh_mergesimplex: merge apex v%d of f%d into facet f%d\n",
+	  apex->id, facet1->id, facet2->id));
+    FOREACHvertex_i_(facet2->vertices) {
+      if (vertex->id < apex->id) {
+	break;
+      }else if (vertex->id == apex->id) {
+	issubset= True;
+	break;
+      }
+    }
+    if (!issubset)
+      qh_setaddnth (&facet2->vertices, vertex_i, apex);
+    if (!facet2->newfacet)
+      qh_newvertices (facet2->vertices);
+    else if (!apex->newlist) {
+      qh_removevertex (apex);
+      qh_appendvertex (apex);
+    }
+  }
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_mergesimplex: update vertex neighbors of f%d\n",
+	  facet1->id));
+  FOREACHvertex_(facet1->vertices) {
+    if (vertex == apex && !issubset)
+      qh_setreplace (vertex->neighbors, facet1, facet2);
+    else {
+      qh_setdel (vertex->neighbors, facet1);
+      if (!SETsecond_(vertex->neighbors))
+	qh_mergevertex_del (vertex, facet1, facet2);
+    }
+  }
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_mergesimplex: merge ridges and neighbors of f%d into f%d\n",
+	  facet1->id, facet2->id));
+  qh visit_id++;
+  FOREACHneighbor_(facet2)
+    neighbor->visitid= qh visit_id;
+  FOREACHridge_(facet1->ridges) {
+    otherfacet= otherfacet_(ridge, facet1);
+    if (otherfacet == facet2) {
+      qh_setdel (facet2->ridges, ridge);
+      qh_setfree(&(ridge->vertices)); 
+      qh_memfree (ridge, sizeof(ridgeT));
+      qh_setdel (facet2->neighbors, facet1);
+    }else {
+      qh_setappend (&facet2->ridges, ridge);
+      if (otherfacet->visitid != qh visit_id) {
+	qh_setappend (&facet2->neighbors, otherfacet);
+	qh_setreplace (otherfacet->neighbors, facet1, facet2);
+	otherfacet->visitid= qh visit_id;
+      }else {
+	if (otherfacet->simplicial)    /* is degen, needs ridges */
+	  qh_makeridges (otherfacet);
+	if (SETfirstt_(otherfacet->neighbors, facetT) != facet1)
+	  qh_setdel (otherfacet->neighbors, facet1);
+	else {   /*keep newfacet->neighbors->horizon*/
+	  qh_setdel(otherfacet->neighbors, facet2);
+	  qh_setreplace(otherfacet->neighbors, facet1, facet2);
+	}
+      }
+      if (ridge->top == facet1) /* wait until after qh_makeridges */
+	ridge->top= facet2;
+      else 
+	ridge->bottom= facet2;
+    }
+  }
+  SETfirst_(facet1->ridges)= NULL; /* it will be deleted */
+  trace3((qh ferr, "qh_mergesimplex: merged simplex f%d apex v%d into facet f%d\n",
+	  facet1->id, getid_(apex), facet2->id));
+} /* mergesimplex */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="mergevertex_del">-</a>
+  
+  qh_mergevertex_del( vertex, facet1, facet2 )
+    delete a vertex because of merging facet1 into facet2
+
+  returns:
+    deletes vertex from facet2
+    adds vertex to qh.del_vertices for later deletion 
+*/
+void qh_mergevertex_del (vertexT *vertex, facetT *facet1, facetT *facet2) {
+
+  zinc_(Zmergevertex);
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_mergevertex_del: deleted v%d when merging f%d into f%d\n",
+          vertex->id, facet1->id, facet2->id));
+  qh_setdelsorted (facet2->vertices, vertex);
+  vertex->deleted= True;
+  qh_setappend (&qh del_vertices, vertex);
+} /* mergevertex_del */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="mergevertex_neighbors">-</a>
+  
+  qh_mergevertex_neighbors( facet1, facet2 )
+    merge the vertex neighbors of facet1 to facet2
+
+  returns:
+    if vertex is current qh.vertex_visit
+      deletes facet1 from vertex->neighbors
+    else
+      renames facet1 to facet2 in vertex->neighbors 
+    deletes vertices if only one neighbor
+  
+  notes:
+    assumes vertex neighbor sets are good
+*/
+void qh_mergevertex_neighbors(facetT *facet1, facetT *facet2) {
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_mergevertex_neighbors: merge vertex neighbors of f%d and f%d\n",
+	  facet1->id, facet2->id));
+  if (qh tracevertex) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_mergevertex_neighbors: of f%d and f%d at furthest p%d f0= %p\n",
+	     facet1->id, facet2->id, qh furthest_id, qh tracevertex->neighbors->e[0].p);
+    qh_errprint ("TRACE", NULL, NULL, NULL, qh tracevertex);
+  }
+  FOREACHvertex_(facet1->vertices) {
+    if (vertex->visitid != qh vertex_visit) 
+      qh_setreplace(vertex->neighbors, facet1, facet2);
+    else {
+      qh_setdel(vertex->neighbors, facet1);
+      if (!SETsecond_(vertex->neighbors))
+	qh_mergevertex_del (vertex, facet1, facet2);
+    }
+  }
+  if (qh tracevertex) 
+    qh_errprint ("TRACE", NULL, NULL, NULL, qh tracevertex);
+} /* mergevertex_neighbors */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="mergevertices">-</a>
+  
+  qh_mergevertices( vertices1, vertices2 )
+    merges the vertex set of facet1 into facet2
+
+  returns:
+    replaces vertices2 with merged set
+    preserves vertex_visit for qh_mergevertex_neighbors
+    updates qh.newvertex_list
+
+  design:
+    create a merged set of both vertices (in inverse id order)
+*/
+void qh_mergevertices(setT *vertices1, setT **vertices2) {
+  int newsize= qh_setsize(vertices1)+qh_setsize(*vertices2) - qh hull_dim + 1;
+  setT *mergedvertices;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp, **vertex2= SETaddr_(*vertices2, vertexT);
+
+  mergedvertices= qh_settemp (newsize);
+  FOREACHvertex_(vertices1) {
+    if (!*vertex2 || vertex->id > (*vertex2)->id)
+      qh_setappend (&mergedvertices, vertex);
+    else {
+      while (*vertex2 && (*vertex2)->id > vertex->id)
+	qh_setappend (&mergedvertices, *vertex2++);
+      if (!*vertex2 || (*vertex2)->id < vertex->id)
+	qh_setappend (&mergedvertices, vertex);
+      else
+	qh_setappend (&mergedvertices, *vertex2++);
+    }
+  }
+  while (*vertex2)
+    qh_setappend (&mergedvertices, *vertex2++);
+  if (newsize < qh_setsize (mergedvertices)) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_mergevertices): facets did not share a ridge\n");
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  qh_setfree(vertices2);
+  *vertices2= mergedvertices;
+  qh_settemppop ();
+} /* mergevertices */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="neighbor_intersections">-</a>
+  
+  qh_neighbor_intersections( vertex )
+    return intersection of all vertices in vertex->neighbors except for vertex
+
+  returns:
+    returns temporary set of vertices
+    does not include vertex
+    NULL if a neighbor is simplicial
+    NULL if empty set
+    
+  notes:
+    used for renaming vertices
+
+  design:
+    initialize the intersection set with vertices of the first two neighbors
+    delete vertex from the intersection
+    for each remaining neighbor
+      intersect its vertex set with the intersection set
+      return NULL if empty
+    return the intersection set  
+*/
+setT *qh_neighbor_intersections (vertexT *vertex) {
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp, *neighborA, *neighborB;
+  setT *intersect;
+  int neighbor_i, neighbor_n;
+
+  FOREACHneighbor_(vertex) {
+    if (neighbor->simplicial)
+      return NULL;
+  }
+  neighborA= SETfirstt_(vertex->neighbors, facetT);
+  neighborB= SETsecondt_(vertex->neighbors, facetT);
+  zinc_(Zintersectnum);
+  if (!neighborA)
+    return NULL;
+  if (!neighborB)
+    intersect= qh_setcopy (neighborA->vertices, 0);
+  else
+    intersect= qh_vertexintersect_new (neighborA->vertices, neighborB->vertices);
+  qh_settemppush (intersect);
+  qh_setdelsorted (intersect, vertex);
+  FOREACHneighbor_i_(vertex) {
+    if (neighbor_i >= 2) {
+      zinc_(Zintersectnum);
+      qh_vertexintersect (&intersect, neighbor->vertices);
+      if (!SETfirst_(intersect)) {
+        zinc_(Zintersectfail);
+        qh_settempfree (&intersect);
+        return NULL;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  trace3((qh ferr, "qh_neighbor_intersections: %d vertices in neighbor intersection of v%d\n", 
+          qh_setsize (intersect), vertex->id));
+  return intersect;
+} /* neighbor_intersections */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="newvertices">-</a>
+  
+  qh_newvertices( vertices )
+    add vertices to end of qh.vertex_list (marks as new vertices)
+
+  returns:
+    vertices on qh.newvertex_list
+    vertex->newlist set
+*/
+void qh_newvertices (setT *vertices) {
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+
+  FOREACHvertex_(vertices) {
+    if (!vertex->newlist) {
+      qh_removevertex (vertex);
+      qh_appendvertex (vertex);
+    }
+  }
+} /* newvertices */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="reducevertices">-</a>
+  
+  qh_reducevertices()
+    reduce extra vertices, shared vertices, and redundant vertices
+    facet->newmerge is set if merged since last call
+    if !qh.MERGEvertices, only removes extra vertices
+
+  returns:
+    True if also merged degen_redundant facets
+    vertices are renamed if possible
+    clears facet->newmerge and vertex->delridge
+
+  notes:
+    ignored if 2-d
+
+  design:
+    merge any degenerate or redundant facets
+    for each newly merged facet
+      remove extra vertices
+    if qh.MERGEvertices
+      for each newly merged facet
+        for each vertex
+          if vertex was on a deleted ridge
+            rename vertex if it is shared
+      remove delridge flag from new vertices
+*/
+boolT qh_reducevertices (void) {
+  int numshare=0, numrename= 0;
+  boolT degenredun= False;
+  facetT *newfacet;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+
+  if (qh hull_dim == 2) 
+    return False;
+  if (qh_merge_degenredundant())
+    degenredun= True;
+ LABELrestart:
+  FORALLnew_facets {
+    if (newfacet->newmerge) { 
+      if (!qh MERGEvertices)
+        newfacet->newmerge= False;
+      qh_remove_extravertices (newfacet);
+    }
+  }
+  if (!qh MERGEvertices)
+    return False;
+  FORALLnew_facets {
+    if (newfacet->newmerge) {
+      newfacet->newmerge= False;
+      FOREACHvertex_(newfacet->vertices) {
+	if (vertex->delridge) {
+	  if (qh_rename_sharedvertex (vertex, newfacet)) {
+	    numshare++;
+	    vertexp--; /* repeat since deleted vertex */
+	  }
+        }
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  FORALLvertex_(qh newvertex_list) {
+    if (vertex->delridge && !vertex->deleted) {
+      vertex->delridge= False;
+      if (qh hull_dim >= 4 && qh_redundant_vertex (vertex)) {
+	numrename++;
+	if (qh_merge_degenredundant()) {
+	  degenredun= True;
+	  goto LABELrestart;
+	}
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_reducevertices: renamed %d shared vertices and %d redundant vertices. Degen? %d\n",
+	  numshare, numrename, degenredun));
+  return degenredun;
+} /* reducevertices */
+      
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="redundant_vertex">-</a>
+  
+  qh_redundant_vertex( vertex )
+    detect and rename a redundant vertex
+    vertices have full vertex->neighbors 
+
+  returns:
+    returns true if find a redundant vertex
+      deletes vertex (vertex->deleted)
+  
+  notes:
+    only needed if vertex->delridge and hull_dim >= 4
+    may add degenerate facets to qh.facet_mergeset
+    doesn't change vertex->neighbors or create redundant facets
+
+  design:
+    intersect vertices of all facet neighbors of vertex
+    determine ridges for these vertices
+    if find a new vertex for vertex amoung these ridges and vertices
+      rename vertex to the new vertex
+*/
+vertexT *qh_redundant_vertex (vertexT *vertex) {
+  vertexT *newvertex= NULL;
+  setT *vertices, *ridges;
+
+  trace3((qh ferr, "qh_redundant_vertex: check if v%d can be renamed\n", vertex->id));  
+  if ((vertices= qh_neighbor_intersections (vertex))) {
+    ridges= qh_vertexridges (vertex);
+    if ((newvertex= qh_find_newvertex (vertex, vertices, ridges)))
+      qh_renamevertex (vertex, newvertex, ridges, NULL, NULL);
+    qh_settempfree (&ridges);
+    qh_settempfree (&vertices);
+  }
+  return newvertex;
+} /* redundant_vertex */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="remove_extravertices">-</a>
+  
+  qh_remove_extravertices( facet )
+    remove extra vertices from non-simplicial facets
+
+  returns:
+    returns True if it finds them
+
+  design:
+    for each vertex in facet
+      if vertex not in a ridge (i.e., no longer used)
+        delete vertex from facet
+        delete facet from vertice's neighbors
+        unless vertex in another facet
+          add vertex to qh.del_vertices for later deletion
+*/
+boolT qh_remove_extravertices (facetT *facet) {
+  ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  boolT foundrem= False;
+
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_remove_extravertices: test f%d for extra vertices\n",
+	  facet->id));
+  FOREACHvertex_(facet->vertices)
+    vertex->seen= False;
+  FOREACHridge_(facet->ridges) { 
+    FOREACHvertex_(ridge->vertices)
+      vertex->seen= True;
+  }
+  FOREACHvertex_(facet->vertices) {
+    if (!vertex->seen) {
+      foundrem= True;
+      zinc_(Zremvertex);
+      qh_setdelsorted (facet->vertices, vertex);
+      qh_setdel (vertex->neighbors, facet);
+      if (!qh_setsize (vertex->neighbors)) {
+	vertex->deleted= True;
+	qh_setappend (&qh del_vertices, vertex);
+	zinc_(Zremvertexdel);
+	trace2((qh ferr, "qh_remove_extravertices: v%d deleted because it's lost all ridges\n", vertex->id));
+      }else
+	trace3((qh ferr, "qh_remove_extravertices: v%d removed from f%d because it's lost all ridges\n", vertex->id, facet->id));
+      vertexp--; /*repeat*/
+    }
+  }
+  return foundrem;
+} /* remove_extravertices */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="rename_sharedvertex">-</a>
+  
+  qh_rename_sharedvertex( vertex, facet )
+    detect and rename if shared vertex in facet
+    vertices have full ->neighbors
+
+  returns:
+    newvertex or NULL
+    the vertex may still exist in other facets (i.e., a neighbor was pinched)
+    does not change facet->neighbors
+    updates vertex->neighbors
+  
+  notes:
+    a shared vertex for a facet is only in ridges to one neighbor
+    this may undo a pinched facet
+ 
+    it does not catch pinches involving multiple facets.  These appear
+      to be difficult to detect, since an exhaustive search is too expensive.
+
+  design:
+    if vertex only has two neighbors
+      determine the ridges that contain the vertex
+      determine the vertices shared by both neighbors
+      if can find a new vertex in this set
+        rename the vertex to the new vertex
+*/
+vertexT *qh_rename_sharedvertex (vertexT *vertex, facetT *facet) {
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp, *neighborA= NULL;
+  setT *vertices, *ridges;
+  vertexT *newvertex;
+
+  if (qh_setsize (vertex->neighbors) == 2) {
+    neighborA= SETfirstt_(vertex->neighbors, facetT);
+    if (neighborA == facet)
+      neighborA= SETsecondt_(vertex->neighbors, facetT);
+  }else if (qh hull_dim == 3)
+    return NULL;
+  else {
+    qh visit_id++;
+    FOREACHneighbor_(facet)
+      neighbor->visitid= qh visit_id;
+    FOREACHneighbor_(vertex) {
+      if (neighbor->visitid == qh visit_id) {
+        if (neighborA)
+          return NULL;
+        neighborA= neighbor;
+      }
+    }
+    if (!neighborA) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_rename_sharedvertex): v%d's neighbors not in f%d\n",
+        vertex->id, facet->id);
+      qh_errprint ("ERRONEOUS", facet, NULL, NULL, vertex);
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+  }
+  /* the vertex is shared by facet and neighborA */
+  ridges= qh_settemp (qh TEMPsize);
+  neighborA->visitid= ++qh visit_id;
+  qh_vertexridges_facet (vertex, facet, &ridges);
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_rename_sharedvertex: p%d (v%d) is shared by f%d (%d ridges) and f%d\n",
+    qh_pointid(vertex->point), vertex->id, facet->id, qh_setsize (ridges), neighborA->id));
+  zinc_(Zintersectnum);
+  vertices= qh_vertexintersect_new (facet->vertices, neighborA->vertices);
+  qh_setdel (vertices, vertex);
+  qh_settemppush (vertices);
+  if ((newvertex= qh_find_newvertex (vertex, vertices, ridges))) 
+    qh_renamevertex (vertex, newvertex, ridges, facet, neighborA);
+  qh_settempfree (&vertices);
+  qh_settempfree (&ridges);
+  return newvertex;
+} /* rename_sharedvertex */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="renameridgevertex">-</a>
+  
+  qh_renameridgevertex( ridge, oldvertex, newvertex )
+    renames oldvertex as newvertex in ridge
+
+  returns:
+  
+  design:
+    delete oldvertex from ridge
+    if newvertex already in ridge
+      copy ridge->noconvex to another ridge if possible
+      delete the ridge
+    else
+      insert newvertex into the ridge
+      adjust the ridge's orientation
+*/
+void qh_renameridgevertex(ridgeT *ridge, vertexT *oldvertex, vertexT *newvertex) {
+  int nth= 0, oldnth;
+  facetT *temp;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+
+  oldnth= qh_setindex (ridge->vertices, oldvertex);
+  qh_setdelnthsorted (ridge->vertices, oldnth);
+  FOREACHvertex_(ridge->vertices) {
+    if (vertex == newvertex) {
+      zinc_(Zdelridge);
+      if (ridge->nonconvex) /* only one ridge has nonconvex set */
+	qh_copynonconvex (ridge);
+      qh_delridge (ridge);
+      trace2((qh ferr, "qh_renameridgevertex: ridge r%d deleted.  It contained both v%d and v%d\n",
+        ridge->id, oldvertex->id, newvertex->id));
+      return;
+    }
+    if (vertex->id < newvertex->id)
+      break;
+    nth++;
+  }
+  qh_setaddnth(&ridge->vertices, nth, newvertex);
+  if (abs(oldnth - nth)%2) {
+    trace3((qh ferr, "qh_renameridgevertex: swapped the top and bottom of ridge r%d\n", 
+	    ridge->id));
+    temp= ridge->top;
+    ridge->top= ridge->bottom;
+    ridge->bottom= temp;
+  }
+} /* renameridgevertex */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="renamevertex">-</a>
+  
+  qh_renamevertex( oldvertex, newvertex, ridges, oldfacet, neighborA )
+    renames oldvertex as newvertex in ridges 
+    gives oldfacet/neighborA if oldvertex is shared between two facets
+
+  returns:
+    oldvertex may still exist afterwards
+    
+
+  notes:
+    can not change neighbors of newvertex (since it's a subset)
+
+  design:
+    for each ridge in ridges
+      rename oldvertex to newvertex and delete degenerate ridges
+    if oldfacet not defined
+      for each neighbor of oldvertex
+        delete oldvertex from neighbor's vertices
+        remove extra vertices from neighbor
+      add oldvertex to qh.del_vertices
+    else if oldvertex only between oldfacet and neighborA
+      delete oldvertex from oldfacet and neighborA
+      add oldvertex to qh.del_vertices
+    else oldvertex is in oldfacet and neighborA and other facets (i.e., pinched)
+      delete oldvertex from oldfacet
+      delete oldfacet from oldvertice's neighbors
+      remove extra vertices (e.g., oldvertex) from neighborA
+*/
+void qh_renamevertex(vertexT *oldvertex, vertexT *newvertex, setT *ridges, facetT *oldfacet, facetT *neighborA) {
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp;
+  ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep;
+  boolT istrace= False;
+
+  if (qh IStracing >= 2 || oldvertex->id == qh tracevertex_id ||
+	newvertex->id == qh tracevertex_id)
+    istrace= True;
+  FOREACHridge_(ridges) 
+    qh_renameridgevertex (ridge, oldvertex, newvertex);
+  if (!oldfacet) {
+    zinc_(Zrenameall);
+    if (istrace)
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_renamevertex: renamed v%d to v%d in several facets\n",
+               oldvertex->id, newvertex->id);
+    FOREACHneighbor_(oldvertex) {
+      qh_maydropneighbor (neighbor);
+      qh_setdelsorted (neighbor->vertices, oldvertex);
+      if (qh_remove_extravertices (neighbor))
+        neighborp--; /* neighbor may be deleted */
+    }
+    if (!oldvertex->deleted) {
+      oldvertex->deleted= True;
+      qh_setappend (&qh del_vertices, oldvertex);
+    }
+  }else if (qh_setsize (oldvertex->neighbors) == 2) {
+    zinc_(Zrenameshare);
+    if (istrace)
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_renamevertex: renamed v%d to v%d in oldfacet f%d\n", 
+               oldvertex->id, newvertex->id, oldfacet->id);
+    FOREACHneighbor_(oldvertex)
+      qh_setdelsorted (neighbor->vertices, oldvertex);
+    oldvertex->deleted= True;
+    qh_setappend (&qh del_vertices, oldvertex);
+  }else {
+    zinc_(Zrenamepinch);
+    if (istrace || qh IStracing)
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_renamevertex: renamed pinched v%d to v%d between f%d and f%d\n", 
+               oldvertex->id, newvertex->id, oldfacet->id, neighborA->id);
+    qh_setdelsorted (oldfacet->vertices, oldvertex);
+    qh_setdel (oldvertex->neighbors, oldfacet);
+    qh_remove_extravertices (neighborA);
+  }
+} /* renamevertex */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="test_appendmerge">-</a>
+  
+  qh_test_appendmerge( facet, neighbor )
+    tests facet/neighbor for convexity
+    appends to mergeset if non-convex
+    if pre-merging, 
+      nop if qh.SKIPconvex, or qh.MERGEexact and coplanar
+
+  returns:
+    true if appends facet/neighbor to mergeset
+    sets facet->center as needed
+    does not change facet->seen
+
+  design:
+    if qh.cos_max is defined
+      if the angle between facet normals is too shallow
+        append an angle-coplanar merge to qh.mergeset
+        return True
+    make facet's centrum if needed
+    if facet's centrum is above the neighbor
+      set isconcave
+    else
+      if facet's centrum is not below the neighbor
+        set iscoplanar
+      make neighbor's centrum if needed
+      if neighbor's centrum is above the facet
+        set isconcave
+      else if neighbor's centrum is not below the facet
+        set iscoplanar
+   if isconcave or iscoplanar
+     get angle if needed
+     append concave or coplanar merge to qh.mergeset
+*/
+boolT qh_test_appendmerge (facetT *facet, facetT *neighbor) {
+  realT dist, dist2= -REALmax, angle= -REALmax;
+  boolT isconcave= False, iscoplanar= False, okangle= False;
+
+  if (qh SKIPconvex && !qh POSTmerging)
+    return False;
+  if ((!qh MERGEexact || qh POSTmerging) && qh cos_max < REALmax/2) {
+    angle= qh_getangle(facet->normal, neighbor->normal);
+    zinc_(Zangletests);
+    if (angle > qh cos_max) {
+      zinc_(Zcoplanarangle);
+      qh_appendmergeset(facet, neighbor, MRGanglecoplanar, &angle);
+      trace2((qh ferr, "qh_test_appendmerge: coplanar angle %4.4g between f%d and f%d\n",
+         angle, facet->id, neighbor->id));
+      return True;
+    }else
+      okangle= True;
+  }
+  if (!facet->center)
+    facet->center= qh_getcentrum (facet);
+  zzinc_(Zcentrumtests);
+  qh_distplane(facet->center, neighbor, &dist);
+  if (dist > qh centrum_radius)
+    isconcave= True;
+  else {
+    if (dist > -qh centrum_radius)
+      iscoplanar= True;
+    if (!neighbor->center)
+      neighbor->center= qh_getcentrum (neighbor);
+    zzinc_(Zcentrumtests);
+    qh_distplane(neighbor->center, facet, &dist2);
+    if (dist2 > qh centrum_radius)
+      isconcave= True;
+    else if (!iscoplanar && dist2 > -qh centrum_radius)
+      iscoplanar= True;
+  }
+  if (!isconcave && (!iscoplanar || (qh MERGEexact && !qh POSTmerging)))
+    return False;
+  if (!okangle && qh ANGLEmerge) {
+    angle= qh_getangle(facet->normal, neighbor->normal);
+    zinc_(Zangletests);
+  }
+  if (isconcave) {
+    zinc_(Zconcaveridge);
+    if (qh ANGLEmerge)
+      angle += qh_ANGLEconcave + 0.5;
+    qh_appendmergeset(facet, neighbor, MRGconcave, &angle);
+    trace0((qh ferr, "qh_test_appendmerge: concave f%d to f%d dist %4.4g and reverse dist %4.4g angle %4.4g during p%d\n",
+	   facet->id, neighbor->id, dist, dist2, angle, qh furthest_id));
+  }else /* iscoplanar */ {
+    zinc_(Zcoplanarcentrum);
+    qh_appendmergeset(facet, neighbor, MRGcoplanar, &angle);
+    trace2((qh ferr, "qh_test_appendmerge: coplanar f%d to f%d dist %4.4g, reverse dist %4.4g angle %4.4g\n",
+	      facet->id, neighbor->id, dist, dist2, angle));
+  }
+  return True;
+} /* test_appendmerge */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="test_vneighbors">-</a>
+  
+  qh_test_vneighbors()
+    test vertex neighbors for convexity
+    tests all facets on qh.newfacet_list
+
+  returns:
+    true if non-convex vneighbors appended to qh.facet_mergeset
+    initializes vertex neighbors if needed
+
+  notes:
+    assumes all facet neighbors have been tested
+    this can be expensive
+    this does not guarantee that a centrum is below all facets
+      but it is unlikely
+    uses qh.visit_id
+
+  design:
+    build vertex neighbors if necessary
+    for all new facets
+      for all vertices
+        for each unvisited facet neighbor of the vertex
+          test new facet and neighbor for convexity
+*/
+boolT qh_test_vneighbors (void /* qh newfacet_list */) {
+  facetT *newfacet, *neighbor, **neighborp;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  int nummerges= 0;
+
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_test_vneighbors: testing vertex neighbors for convexity\n"));
+  if (!qh VERTEXneighbors)
+    qh_vertexneighbors();
+  FORALLnew_facets 
+    newfacet->seen= False;
+  FORALLnew_facets {
+    newfacet->seen= True;
+    newfacet->visitid= qh visit_id++;
+    FOREACHneighbor_(newfacet)
+      newfacet->visitid= qh visit_id;
+    FOREACHvertex_(newfacet->vertices) {
+      FOREACHneighbor_(vertex) {
+      	if (neighbor->seen || neighbor->visitid == qh visit_id)
+      	  continue;
+      	if (qh_test_appendmerge (newfacet, neighbor))
+          nummerges++;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  zadd_(Ztestvneighbor, nummerges);
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_test_vneighbors: found %d non-convex, vertex neighbors\n",
+           nummerges));
+  return (nummerges > 0);    
+} /* test_vneighbors */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="tracemerge">-</a>
+  
+  qh_tracemerge( facet1, facet2 )
+    print trace message after merge
+*/
+void qh_tracemerge (facetT *facet1, facetT *facet2) {
+  boolT waserror= False;
+
+#ifndef qh_NOtrace
+  if (qh IStracing >= 4) 
+    qh_errprint ("MERGED", facet2, NULL, NULL, NULL);
+  if (facet2 == qh tracefacet || (qh tracevertex && qh tracevertex->newlist)) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_tracemerge: trace facet and vertex after merge of f%d and f%d, furthest p%d\n", facet1->id, facet2->id, qh furthest_id);
+    if (facet2 != qh tracefacet)
+      qh_errprint ("TRACE", qh tracefacet, 
+        (qh tracevertex && qh tracevertex->neighbors) ? 
+           SETfirstt_(qh tracevertex->neighbors, facetT) : NULL,
+        NULL, qh tracevertex);      
+  }
+  if (qh tracevertex) {
+    if (qh tracevertex->deleted)
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_tracemerge: trace vertex deleted at furthest p%d\n",
+	    qh furthest_id);
+    else
+      qh_checkvertex (qh tracevertex);
+  }
+  if (qh tracefacet) {
+    qh_checkfacet (qh tracefacet, True, &waserror);
+    if (waserror)
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, qh tracefacet, NULL);
+  }
+#endif /* !qh_NOtrace */
+  if (qh CHECKfrequently || qh IStracing >= 4) { /* can't check polygon here */
+    qh_checkfacet (facet2, True, &waserror);
+    if (waserror)
+      qh_errexit(qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+} /* tracemerge */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="tracemerging">-</a>
+  
+  qh_tracemerging()
+    print trace message during POSTmerging
+
+  returns:
+    updates qh.mergereport
+  
+  notes:
+    called from qh_mergecycle() and qh_mergefacet()
+  
+  see:
+    qh_buildtracing()
+*/
+void qh_tracemerging (void) {
+  realT cpu;
+  int total;
+  time_t timedata;
+  struct tm *tp;
+
+  qh mergereport= zzval_(Ztotmerge);
+  time (&timedata);
+  tp= localtime (&timedata);
+  cpu= qh_CPUclock;
+  cpu /= qh_SECticks;
+  total= zzval_(Ztotmerge) - zzval_(Zcyclehorizon) + zzval_(Zcyclefacettot);
+  fprintf (qh ferr, "\n\
+At %d:%d:%d & %2.5g CPU secs, qhull has merged %d facets.  The hull\n\
+  contains %d facets and %d vertices.\n",
+      tp->tm_hour, tp->tm_min, tp->tm_sec, cpu,
+      total, qh num_facets - qh num_visible,
+      qh num_vertices-qh_setsize (qh del_vertices));
+} /* tracemerging */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="updatetested">-</a>
+  
+  qh_updatetested( facet1, facet2 )
+    clear facet2->tested and facet1->ridge->tested for merge
+
+  returns:
+    deletes facet2->center unless it's already large
+      if so, clears facet2->ridge->tested
+
+  design:
+    clear facet2->tested
+    clear ridge->tested for facet1's ridges
+    if facet2 has a centrum
+      if facet2 is large
+        set facet2->keepcentrum 
+      else if facet2 has 3 vertices due to many merges, or not large and post merging
+        clear facet2->keepcentrum
+      unless facet2->keepcentrum
+        clear facet2->center to recompute centrum later
+        clear ridge->tested for facet2's ridges
+*/
+void qh_updatetested (facetT *facet1, facetT *facet2) {
+  ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep;
+  int size;
+  
+  facet2->tested= False;
+  FOREACHridge_(facet1->ridges)
+    ridge->tested= False;
+  if (!facet2->center)
+    return;
+  size= qh_setsize (facet2->vertices);
+  if (!facet2->keepcentrum) {
+    if (size > qh hull_dim + qh_MAXnewcentrum) {
+      facet2->keepcentrum= True;
+      zinc_(Zwidevertices);
+    }
+  }else if (size <= qh hull_dim + qh_MAXnewcentrum) {
+    /* center and keepcentrum was set */
+    if (size == qh hull_dim || qh POSTmerging)
+      facet2->keepcentrum= False; /* if many merges need to recompute centrum */
+  }
+  if (!facet2->keepcentrum) {
+    qh_memfree (facet2->center, qh normal_size);
+    facet2->center= NULL;
+    FOREACHridge_(facet2->ridges)
+      ridge->tested= False;
+  }
+} /* updatetested */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="vertexridges">-</a>
+  
+  qh_vertexridges( vertex )
+    return temporary set of ridges adjacent to a vertex
+    vertex->neighbors defined
+
+  ntoes:
+    uses qh.visit_id
+    does not include implicit ridges for simplicial facets
+
+  design:
+    for each neighbor of vertex
+      add ridges that include the vertex to ridges  
+*/
+setT *qh_vertexridges (vertexT *vertex) {
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp;
+  setT *ridges= qh_settemp (qh TEMPsize);
+  int size;
+
+  qh visit_id++;
+  FOREACHneighbor_(vertex)
+    neighbor->visitid= qh visit_id;
+  FOREACHneighbor_(vertex) {
+    if (*neighborp)   /* no new ridges in last neighbor */
+      qh_vertexridges_facet (vertex, neighbor, &ridges);
+  }
+  if (qh PRINTstatistics || qh IStracing) {
+    size= qh_setsize (ridges);
+    zinc_(Zvertexridge);
+    zadd_(Zvertexridgetot, size);
+    zmax_(Zvertexridgemax, size);
+    trace3((qh ferr, "qh_vertexridges: found %d ridges for v%d\n",
+             size, vertex->id));
+  }
+  return ridges;
+} /* vertexridges */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="vertexridges_facet">-</a>
+  
+  qh_vertexridges_facet( vertex, facet, ridges )
+    add adjacent ridges for vertex in facet
+    neighbor->visitid==qh.visit_id if it hasn't been visited
+
+  returns:
+    ridges updated
+    sets facet->visitid to qh.visit_id-1
+
+  design:
+    for each ridge of facet
+      if ridge of visited neighbor (i.e., unprocessed)
+        if vertex in ridge
+          append ridge to vertex
+    mark facet processed
+*/
+void qh_vertexridges_facet (vertexT *vertex, facetT *facet, setT **ridges) {
+  ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep;
+  facetT *neighbor;
+
+  FOREACHridge_(facet->ridges) {
+    neighbor= otherfacet_(ridge, facet);
+    if (neighbor->visitid == qh visit_id 
+    && qh_setin (ridge->vertices, vertex))
+      qh_setappend (ridges, ridge);
+  }
+  facet->visitid= qh visit_id-1;
+} /* vertexridges_facet */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="willdelete">-</a>
+  
+  qh_willdelete( facet, replace )
+    moves facet to visible list
+    sets facet->f.replace to replace (may be NULL)
+
+  returns:
+    bumps qh.num_visible
+*/
+void qh_willdelete (facetT *facet, facetT *replace) {
+
+  qh_removefacet(facet);
+  qh_prependfacet (facet, &qh visible_list);
+  qh num_visible++;
+  facet->visible= True;
+  facet->f.replace= replace;
+} /* willdelete */
+
+#else /* qh_NOmerge */
+void qh_premerge (vertexT *apex, realT maxcentrum, realT maxangle) {
+}
+void qh_postmerge (char *reason, realT maxcentrum, realT maxangle, 
+                      boolT vneighbors) {
+}
+boolT qh_checkzero (boolT testall) {
+   }
+#endif /* qh_NOmerge */
+

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/merge.h
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/merge.h	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/merge.h	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,174 @@
+/*<html><pre>  -<a                             href="qh-merge.htm"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="TOP">-</a>
+
+   merge.h 
+   header file for merge.c
+
+   see qh-merge.htm and merge.c
+
+   copyright (c) 1993-2003, The Geometry Center
+*/
+
+#ifndef qhDEFmerge
+#define qhDEFmerge 1
+
+
+/*============ -constants- ==============*/
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="qh_ANGLEredundant">-</a>
+
+  qh_ANGLEredundant
+    indicates redundant merge in mergeT->angle
+*/
+#define qh_ANGLEredundant 6.0
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="qh_ANGLEdegen">-</a>
+  
+  qh_ANGLEdegen
+    indicates degenerate facet in mergeT->angle
+*/
+#define qh_ANGLEdegen     5.0
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="qh_ANGLEconcave">-</a>
+  
+  qh_ANGLEconcave
+    offset to indicate concave facets in mergeT->angle
+  
+  notes:
+    concave facets are assigned the range of [2,4] in mergeT->angle
+    roundoff error may make the angle less than 2
+*/
+#define qh_ANGLEconcave  1.5
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="MRG">-</a>
+  
+  MRG... (mergeType)
+    indicates the type of a merge (mergeT->type)
+*/
+typedef enum {	/* in sort order for facet_mergeset */
+  MRGnone= 0,
+  MRGcoplanar,		/* centrum coplanar */
+  MRGanglecoplanar,	/* angle coplanar */
+  			/* could detect half concave ridges */
+  MRGconcave,		/* concave ridge */
+  MRGflip,		/* flipped facet. facet1 == facet2 */
+  MRGridge,		/* duplicate ridge (qh_MERGEridge) */
+                        /* degen and redundant go onto degen_mergeset */
+  MRGdegen,		/* degenerate facet (not enough neighbors) facet1 == facet2 */
+  MRGredundant,		/* redundant facet (vertex subset) */
+  			/* merge_degenredundant assumes degen < redundant */
+  MRGmirror,	        /* mirror facet from qh_triangulate */
+  ENDmrg
+} mergeType;
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="qh_MERGEapex">-</a>
+  
+  qh_MERGEapex
+    flag for qh_mergefacet() to indicate an apex merge  
+*/
+#define qh_MERGEapex     True
+
+/*============ -structures- ====================*/
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="mergeT">-</a>
+     
+  mergeT
+    structure used to merge facets
+*/
+
+typedef struct mergeT mergeT;
+struct mergeT {		/* initialize in qh_appendmergeset */
+  realT   angle;        /* angle between normals of facet1 and facet2 */
+  facetT *facet1; 	/* will merge facet1 into facet2 */
+  facetT *facet2;
+  mergeType type;
+};
+
+
+/*=========== -macros- =========================*/
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-merge.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="FOREACHmerge_">-</a>
+     
+  FOREACHmerge_( merges ) {...}
+    assign 'merge' to each merge in merges
+       
+  notes:
+    uses 'mergeT *merge, **mergep;'
+    if qh_mergefacet(),
+      restart since qh.facet_mergeset may change
+    see <a href="qset.h#FOREACHsetelement_">FOREACHsetelement_</a>
+*/
+#define FOREACHmerge_( merges ) FOREACHsetelement_(mergeT, merges, merge)
+
+/*============ prototypes in alphabetical order after pre/postmerge =======*/
+
+void    qh_premerge (vertexT *apex, realT maxcentrum, realT maxangle);
+void    qh_postmerge (char *reason, realT maxcentrum, realT maxangle, 
+             boolT vneighbors);
+void    qh_all_merges (boolT othermerge, boolT vneighbors);
+void    qh_appendmergeset(facetT *facet, facetT *neighbor, mergeType mergetype, realT *angle);
+setT   *qh_basevertices( facetT *samecycle);
+void    qh_checkconnect (void /* qh new_facets */);
+boolT   qh_checkzero (boolT testall);
+int     qh_compareangle(const void *p1, const void *p2);
+int     qh_comparemerge(const void *p1, const void *p2);
+int     qh_comparevisit (const void *p1, const void *p2);
+void    qh_copynonconvex (ridgeT *atridge);
+void    qh_degen_redundant_facet (facetT *facet);
+void   	qh_degen_redundant_neighbors (facetT *facet, facetT *delfacet);
+vertexT *qh_find_newvertex (vertexT *oldvertex, setT *vertices, setT *ridges);
+void    qh_findbest_test (boolT testcentrum, facetT *facet, facetT *neighbor,
+           facetT **bestfacet, realT *distp, realT *mindistp, realT *maxdistp);
+facetT *qh_findbestneighbor(facetT *facet, realT *distp, realT *mindistp, realT *maxdistp);
+void 	qh_flippedmerges(facetT *facetlist, boolT *wasmerge);
+void 	qh_forcedmerges( boolT *wasmerge);
+void	qh_getmergeset(facetT *facetlist);
+void 	qh_getmergeset_initial (facetT *facetlist);
+void    qh_hashridge (setT *hashtable, int hashsize, ridgeT *ridge, vertexT *oldvertex);
+ridgeT *qh_hashridge_find (setT *hashtable, int hashsize, ridgeT *ridge, 
+              vertexT *vertex, vertexT *oldvertex, int *hashslot);
+void 	qh_makeridges(facetT *facet);
+void    qh_mark_dupridges(facetT *facetlist);
+void    qh_maydropneighbor (facetT *facet);
+int     qh_merge_degenredundant (void);
+void    qh_merge_nonconvex( facetT *facet1, facetT *facet2, mergeType mergetype);
+void    qh_mergecycle (facetT *samecycle, facetT *newfacet);
+void    qh_mergecycle_all (facetT *facetlist, boolT *wasmerge);
+void    qh_mergecycle_facets( facetT *samecycle, facetT *newfacet);
+void    qh_mergecycle_neighbors(facetT *samecycle, facetT *newfacet);
+void    qh_mergecycle_ridges(facetT *samecycle, facetT *newfacet);
+void    qh_mergecycle_vneighbors( facetT *samecycle, facetT *newfacet);
+void 	qh_mergefacet(facetT *facet1, facetT *facet2, realT *mindist, realT *maxdist, boolT mergeapex);
+void    qh_mergefacet2d (facetT *facet1, facetT *facet2);
+void 	qh_mergeneighbors(facetT *facet1, facetT *facet2);
+void 	qh_mergeridges(facetT *facet1, facetT *facet2);
+void    qh_mergesimplex(facetT *facet1, facetT *facet2, boolT mergeapex);
+void    qh_mergevertex_del (vertexT *vertex, facetT *facet1, facetT *facet2);
+void    qh_mergevertex_neighbors(facetT *facet1, facetT *facet2);
+void	qh_mergevertices(setT *vertices1, setT **vertices);
+setT   *qh_neighbor_intersections (vertexT *vertex);
+void    qh_newvertices (setT *vertices);
+boolT   qh_reducevertices (void);
+vertexT *qh_redundant_vertex (vertexT *vertex);
+boolT   qh_remove_extravertices (facetT *facet);
+vertexT *qh_rename_sharedvertex (vertexT *vertex, facetT *facet);
+void	qh_renameridgevertex(ridgeT *ridge, vertexT *oldvertex, vertexT *newvertex);
+void    qh_renamevertex(vertexT *oldvertex, vertexT *newvertex, setT *ridges,
+			facetT *oldfacet, facetT *neighborA);
+boolT 	qh_test_appendmerge (facetT *facet, facetT *neighbor);
+boolT   qh_test_vneighbors (void /* qh newfacet_list */);
+void    qh_tracemerge (facetT *facet1, facetT *facet2);
+void    qh_tracemerging (void);
+void    qh_updatetested( facetT *facet1, facetT *facet2);
+setT   *qh_vertexridges (vertexT *vertex);
+void    qh_vertexridges_facet (vertexT *vertex, facetT *facet, setT **ridges);
+void    qh_willdelete (facetT *facet, facetT *replace);
+
+#endif /* qhDEFmerge */

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/poly.c
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/poly.c	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/poly.c	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,1182 @@
+/*<html><pre>  -<a                             href="qh-poly.htm"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="TOP">-</a>
+
+   poly.c 
+   implements polygons and simplices
+
+   see qh-poly.htm, poly.h and qhull.h
+
+   infrequent code is in poly2.c 
+   (all but top 50 and their callers 12/3/95)
+
+   copyright (c) 1993-2003, The Geometry Center
+*/
+
+#include "qhull_a.h"
+
+/*======== functions in alphabetical order ==========*/
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="appendfacet">-</a>
+  
+  qh_appendfacet( facet )
+    appends facet to end of qh.facet_list,
+
+  returns:
+    updates qh.newfacet_list, facet_next, facet_list
+    increments qh.numfacets
+  
+  notes:
+    assumes qh.facet_list/facet_tail is defined (createsimplex)
+
+  see:
+    qh_removefacet()
+
+*/
+void qh_appendfacet(facetT *facet) {
+  facetT *tail= qh facet_tail;
+
+  if (tail == qh newfacet_list)
+    qh newfacet_list= facet;
+  if (tail == qh facet_next)
+    qh facet_next= facet;
+  facet->previous= tail->previous;
+  facet->next= tail;
+  if (tail->previous)
+    tail->previous->next= facet;
+  else
+    qh facet_list= facet;
+  tail->previous= facet;
+  qh num_facets++;
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_appendfacet: append f%d to facet_list\n", facet->id));
+} /* appendfacet */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="appendvertex">-</a>
+  
+  qh_appendvertex( vertex )
+    appends vertex to end of qh.vertex_list,
+
+  returns:
+    sets vertex->newlist
+    updates qh.vertex_list, newvertex_list
+    increments qh.num_vertices
+
+  notes:
+    assumes qh.vertex_list/vertex_tail is defined (createsimplex)
+
+*/
+void qh_appendvertex (vertexT *vertex) {
+  vertexT *tail= qh vertex_tail;
+
+  if (tail == qh newvertex_list)
+    qh newvertex_list= vertex;
+  vertex->newlist= True;
+  vertex->previous= tail->previous;
+  vertex->next= tail;
+  if (tail->previous)
+    tail->previous->next= vertex;
+  else
+    qh vertex_list= vertex;
+  tail->previous= vertex;
+  qh num_vertices++;
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_appendvertex: append v%d to vertex_list\n", vertex->id));
+} /* appendvertex */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="attachnewfacets">-</a>
+  
+  qh_attachnewfacets( )
+    attach horizon facets to new facets in qh.newfacet_list
+    newfacets have neighbor and ridge links to horizon but not vice versa
+    only needed for qh.ONLYgood
+
+  returns:
+    set qh.NEWfacets
+    horizon facets linked to new facets 
+      ridges changed from visible facets to new facets
+      simplicial ridges deleted
+    qh.visible_list, no ridges valid
+    facet->f.replace is a newfacet (if any)
+
+  design:
+    delete interior ridges and neighbor sets by
+      for each visible, non-simplicial facet
+        for each ridge
+          if last visit or if neighbor is simplicial
+            if horizon neighbor
+              delete ridge for horizon's ridge set
+            delete ridge
+        erase neighbor set
+    attach horizon facets and new facets by
+      for all new facets
+        if corresponding horizon facet is simplicial
+          locate corresponding visible facet {may be more than one}
+          link visible facet to new facet
+          replace visible facet with new facet in horizon
+        else it's non-simplicial
+          for all visible neighbors of the horizon facet
+            link visible neighbor to new facet
+            delete visible neighbor from horizon facet
+          append new facet to horizon's neighbors
+          the first ridge of the new facet is the horizon ridge
+          link the new facet into the horizon ridge
+*/
+void qh_attachnewfacets (void ) {
+  facetT *newfacet= NULL, *neighbor, **neighborp, *horizon, *visible;
+  ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep;
+
+  qh NEWfacets= True;
+  trace3((qh ferr, "qh_attachnewfacets: delete interior ridges\n"));
+  qh visit_id++;
+  FORALLvisible_facets {
+    visible->visitid= qh visit_id;
+    if (visible->ridges) {
+      FOREACHridge_(visible->ridges) {
+	neighbor= otherfacet_(ridge, visible);
+	if (neighbor->visitid == qh visit_id
+	    || (!neighbor->visible && neighbor->simplicial)) {
+	  if (!neighbor->visible)  /* delete ridge for simplicial horizon */
+	    qh_setdel (neighbor->ridges, ridge);
+	  qh_setfree (&(ridge->vertices)); /* delete on 2nd visit */
+	  qh_memfree (ridge, sizeof(ridgeT));
+	}
+      }
+      SETfirst_(visible->ridges)= NULL;
+    }
+    SETfirst_(visible->neighbors)= NULL;
+  }
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_attachnewfacets: attach horizon facets to new facets\n"));
+  FORALLnew_facets {
+    horizon= SETfirstt_(newfacet->neighbors, facetT);
+    if (horizon->simplicial) {
+      visible= NULL;
+      FOREACHneighbor_(horizon) {   /* may have more than one horizon ridge */
+	if (neighbor->visible) {
+	  if (visible) {
+	    if (qh_setequal_skip (newfacet->vertices, 0, horizon->vertices,
+				  SETindex_(horizon->neighbors, neighbor))) {
+	      visible= neighbor;
+	      break;
+	    }
+	  }else
+	    visible= neighbor;
+	}
+      }
+      if (visible) {
+	visible->f.replace= newfacet;
+	qh_setreplace (horizon->neighbors, visible, newfacet);
+      }else {
+	fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_attachnewfacets): couldn't find visible facet for horizon f%d of newfacet f%d\n",
+		 horizon->id, newfacet->id);
+	qh_errexit2 (qh_ERRqhull, horizon, newfacet);
+      }
+    }else { /* non-simplicial, with a ridge for newfacet */
+      FOREACHneighbor_(horizon) {    /* may hold for many new facets */
+	if (neighbor->visible) {
+	  neighbor->f.replace= newfacet;
+	  qh_setdelnth (horizon->neighbors,
+			SETindex_(horizon->neighbors, neighbor));
+	  neighborp--; /* repeat */
+	}
+      }
+      qh_setappend (&horizon->neighbors, newfacet);
+      ridge= SETfirstt_(newfacet->ridges, ridgeT);
+      if (ridge->top == horizon)
+	ridge->bottom= newfacet;
+      else
+	ridge->top= newfacet;
+      }
+  } /* newfacets */
+  if (qh PRINTstatistics) {
+    FORALLvisible_facets {
+      if (!visible->f.replace) 
+	zinc_(Zinsidevisible);
+    }
+  }
+} /* attachnewfacets */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="checkflipped">-</a>
+  
+  qh_checkflipped( facet, dist, allerror )
+    checks facet orientation to interior point
+
+    if allerror set,
+      tests against qh.DISTround
+    else
+      tests against 0 since tested against DISTround before
+
+  returns:
+    False if it flipped orientation (sets facet->flipped)
+    distance if non-NULL
+*/
+boolT qh_checkflipped (facetT *facet, realT *distp, boolT allerror) {
+  realT dist;
+
+  if (facet->flipped && !distp)
+    return False;
+  zzinc_(Zdistcheck);
+  qh_distplane(qh interior_point, facet, &dist);
+  if (distp)
+    *distp= dist;
+  if ((allerror && dist > -qh DISTround)|| (!allerror && dist >= 0.0)) {
+    facet->flipped= True;
+    zzinc_(Zflippedfacets);
+    trace0((qh ferr, "qh_checkflipped: facet f%d is flipped, distance= %6.12g during p%d\n",
+              facet->id, dist, qh furthest_id));
+    qh_precision ("flipped facet");
+    return False;
+  }
+  return True;
+} /* checkflipped */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="delfacet">-</a>
+  
+  qh_delfacet( facet )
+    removes facet from facet_list and frees up its memory
+
+  notes:
+    assumes vertices and ridges already freed
+*/
+void qh_delfacet(facetT *facet) {
+  void **freelistp; /* used !qh_NOmem */
+
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_delfacet: delete f%d\n", facet->id));
+  if (facet == qh tracefacet)
+    qh tracefacet= NULL;
+  if (facet == qh GOODclosest)
+    qh GOODclosest= NULL;
+  qh_removefacet(facet);
+  if (!facet->tricoplanar || facet->keepcentrum) {
+    qh_memfree_(facet->normal, qh normal_size, freelistp);
+    if (qh CENTERtype == qh_ASvoronoi) {   /* uses macro calls */
+      qh_memfree_(facet->center, qh center_size, freelistp);
+    }else /* AScentrum */ {
+      qh_memfree_(facet->center, qh normal_size, freelistp);
+    }
+  }
+  qh_setfree(&(facet->neighbors));
+  if (facet->ridges)
+    qh_setfree(&(facet->ridges));
+  qh_setfree(&(facet->vertices));
+  if (facet->outsideset)
+    qh_setfree(&(facet->outsideset));
+  if (facet->coplanarset)
+    qh_setfree(&(facet->coplanarset));
+  qh_memfree_(facet, sizeof(facetT), freelistp);
+} /* delfacet */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="deletevisible">-</a>
+  
+  qh_deletevisible()
+    delete visible facets and vertices
+
+  returns:
+    deletes each facet and removes from facetlist
+    at exit, qh.visible_list empty (== qh.newfacet_list)
+
+  notes:
+    ridges already deleted
+    horizon facets do not reference facets on qh.visible_list
+    new facets in qh.newfacet_list
+    uses   qh.visit_id;
+*/
+void qh_deletevisible (void /*qh visible_list*/) {
+  facetT *visible, *nextfacet;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  int numvisible= 0, numdel= qh_setsize(qh del_vertices);
+
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_deletevisible: delete %d visible facets and %d vertices\n",
+         qh num_visible, numdel));
+  for (visible= qh visible_list; visible && visible->visible; 
+                visible= nextfacet) { /* deleting current */
+    nextfacet= visible->next;        
+    numvisible++;
+    qh_delfacet(visible);
+  }
+  if (numvisible != qh num_visible) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_deletevisible): qh num_visible %d is not number of visible facets %d\n",
+             qh num_visible, numvisible);
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  qh num_visible= 0;
+  zadd_(Zvisfacettot, numvisible);
+  zmax_(Zvisfacetmax, numvisible);
+  zzadd_(Zdelvertextot, numdel);
+  zmax_(Zdelvertexmax, numdel);
+  FOREACHvertex_(qh del_vertices) 
+    qh_delvertex (vertex);
+  qh_settruncate (qh del_vertices, 0);
+} /* deletevisible */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="facetintersect">-</a>
+  
+  qh_facetintersect( facetA, facetB, skipa, skipB, prepend )
+    return vertices for intersection of two simplicial facets
+    may include 1 prepended entry (if more, need to settemppush)
+    
+  returns:
+    returns set of qh.hull_dim-1 + prepend vertices
+    returns skipped index for each test and checks for exactly one
+
+  notes:
+    does not need settemp since set in quick memory
+  
+  see also:
+    qh_vertexintersect and qh_vertexintersect_new
+    use qh_setnew_delnthsorted to get nth ridge (no skip information)
+
+  design:
+    locate skipped vertex by scanning facet A's neighbors
+    locate skipped vertex by scanning facet B's neighbors
+    intersect the vertex sets
+*/
+setT *qh_facetintersect (facetT *facetA, facetT *facetB,
+			 int *skipA,int *skipB, int prepend) {
+  setT *intersect;
+  int dim= qh hull_dim, i, j;
+  facetT **neighborsA, **neighborsB;
+
+  neighborsA= SETaddr_(facetA->neighbors, facetT);
+  neighborsB= SETaddr_(facetB->neighbors, facetT);
+  i= j= 0;
+  if (facetB == *neighborsA++)
+    *skipA= 0;
+  else if (facetB == *neighborsA++)
+    *skipA= 1;
+  else if (facetB == *neighborsA++)
+    *skipA= 2;
+  else {
+    for (i= 3; i < dim; i++) {
+      if (facetB == *neighborsA++) {
+        *skipA= i;
+        break;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  if (facetA == *neighborsB++)
+    *skipB= 0;
+  else if (facetA == *neighborsB++)
+    *skipB= 1;
+  else if (facetA == *neighborsB++)
+    *skipB= 2;
+  else {
+    for (j= 3; j < dim; j++) {
+      if (facetA == *neighborsB++) {
+        *skipB= j;
+        break;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  if (i >= dim || j >= dim) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_facetintersect): f%d or f%d not in others neighbors\n",
+            facetA->id, facetB->id);
+    qh_errexit2 (qh_ERRqhull, facetA, facetB);
+  }
+  intersect= qh_setnew_delnthsorted (facetA->vertices, qh hull_dim, *skipA, prepend);
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_facetintersect: f%d skip %d matches f%d skip %d\n",
+	  facetA->id, *skipA, facetB->id, *skipB));
+  return(intersect);
+} /* facetintersect */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="gethash">-</a>
+  
+  qh_gethash( hashsize, set, size, firstindex, skipelem )
+    return hashvalue for a set with firstindex and skipelem
+
+  notes:
+    assumes at least firstindex+1 elements
+    assumes skipelem is NULL, in set, or part of hash
+    
+    hashes memory addresses which may change over different runs of the same data
+    using sum for hash does badly in high d
+*/
+unsigned qh_gethash (int hashsize, setT *set, int size, int firstindex, void *skipelem) {
+  void **elemp= SETelemaddr_(set, firstindex, void);
+  ptr_intT hash = 0, elem;
+  int i;
+  unsigned result;
+
+  switch (size-firstindex) {
+  case 1:
+    hash= (ptr_intT)(*elemp) - (ptr_intT) skipelem;
+    break;
+  case 2:
+    hash= (ptr_intT)(*elemp) + (ptr_intT)elemp[1] - (ptr_intT) skipelem;
+    break;
+  case 3:
+    hash= (ptr_intT)(*elemp) + (ptr_intT)elemp[1] + (ptr_intT)elemp[2]
+      - (ptr_intT) skipelem;
+    break;
+  case 4:
+    hash= (ptr_intT)(*elemp) + (ptr_intT)elemp[1] + (ptr_intT)elemp[2]
+      + (ptr_intT)elemp[3] - (ptr_intT) skipelem;
+    break;
+  case 5:
+    hash= (ptr_intT)(*elemp) + (ptr_intT)elemp[1] + (ptr_intT)elemp[2]
+      + (ptr_intT)elemp[3] + (ptr_intT)elemp[4] - (ptr_intT) skipelem;
+    break;
+  case 6:
+    hash= (ptr_intT)(*elemp) + (ptr_intT)elemp[1] + (ptr_intT)elemp[2]
+      + (ptr_intT)elemp[3] + (ptr_intT)elemp[4]+ (ptr_intT)elemp[5]
+      - (ptr_intT) skipelem;
+    break;
+  default:
+    hash= 0;
+    i= 3;
+    do {     /* this is about 10% in 10-d */
+      if ((elem= (ptr_intT)*elemp++) != (ptr_intT)skipelem) {
+        hash ^= (elem << i) + (elem >> (32-i));
+	i += 3;
+	if (i >= 32)
+	  i -= 32;
+      }
+    }while(*elemp);
+    break;
+  }
+  result= (unsigned)hash;
+  result %= (unsigned)hashsize;
+  /* result= 0; for debugging purposes */
+  return result;
+} /* gethash */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="makenewfacet">-</a>
+  
+  qh_makenewfacet( vertices, toporient, horizon )
+    creates a toporient? facet from vertices
+
+  returns:
+    returns newfacet
+      adds newfacet to qh.facet_list
+      newfacet->vertices= vertices
+      if horizon
+        newfacet->neighbor= horizon, but not vice versa
+    newvertex_list updated with vertices
+*/
+facetT *qh_makenewfacet(setT *vertices, boolT toporient,facetT *horizon) {
+  facetT *newfacet;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+
+  FOREACHvertex_(vertices) {
+    if (!vertex->newlist) {
+      qh_removevertex (vertex);
+      qh_appendvertex (vertex);
+    }
+  }
+  newfacet= qh_newfacet();
+  newfacet->vertices= vertices;
+  newfacet->toporient= toporient;
+  if (horizon)
+    qh_setappend(&(newfacet->neighbors), horizon);
+  qh_appendfacet(newfacet);
+  return(newfacet);
+} /* makenewfacet */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="makenewplanes">-</a>
+  
+  qh_makenewplanes()
+    make new hyperplanes for facets on qh.newfacet_list
+
+  returns:
+    all facets have hyperplanes or are marked for   merging
+    doesn't create hyperplane if horizon is coplanar (will merge)
+    updates qh.min_vertex if qh.JOGGLEmax
+
+  notes:
+    facet->f.samecycle is defined for facet->mergehorizon facets
+*/
+void qh_makenewplanes (void /* newfacet_list */) {
+  facetT *newfacet;
+
+  FORALLnew_facets {
+    if (!newfacet->mergehorizon)
+      qh_setfacetplane (newfacet);  
+  }
+  if (qh JOGGLEmax < REALmax/2)  
+    minimize_(qh min_vertex, -wwval_(Wnewvertexmax));
+} /* makenewplanes */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="makenew_nonsimplicial">-</a>
+  
+  qh_makenew_nonsimplicial( visible, apex, numnew )
+    make new facets for ridges of a visible facet
+    
+  returns:
+    first newfacet, bumps numnew as needed
+    attaches new facets if !qh.ONLYgood
+    marks ridge neighbors for simplicial visible
+    if (qh.ONLYgood)
+      ridges on newfacet, horizon, and visible
+    else
+      ridge and neighbors between newfacet and   horizon
+      visible facet's ridges are deleted    
+
+  notes:
+    qh.visit_id if visible has already been processed
+    sets neighbor->seen for building f.samecycle
+      assumes all 'seen' flags initially false
+    
+  design:
+    for each ridge of visible facet
+      get neighbor of visible facet
+      if neighbor was already processed
+        delete the ridge (will delete all visible facets later)
+      if neighbor is a horizon facet
+        create a new facet
+        if neighbor coplanar
+          adds newfacet to f.samecycle for later merging
+        else 
+          updates neighbor's neighbor set
+          (checks for non-simplicial facet with multiple ridges to visible facet)
+        updates neighbor's ridge set
+        (checks for simplicial neighbor to non-simplicial visible facet)
+	(deletes ridge if neighbor is simplicial)
+          
+*/
+#ifndef qh_NOmerge
+facetT *qh_makenew_nonsimplicial (facetT *visible, vertexT *apex, int *numnew) {
+  void **freelistp; /* used !qh_NOmem */
+  ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep;
+  facetT *neighbor, *newfacet= NULL, *samecycle;
+  setT *vertices;
+  boolT toporient;
+  int ridgeid;
+
+  FOREACHridge_(visible->ridges) {
+    ridgeid= ridge->id;
+    neighbor= otherfacet_(ridge, visible);
+    if (neighbor->visible) {
+      if (!qh ONLYgood) {
+        if (neighbor->visitid == qh visit_id) {
+          qh_setfree (&(ridge->vertices));  /* delete on 2nd visit */
+	  qh_memfree_(ridge, sizeof(ridgeT), freelistp);
+	}
+      }
+    }else {  /* neighbor is an horizon facet */
+      toporient= (ridge->top == visible);
+      vertices= qh_setnew (qh hull_dim); /* makes sure this is quick */
+      qh_setappend (&vertices, apex);
+      qh_setappend_set (&vertices, ridge->vertices);
+      newfacet= qh_makenewfacet(vertices, toporient, neighbor);
+      (*numnew)++;
+      if (neighbor->coplanar) {
+	newfacet->mergehorizon= True;
+        if (!neighbor->seen) {
+          newfacet->f.samecycle= newfacet;
+          neighbor->f.newcycle= newfacet;
+        }else {
+          samecycle= neighbor->f.newcycle;
+          newfacet->f.samecycle= samecycle->f.samecycle;
+          samecycle->f.samecycle= newfacet;
+	}
+      }
+      if (qh ONLYgood) {
+        if (!neighbor->simplicial)
+ 	  qh_setappend(&(newfacet->ridges), ridge);
+      }else {  /* qh_attachnewfacets */
+        if (neighbor->seen) {
+	  if (neighbor->simplicial) {
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_makenew_nonsimplicial): simplicial f%d sharing two ridges with f%d\n", 
+	           neighbor->id, visible->id);
+	    qh_errexit2 (qh_ERRqhull, neighbor, visible);
+	  }
+	  qh_setappend (&(neighbor->neighbors), newfacet);
+	}else
+          qh_setreplace (neighbor->neighbors, visible, newfacet);
+        if (neighbor->simplicial) {
+          qh_setdel (neighbor->ridges, ridge);
+          qh_setfree (&(ridge->vertices)); 
+	  qh_memfree (ridge, sizeof(ridgeT));
+	}else {
+ 	  qh_setappend(&(newfacet->ridges), ridge);
+ 	  if (toporient)
+ 	    ridge->top= newfacet;
+ 	  else
+ 	    ridge->bottom= newfacet;
+ 	}
+      trace4((qh ferr, "qh_makenew_nonsimplicial: created facet f%d from v%d and r%d of horizon f%d\n",
+	    newfacet->id, apex->id, ridgeid, neighbor->id));
+      }
+    }
+    neighbor->seen= True;        
+  } /* for each ridge */
+  if (!qh ONLYgood)
+    SETfirst_(visible->ridges)= NULL;
+  return newfacet;
+} /* makenew_nonsimplicial */
+#else /* qh_NOmerge */
+facetT *qh_makenew_nonsimplicial (facetT *visible, vertexT *apex, int *numnew) {
+  return NULL;
+}
+#endif /* qh_NOmerge */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="makenew_simplicial">-</a>
+  
+  qh_makenew_simplicial( visible, apex, numnew )
+    make new facets for simplicial visible facet and apex
+
+  returns:
+    attaches new facets if (!qh.ONLYgood)
+      neighbors between newfacet and horizon
+
+  notes:
+    nop if neighbor->seen or neighbor->visible (see qh_makenew_nonsimplicial)
+
+  design:
+    locate neighboring horizon facet for visible facet
+    determine vertices and orientation
+    create new facet
+    if coplanar,
+      add new facet to f.samecycle
+    update horizon facet's neighbor list        
+*/
+facetT *qh_makenew_simplicial (facetT *visible, vertexT *apex, int *numnew) {
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp, *newfacet= NULL;
+  setT *vertices;
+  boolT flip, toporient;
+  int horizonskip, visibleskip;
+
+  FOREACHneighbor_(visible) {
+    if (!neighbor->seen && !neighbor->visible) {
+      vertices= qh_facetintersect(neighbor,visible, &horizonskip, &visibleskip, 1);
+      SETfirst_(vertices)= apex;
+      flip= ((horizonskip & 0x1) ^ (visibleskip & 0x1));
+      if (neighbor->toporient)         
+	toporient= horizonskip & 0x1;
+      else
+	toporient= (horizonskip & 0x1) ^ 0x1;
+      newfacet= qh_makenewfacet(vertices, toporient, neighbor);
+      (*numnew)++;
+      if (neighbor->coplanar && (qh PREmerge || qh MERGEexact)) {
+#ifndef qh_NOmerge
+	newfacet->f.samecycle= newfacet;
+	newfacet->mergehorizon= True;
+#endif
+      }
+      if (!qh ONLYgood)
+        SETelem_(neighbor->neighbors, horizonskip)= newfacet;
+      trace4((qh ferr, "qh_makenew_simplicial: create facet f%d top %d from v%d and horizon f%d skip %d top %d and visible f%d skip %d, flip? %d\n",
+	    newfacet->id, toporient, apex->id, neighbor->id, horizonskip,
+	      neighbor->toporient, visible->id, visibleskip, flip));
+    }
+  }
+  return newfacet;
+} /* makenew_simplicial */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="matchneighbor">-</a>
+  
+  qh_matchneighbor( newfacet, newskip, hashsize, hashcount )
+    either match subridge of newfacet with neighbor or add to hash_table
+
+  returns:
+    duplicate ridges are unmatched and marked by qh_DUPLICATEridge
+
+  notes:
+    ridge is newfacet->vertices w/o newskip vertex
+    do not allocate memory (need to free hash_table cleanly)
+    uses linear hash chains
+  
+  see also:
+    qh_matchduplicates
+
+  design:
+    for each possible matching facet in qh.hash_table
+      if vertices match
+        set ismatch, if facets have opposite orientation
+        if ismatch and matching facet doesn't have a match
+          match the facets by updating their neighbor sets
+        else
+          indicate a duplicate ridge
+          set facet hyperplane for later testing
+          add facet to hashtable
+          unless the other facet was already a duplicate ridge
+            mark both facets with a duplicate ridge
+            add other facet (if defined) to hash table
+*/
+void qh_matchneighbor (facetT *newfacet, int newskip, int hashsize, int *hashcount) {
+  boolT newfound= False;   /* True, if new facet is already in hash chain */
+  boolT same, ismatch;
+  int hash, scan;
+  facetT *facet, *matchfacet;
+  int skip, matchskip;
+
+  hash= (int)qh_gethash (hashsize, newfacet->vertices, qh hull_dim, 1, 
+                     SETelem_(newfacet->vertices, newskip));
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_matchneighbor: newfacet f%d skip %d hash %d hashcount %d\n",
+	  newfacet->id, newskip, hash, *hashcount));
+  zinc_(Zhashlookup);
+  for (scan= hash; (facet= SETelemt_(qh hash_table, scan, facetT)); 
+       scan= (++scan >= hashsize ? 0 : scan)) {
+    if (facet == newfacet) {
+      newfound= True;
+      continue;
+    }
+    zinc_(Zhashtests);
+    if (qh_matchvertices (1, newfacet->vertices, newskip, facet->vertices, &skip, &same)) {
+      if (SETelem_(newfacet->vertices, newskip) == 
+          SETelem_(facet->vertices, skip)) {
+        qh_precision ("two facets with the same vertices");
+        fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull precision error: Vertex sets are the same for f%d and f%d.  Can not force output.\n",
+          facet->id, newfacet->id);
+        qh_errexit2 (qh_ERRprec, facet, newfacet);
+      }
+      ismatch= (same == (newfacet->toporient ^ facet->toporient));
+      matchfacet= SETelemt_(facet->neighbors, skip, facetT);
+      if (ismatch && !matchfacet) {
+        SETelem_(facet->neighbors, skip)= newfacet;
+        SETelem_(newfacet->neighbors, newskip)= facet;
+        (*hashcount)--;
+        trace4((qh ferr, "qh_matchneighbor: f%d skip %d matched with new f%d skip %d\n",
+           facet->id, skip, newfacet->id, newskip));
+        return;
+      }
+      if (!qh PREmerge && !qh MERGEexact) {
+        qh_precision ("a ridge with more than two neighbors");
+	fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull precision error: facets f%d, f%d and f%d meet at a ridge with more than 2 neighbors.  Can not continue.\n",
+		 facet->id, newfacet->id, getid_(matchfacet));
+	qh_errexit2 (qh_ERRprec, facet, newfacet);
+      }
+      SETelem_(newfacet->neighbors, newskip)= qh_DUPLICATEridge;
+      newfacet->dupridge= True;
+      if (!newfacet->normal)
+	qh_setfacetplane (newfacet);
+      qh_addhash (newfacet, qh hash_table, hashsize, hash);
+      (*hashcount)++;
+      if (!facet->normal)
+	qh_setfacetplane (facet);
+      if (matchfacet != qh_DUPLICATEridge) {
+	SETelem_(facet->neighbors, skip)= qh_DUPLICATEridge;
+	facet->dupridge= True;
+	if (!facet->normal)
+	  qh_setfacetplane (facet);
+	if (matchfacet) {
+	  matchskip= qh_setindex (matchfacet->neighbors, facet);
+	  SETelem_(matchfacet->neighbors, matchskip)= qh_DUPLICATEridge;
+	  matchfacet->dupridge= True;
+	  if (!matchfacet->normal)
+	    qh_setfacetplane (matchfacet);
+	  qh_addhash (matchfacet, qh hash_table, hashsize, hash);
+	  *hashcount += 2;
+	}
+      }
+      trace4((qh ferr, "qh_matchneighbor: new f%d skip %d duplicates ridge for f%d skip %d matching f%d ismatch %d at hash %d\n",
+	   newfacet->id, newskip, facet->id, skip, 
+	   (matchfacet == qh_DUPLICATEridge ? -2 : getid_(matchfacet)), 
+	   ismatch, hash));
+      return; /* end of duplicate ridge */
+    }
+  }
+  if (!newfound) 
+    SETelem_(qh hash_table, scan)= newfacet;  /* same as qh_addhash */
+  (*hashcount)++;
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_matchneighbor: no match for f%d skip %d at hash %d\n",
+           newfacet->id, newskip, hash));
+} /* matchneighbor */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="matchnewfacets">-</a>
+  
+  qh_matchnewfacets()
+    match newfacets in qh.newfacet_list to their newfacet neighbors
+
+  returns:
+    qh.newfacet_list with full neighbor sets
+      get vertices with nth neighbor by deleting nth vertex
+    if qh.PREmerge/MERGEexact or qh.FORCEoutput 
+      sets facet->flippped if flipped normal (also prevents point partitioning)
+    if duplicate ridges and qh.PREmerge/MERGEexact
+      sets facet->dupridge
+      missing neighbor links identifies extra ridges to be merging (qh_MERGEridge)
+
+  notes:
+    newfacets already have neighbor[0] (horizon facet)
+    assumes qh.hash_table is NULL
+    vertex->neighbors has not been updated yet
+    do not allocate memory after qh.hash_table (need to free it cleanly)
+
+  design:
+    delete neighbor sets for all new facets
+    initialize a hash table
+    for all new facets
+      match facet with neighbors
+    if unmatched facets (due to duplicate ridges)
+      for each new facet with a duplicate ridge
+        match it with a facet
+    check for flipped facets
+*/
+void qh_matchnewfacets (void /* qh newfacet_list */) {
+  int numnew=0, hashcount=0, newskip;
+  facetT *newfacet, *neighbor;
+  int dim= qh hull_dim, hashsize, neighbor_i, neighbor_n;
+  setT *neighbors;
+#ifndef qh_NOtrace
+  int facet_i, facet_n, numfree= 0;
+  facetT *facet;
+#endif
+  
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_matchnewfacets: match neighbors for new facets.\n"));
+  FORALLnew_facets {
+    numnew++;
+    {  /* inline qh_setzero (newfacet->neighbors, 1, qh hull_dim); */
+      neighbors= newfacet->neighbors;
+      neighbors->e[neighbors->maxsize].i= dim+1; /*may be overwritten*/
+      memset ((char *)SETelemaddr_(neighbors, 1, void), 0, dim * SETelemsize);
+    }    
+  }
+  qh_newhashtable (numnew*(qh hull_dim-1)); /* twice what is normally needed,
+                                     but every ridge could be DUPLICATEridge */
+  hashsize= qh_setsize (qh hash_table);
+  FORALLnew_facets {
+    for (newskip=1; newskip<qh hull_dim; newskip++) /* furthest/horizon already matched */
+      qh_matchneighbor (newfacet, newskip, hashsize, &hashcount);
+#if 0   /* use the following to trap hashcount errors */
+    {
+      int count= 0, k;
+      facetT *facet, *neighbor;
+
+      count= 0;
+      FORALLfacet_(qh newfacet_list) {  /* newfacet already in use */
+	for (k=1; k < qh hull_dim; k++) {
+	  neighbor= SETelemt_(facet->neighbors, k, facetT);
+	  if (!neighbor || neighbor == qh_DUPLICATEridge)
+	    count++;
+	}
+	if (facet == newfacet)
+	  break;
+      }
+      if (count != hashcount) {
+	fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_matchnewfacets: after adding facet %d, hashcount %d != count %d\n",
+		 newfacet->id, hashcount, count);
+	qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, newfacet, NULL);
+      }
+    }
+#endif  /* end of trap code */
+  }
+  if (hashcount) {
+    FORALLnew_facets {
+      if (newfacet->dupridge) {
+        FOREACHneighbor_i_(newfacet) {
+          if (neighbor == qh_DUPLICATEridge) {
+            qh_matchduplicates (newfacet, neighbor_i, hashsize, &hashcount);
+         	    /* this may report MERGEfacet */
+	  }
+        }
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  if (hashcount) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_matchnewfacets): %d neighbors did not match up\n",
+        hashcount);
+    qh_printhashtable (qh ferr);
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+#ifndef qh_NOtrace
+  if (qh IStracing >= 2) {
+    FOREACHfacet_i_(qh hash_table) {
+      if (!facet)
+        numfree++;
+    }
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_matchnewfacets: %d new facets, %d unused hash entries .  hashsize %d\n",
+	     numnew, numfree, qh_setsize (qh hash_table));
+  }
+#endif /* !qh_NOtrace */
+  qh_setfree (&qh hash_table);
+  if (qh PREmerge || qh MERGEexact) {
+    if (qh IStracing >= 4)
+      qh_printfacetlist (qh newfacet_list, NULL, qh_ALL);
+    FORALLnew_facets {
+      if (newfacet->normal)
+	qh_checkflipped (newfacet, NULL, qh_ALL);
+    }
+  }else if (qh FORCEoutput)
+    qh_checkflipped_all (qh newfacet_list);  /* prints warnings for flipped */
+} /* matchnewfacets */
+
+    
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="matchvertices">-</a>
+  
+  qh_matchvertices( firstindex, verticesA, skipA, verticesB, skipB, same )
+    tests whether vertices match with a single skip
+    starts match at firstindex since all new facets have a common vertex
+
+  returns:
+    true if matched vertices
+    skip index for each set
+    sets same iff vertices have the same orientation
+
+  notes:
+    assumes skipA is in A and both sets are the same size
+
+  design:
+    set up pointers
+    scan both sets checking for a match
+    test orientation
+*/
+boolT qh_matchvertices (int firstindex, setT *verticesA, int skipA, 
+       setT *verticesB, int *skipB, boolT *same) {
+  vertexT **elemAp, **elemBp, **skipBp=NULL, **skipAp;
+
+  elemAp= SETelemaddr_(verticesA, firstindex, vertexT);
+  elemBp= SETelemaddr_(verticesB, firstindex, vertexT);
+  skipAp= SETelemaddr_(verticesA, skipA, vertexT);
+  do if (elemAp != skipAp) {
+    while (*elemAp != *elemBp++) {
+      if (skipBp)
+        return False;
+      skipBp= elemBp;  /* one extra like FOREACH */
+    }
+  }while(*(++elemAp));
+  if (!skipBp)
+    skipBp= ++elemBp;
+  *skipB= SETindex_(verticesB, skipB);
+  *same= !(((ptr_intT)skipA & 0x1) ^ ((ptr_intT)*skipB & 0x1));
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_matchvertices: matched by skip %d (v%d) and skip %d (v%d) same? %d\n",
+	  skipA, (*skipAp)->id, *skipB, (*(skipBp-1))->id, *same));
+  return (True);
+} /* matchvertices */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="newfacet">-</a>
+  
+  qh_newfacet()
+    return a new facet 
+
+  returns:
+    all fields initialized or cleared   (NULL)
+    preallocates neighbors set
+*/
+facetT *qh_newfacet(void) {
+  facetT *facet;
+  void **freelistp; /* used !qh_NOmem */
+  
+  qh_memalloc_(sizeof(facetT), freelistp, facet, facetT);
+  memset ((char *)facet, 0, sizeof(facetT));
+  if (qh facet_id == qh tracefacet_id)
+    qh tracefacet= facet;
+  facet->id= qh facet_id++;
+  facet->neighbors= qh_setnew(qh hull_dim);
+#if !qh_COMPUTEfurthest
+  facet->furthestdist= 0.0;
+#endif
+#if qh_MAXoutside
+  if (qh FORCEoutput && qh APPROXhull)
+    facet->maxoutside= qh MINoutside;
+  else
+    facet->maxoutside= qh DISTround;
+#endif
+  facet->simplicial= True;
+  facet->good= True;
+  facet->newfacet= True;
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_newfacet: created facet f%d\n", facet->id));
+  return (facet);
+} /* newfacet */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="newridge">-</a>
+  
+  qh_newridge()
+    return a new ridge
+*/
+ridgeT *qh_newridge(void) {
+  ridgeT *ridge;
+  void **freelistp;   /* used !qh_NOmem */
+
+  qh_memalloc_(sizeof(ridgeT), freelistp, ridge, ridgeT);
+  memset ((char *)ridge, 0, sizeof(ridgeT));
+  zinc_(Ztotridges);
+  if (qh ridge_id == 0xFFFFFF) {
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "\
+qhull warning: more than %d ridges.  ID field overflows and two ridges\n\
+may have the same identifier.  Otherwise output ok.\n", 0xFFFFFF);
+  }
+  ridge->id= qh ridge_id++;     
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_newridge: created ridge r%d\n", ridge->id));
+  return (ridge);
+} /* newridge */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="pointid">-</a>
+  
+  qh_pointid(  )
+    return id for a point, 
+    returns -3 if null, -2 if interior, or -1 if not known
+
+  alternative code:
+    unsigned long id;
+    id= ((unsigned long)point - (unsigned long)qh.first_point)/qh.normal_size;
+
+  notes:
+    if point not in point array
+      the code does a comparison of unrelated pointers.
+*/
+int qh_pointid (pointT *point) {
+  long offset, id;
+
+  if (!point)
+    id= -3;
+  else if (point == qh interior_point)
+    id= -2;
+  else if (point >= qh first_point
+  && point < qh first_point + qh num_points * qh hull_dim) {
+    offset= point - qh first_point;
+    id= offset / qh hull_dim;
+  }else if ((id= qh_setindex (qh other_points, point)) != -1)
+    id += qh num_points;
+  else
+    id= -1;
+  return (int) id;
+} /* pointid */
+  
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="removefacet">-</a>
+  
+  qh_removefacet( facet )
+    unlinks facet from qh.facet_list,
+
+  returns:
+    updates qh.facet_list .newfacet_list .facet_next visible_list
+    decrements qh.num_facets
+
+  see:
+    qh_appendfacet
+*/
+void qh_removefacet(facetT *facet) {
+  facetT *next= facet->next, *previous= facet->previous;
+  
+  if (facet == qh newfacet_list)
+    qh newfacet_list= next;
+  if (facet == qh facet_next)
+    qh facet_next= next;
+  if (facet == qh visible_list)
+    qh visible_list= next; 
+  if (previous) {
+    previous->next= next;
+    next->previous= previous;
+  }else {  /* 1st facet in qh facet_list */
+    qh facet_list= next;
+    qh facet_list->previous= NULL;
+  }
+  qh num_facets--;
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_removefacet: remove f%d from facet_list\n", facet->id));
+} /* removefacet */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="removevertex">-</a>
+  
+  qh_removevertex( vertex )
+    unlinks vertex from qh.vertex_list,
+
+  returns:
+    updates qh.vertex_list .newvertex_list 
+    decrements qh.num_vertices
+*/
+void qh_removevertex(vertexT *vertex) {
+  vertexT *next= vertex->next, *previous= vertex->previous;
+  
+  if (vertex == qh newvertex_list)
+    qh newvertex_list= next;
+  if (previous) {
+    previous->next= next;
+    next->previous= previous;
+  }else {  /* 1st vertex in qh vertex_list */
+    qh vertex_list= vertex->next;
+    qh vertex_list->previous= NULL;
+  }
+  qh num_vertices--;
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_removevertex: remove v%d from vertex_list\n", vertex->id));
+} /* removevertex */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="updatevertices">-</a>
+  
+  qh_updatevertices()
+    update vertex neighbors and delete interior vertices
+
+  returns:
+    if qh.VERTEXneighbors, updates neighbors for each vertex
+      if qh.newvertex_list, 
+         removes visible neighbors  from vertex neighbors
+      if qh.newfacet_list
+         adds new facets to vertex neighbors
+    if qh.visible_list
+       interior vertices added to qh.del_vertices for later partitioning
+
+  design:
+    if qh.VERTEXneighbors
+      deletes references to visible facets from vertex neighbors
+      appends new facets to the neighbor list for each vertex
+      checks all vertices of visible facets
+        removes visible facets from neighbor lists
+        marks unused vertices for deletion
+*/
+void qh_updatevertices (void /*qh newvertex_list, newfacet_list, visible_list*/) {
+  facetT *newfacet= NULL, *neighbor, **neighborp, *visible;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+
+  trace3((qh ferr, "qh_updatevertices: delete interior vertices and update vertex->neighbors\n"));
+  if (qh VERTEXneighbors) {
+    FORALLvertex_(qh newvertex_list) {
+      FOREACHneighbor_(vertex) {
+	if (neighbor->visible) 
+	  SETref_(neighbor)= NULL;
+      }
+      qh_setcompact (vertex->neighbors);
+    }
+    FORALLnew_facets {
+      FOREACHvertex_(newfacet->vertices)
+        qh_setappend (&vertex->neighbors, newfacet);
+    }
+    FORALLvisible_facets {
+      FOREACHvertex_(visible->vertices) {
+        if (!vertex->newlist && !vertex->deleted) {
+  	  FOREACHneighbor_(vertex) { /* this can happen under merging */
+	    if (!neighbor->visible)
+	      break;
+	  }
+	  if (neighbor)
+	    qh_setdel (vertex->neighbors, visible);
+	  else {
+	    vertex->deleted= True;
+	    qh_setappend (&qh del_vertices, vertex);
+	    trace2((qh ferr, "qh_updatevertices: delete vertex p%d (v%d) in f%d\n",
+		  qh_pointid(vertex->point), vertex->id, visible->id));
+  	  }
+        }
+      }
+    }
+  }else {  /* !VERTEXneighbors */
+    FORALLvisible_facets {
+      FOREACHvertex_(visible->vertices) {
+        if (!vertex->newlist && !vertex->deleted) {
+          vertex->deleted= True;
+	  qh_setappend (&qh del_vertices, vertex);
+	  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_updatevertices: delete vertex p%d (v%d) in f%d\n",
+		  qh_pointid(vertex->point), vertex->id, visible->id));
+  	}
+      }
+    }
+  }
+} /* updatevertices */
+
+
+

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/poly.h
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/poly.h	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/poly.h	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,291 @@
+/*<html><pre>  -<a                             href="qh-poly.htm"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="TOP">-</a>
+
+   poly.h 
+   header file for poly.c and poly2.c
+
+   see qh-poly.htm, qhull.h and poly.c
+
+   copyright (c) 1993-2003, The Geometry Center
+*/
+
+#ifndef qhDEFpoly
+#define qhDEFpoly 1
+
+/*===============   constants ========================== */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="ALGORITHMfault">-</a>
+  
+  ALGORITHMfault   
+    use as argument to checkconvex() to report errors during buildhull
+*/
+#define qh_ALGORITHMfault 0
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="DATAfault">-</a>
+  
+  DATAfault        
+    use as argument to checkconvex() to report errors during initialhull
+*/
+#define qh_DATAfault 1
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="DUPLICATEridge">-</a>
+  
+  DUPLICATEridge
+    special value for facet->neighbor to indicate a duplicate ridge
+  
+  notes:
+    set by matchneighbor, used by matchmatch and mark_dupridge
+*/
+#define qh_DUPLICATEridge ( facetT * ) 1L
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="MERGEridge">-</a>
+  
+  MERGEridge       flag in facet
+    special value for facet->neighbor to indicate a merged ridge
+  
+  notes:
+    set by matchneighbor, used by matchmatch and mark_dupridge
+*/
+#define qh_MERGEridge ( facetT * ) 2L
+
+
+/*============ -structures- ====================*/
+
+/*=========== -macros- =========================*/
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="FORALLfacet_">-</a>
+  
+  FORALLfacet_( facetlist ) { ... }
+    assign 'facet' to each facet in facetlist
+    
+  notes:
+    uses 'facetT *facet;'
+    assumes last facet is a sentinel
+    
+  see:
+    FORALLfacets
+*/
+#define FORALLfacet_( facetlist ) if ( facetlist ) for( facet=( facetlist );facet && facet->next;facet=facet->next )
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="FORALLnew_facets">-</a>
+  
+  FORALLnew_facets { ... } 
+    assign 'newfacet' to each facet in qh.newfacet_list
+    
+  notes:
+    uses 'facetT *newfacet;'
+    at exit, newfacet==NULL
+*/
+#define FORALLnew_facets for( newfacet=qh newfacet_list;newfacet && newfacet->next;newfacet=newfacet->next )
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="FORALLvertex_">-</a>
+  
+  FORALLvertex_( vertexlist ) { ... }
+    assign 'vertex' to each vertex in vertexlist
+    
+  notes:
+    uses 'vertexT *vertex;'
+    at exit, vertex==NULL
+*/
+#define FORALLvertex_( vertexlist ) for ( vertex=( vertexlist );vertex && vertex->next;vertex= vertex->next )
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="FORALLvisible_facets">-</a>
+  
+  FORALLvisible_facets { ... }
+    assign 'visible' to each visible facet in qh.visible_list
+    
+  notes:
+    uses 'vacetT *visible;'
+    at exit, visible==NULL
+*/
+#define FORALLvisible_facets for (visible=qh visible_list; visible && visible->visible; visible= visible->next)
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="FORALLsame_">-</a>
+  
+  FORALLsame_( newfacet ) { ... } 
+    assign 'same' to each facet in newfacet->f.samecycle
+    
+  notes:
+    uses 'facetT *same;'
+    stops when it returns to newfacet
+*/
+#define FORALLsame_(newfacet) for (same= newfacet->f.samecycle; same != newfacet; same= same->f.samecycle)
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="FORALLsame_cycle_">-</a>
+  
+  FORALLsame_cycle_( newfacet ) { ... } 
+    assign 'same' to each facet in newfacet->f.samecycle
+    
+  notes:
+    uses 'facetT *same;'
+    at exit, same == NULL
+*/
+#define FORALLsame_cycle_(newfacet) \
+     for (same= newfacet->f.samecycle; \
+         same; same= (same == newfacet ?  NULL : same->f.samecycle))
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="FOREACHneighborA_">-</a>
+  
+  FOREACHneighborA_( facet ) { ... }
+    assign 'neighborA' to each neighbor in facet->neighbors
+  
+  FOREACHneighborA_( vertex ) { ... }
+    assign 'neighborA' to each neighbor in vertex->neighbors
+  
+  declare:
+    facetT *neighborA, **neighborAp;
+
+  see:
+    <a href="qset.h#FOREACHsetelement_">FOREACHsetelement_</a>
+*/
+#define FOREACHneighborA_(facet)  FOREACHsetelement_(facetT, facet->neighbors, neighborA)
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="FOREACHvisible_">-</a>
+  
+  FOREACHvisible_( facets ) { ... } 
+    assign 'visible' to each facet in facets
+    
+  notes:
+    uses 'facetT *facet, *facetp;'
+    see <a href="qset.h#FOREACHsetelement_">FOREACHsetelement_</a>
+*/
+#define FOREACHvisible_(facets) FOREACHsetelement_(facetT, facets, visible)
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="FOREACHnewfacet_">-</a>
+  
+  FOREACHnewfacet_( facets ) { ... } 
+    assign 'newfacet' to each facet in facets
+    
+  notes:
+    uses 'facetT *newfacet, *newfacetp;'
+    see <a href="qset.h#FOREACHsetelement_">FOREACHsetelement_</a>
+*/
+#define FOREACHnewfacet_(facets) FOREACHsetelement_(facetT, facets, newfacet)
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="FOREACHvertexA_">-</a>
+  
+  FOREACHvertexA_( vertices ) { ... } 
+    assign 'vertexA' to each vertex in vertices
+    
+  notes:
+    uses 'vertexT *vertexA, *vertexAp;'
+    see <a href="qset.h#FOREACHsetelement_">FOREACHsetelement_</a>
+*/
+#define FOREACHvertexA_(vertices) FOREACHsetelement_(vertexT, vertices, vertexA)
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="FOREACHvertexreverse12_">-</a>
+  
+  FOREACHvertexreverse12_( vertices ) { ... } 
+    assign 'vertex' to each vertex in vertices
+    reverse order of first two vertices
+    
+  notes:
+    uses 'vertexT *vertex, *vertexp;'
+    see <a href="qset.h#FOREACHsetelement_">FOREACHsetelement_</a>
+*/
+#define FOREACHvertexreverse12_(vertices) FOREACHsetelementreverse12_(vertexT, vertices, vertex)
+
+
+/*=============== prototypes poly.c in alphabetical order ================*/
+
+void    qh_appendfacet(facetT *facet);
+void    qh_appendvertex(vertexT *vertex);
+void 	qh_attachnewfacets (void);
+boolT   qh_checkflipped (facetT *facet, realT *dist, boolT allerror);
+void	qh_delfacet(facetT *facet);
+void 	qh_deletevisible(void /*qh visible_list, qh horizon_list*/);
+setT   *qh_facetintersect (facetT *facetA, facetT *facetB, int *skipAp,int *skipBp, int extra);
+unsigned qh_gethash (int hashsize, setT *set, int size, int firstindex, void *skipelem);
+facetT *qh_makenewfacet(setT *vertices, boolT toporient, facetT *facet);
+void    qh_makenewplanes ( void /* newfacet_list */);
+facetT *qh_makenew_nonsimplicial (facetT *visible, vertexT *apex, int *numnew);
+facetT *qh_makenew_simplicial (facetT *visible, vertexT *apex, int *numnew);
+void    qh_matchneighbor (facetT *newfacet, int newskip, int hashsize,
+			  int *hashcount);
+void	qh_matchnewfacets (void);
+boolT   qh_matchvertices (int firstindex, setT *verticesA, int skipA, 
+			  setT *verticesB, int *skipB, boolT *same);
+facetT *qh_newfacet(void);
+ridgeT *qh_newridge(void);
+int     qh_pointid (pointT *point);
+void 	qh_removefacet(facetT *facet);
+void 	qh_removevertex(vertexT *vertex);
+void    qh_updatevertices (void);
+
+
+/*========== -prototypes poly2.c in alphabetical order ===========*/
+
+void    qh_addhash (void* newelem, setT *hashtable, int hashsize, unsigned hash);
+void 	qh_check_bestdist (void);
+void    qh_check_maxout (void);
+void    qh_check_output (void);
+void    qh_check_point (pointT *point, facetT *facet, realT *maxoutside, realT *maxdist, facetT **errfacet1, facetT **errfacet2);
+void   	qh_check_points(void);
+void 	qh_checkconvex(facetT *facetlist, int fault);
+void    qh_checkfacet(facetT *facet, boolT newmerge, boolT *waserrorp);
+void 	qh_checkflipped_all (facetT *facetlist);
+void 	qh_checkpolygon(facetT *facetlist);
+void    qh_checkvertex (vertexT *vertex);
+void 	qh_clearcenters (qh_CENTER type);
+void 	qh_createsimplex(setT *vertices);
+void 	qh_delridge(ridgeT *ridge);
+void    qh_delvertex (vertexT *vertex);
+setT   *qh_facet3vertex (facetT *facet);
+facetT *qh_findbestfacet (pointT *point, boolT bestoutside,
+           realT *bestdist, boolT *isoutside);
+facetT *qh_findbestlower (facetT *upperfacet, pointT *point, realT *bestdistp, int *numpart);
+facetT *qh_findfacet_all (pointT *point, realT *bestdist, boolT *isoutside,
+			  int *numpart);
+int 	qh_findgood (facetT *facetlist, int goodhorizon);
+void 	qh_findgood_all (facetT *facetlist);
+void    qh_furthestnext (void /* qh facet_list */);
+void    qh_furthestout (facetT *facet);
+void    qh_infiniteloop (facetT *facet);
+void 	qh_initbuild(void);
+void 	qh_initialhull(setT *vertices);
+setT   *qh_initialvertices(int dim, setT *maxpoints, pointT *points, int numpoints);
+vertexT *qh_isvertex (pointT *point, setT *vertices);
+vertexT *qh_makenewfacets (pointT *point /*horizon_list, visible_list*/);
+void    qh_matchduplicates (facetT *atfacet, int atskip, int hashsize, int *hashcount);
+void    qh_nearcoplanar ( void /* qh.facet_list */);
+vertexT *qh_nearvertex (facetT *facet, pointT *point, realT *bestdistp);
+int 	qh_newhashtable(int newsize);
+vertexT *qh_newvertex(pointT *point);
+ridgeT *qh_nextridge3d (ridgeT *atridge, facetT *facet, vertexT **vertexp);
+void    qh_outcoplanar (void /* facet_list */);
+pointT *qh_point (int id);
+void 	qh_point_add (setT *set, pointT *point, void *elem);
+setT   *qh_pointfacet (void /*qh facet_list*/);
+setT   *qh_pointvertex (void /*qh facet_list*/);
+void 	qh_prependfacet(facetT *facet, facetT **facetlist);
+void	qh_printhashtable(FILE *fp);
+void    qh_printlists (void);
+void    qh_resetlists (boolT stats, boolT resetVisible /*qh newvertex_list newfacet_list visible_list*/);
+void    qh_setvoronoi_all (void);
+void	qh_triangulate (void /*qh facet_list*/);
+void    qh_triangulate_facet (facetT *facetA, vertexT **first_vertex);
+void    qh_triangulate_link (facetT *oldfacetA, facetT *facetA, facetT *oldfacetB, facetT *facetB);
+void	qh_triangulate_mirror (facetT *facetA, facetT *facetB);
+void    qh_triangulate_null (facetT *facetA);
+void    qh_vertexintersect(setT **vertexsetA,setT *vertexsetB);
+setT   *qh_vertexintersect_new(setT *vertexsetA,setT *vertexsetB);
+void    qh_vertexneighbors (void /*qh facet_list*/);
+boolT 	qh_vertexsubset(setT *vertexsetA, setT *vertexsetB);
+
+
+#endif /* qhDEFpoly */

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/poly2.c
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/poly2.c	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/poly2.c	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,3137 @@
+/*<html><pre>  -<a                             href="qh-poly.htm"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="TOP">-</a>
+
+   poly2.c 
+   implements polygons and simplices
+
+   see qh-poly.htm, poly.h and qhull.h
+
+   frequently used code is in poly.c
+
+   copyright (c) 1993-2003, The Geometry Center
+*/
+
+#include "qhull_a.h"
+
+/*======== functions in alphabetical order ==========*/
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="addhash">-</a>
+  
+  qh_addhash( newelem, hashtable, hashsize, hash )
+    add newelem to linear hash table at hash if not already there
+*/
+void qh_addhash (void* newelem, setT *hashtable, int hashsize, unsigned hash) {
+  int scan;
+  void *elem;
+
+  for (scan= (int)hash; (elem= SETelem_(hashtable, scan)); 
+       scan= (++scan >= hashsize ? 0 : scan)) {
+    if (elem == newelem)
+      break;
+  }
+  /* loop terminates because qh_HASHfactor >= 1.1 by qh_initbuffers */
+  if (!elem)
+    SETelem_(hashtable, scan)= newelem;
+} /* addhash */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="check_bestdist">-</a>
+  
+  qh_check_bestdist()
+    check that all points are within max_outside of the nearest facet
+    if qh.ONLYgood,
+      ignores !good facets
+
+  see: 
+    qh_check_maxout(), qh_outerinner()
+
+  notes:
+    only called from qh_check_points()
+      seldom used since qh.MERGING is almost always set
+    if notverified>0 at end of routine
+      some points were well inside the hull.  If the hull contains
+      a lens-shaped component, these points were not verified.  Use
+      options 'Qi Tv' to verify all points.  (Exhaustive check also verifies)
+
+  design:
+    determine facet for each point (if any)
+    for each point
+      start with the assigned facet or with the first facet
+      find the best facet for the point and check all coplanar facets
+      error if point is outside of facet
+*/
+void qh_check_bestdist (void) {
+  boolT waserror= False, unassigned;
+  facetT *facet, *bestfacet, *errfacet1= NULL, *errfacet2= NULL;
+  facetT *facetlist; 
+  realT dist, maxoutside, maxdist= -REALmax;
+  pointT *point;
+  int numpart= 0, facet_i, facet_n, notgood= 0, notverified= 0;
+  setT *facets;
+
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_check_bestdist: check points below nearest facet.  Facet_list f%d\n",
+      qh facet_list->id));
+  maxoutside= qh_maxouter();
+  maxoutside += qh DISTround;
+  /* one more qh.DISTround for check computation */
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_check_bestdist: check that all points are within %2.2g of best facet\n", maxoutside));
+  facets= qh_pointfacet (/*qh facet_list*/);
+  if (!qh_QUICKhelp && qh PRINTprecision)
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "\n\
+qhull output completed.  Verifying that %d points are\n\
+below %2.2g of the nearest %sfacet.\n",
+	     qh_setsize(facets), maxoutside, (qh ONLYgood ?  "good " : ""));
+  FOREACHfacet_i_(facets) {  /* for each point with facet assignment */
+    if (facet)
+      unassigned= False;
+    else {
+      unassigned= True;
+      facet= qh facet_list;
+    }
+    point= qh_point(facet_i);
+    if (point == qh GOODpointp)
+      continue;
+    qh_distplane(point, facet, &dist);
+    numpart++;
+    bestfacet= qh_findbesthorizon (!qh_IScheckmax, point, facet, qh_NOupper, &dist, &numpart);
+    /* occurs after statistics reported */
+    maximize_(maxdist, dist);
+    if (dist > maxoutside) {
+      if (qh ONLYgood && !bestfacet->good 
+	  && !((bestfacet= qh_findgooddist (point, bestfacet, &dist, &facetlist))
+	       && dist > maxoutside))
+	notgood++;
+      else {
+	waserror= True;
+	fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull precision error: point p%d is outside facet f%d, distance= %6.8g maxoutside= %6.8g\n", 
+		facet_i, bestfacet->id, dist, maxoutside);
+	if (errfacet1 != bestfacet) {
+	  errfacet2= errfacet1;
+	  errfacet1= bestfacet;
+	}
+      }
+    }else if (unassigned && dist < -qh MAXcoplanar)
+      notverified++;
+  }
+  qh_settempfree (&facets);
+  if (notverified && !qh DELAUNAY && !qh_QUICKhelp && qh PRINTprecision) 
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "\n%d points were well inside the hull.  If the hull contains\n\
+a lens-shaped component, these points were not verified.  Use\n\
+options 'Qci Tv' to verify all points.\n", notverified); 
+  if (maxdist > qh outside_err) {
+    fprintf( qh ferr, "qhull precision error (qh_check_bestdist): a coplanar point is %6.2g from convex hull.  The maximum value (qh.outside_err) is %6.2g\n",
+              maxdist, qh outside_err);
+    qh_errexit2 (qh_ERRprec, errfacet1, errfacet2);
+  }else if (waserror && qh outside_err > REALmax/2)
+    qh_errexit2 (qh_ERRprec, errfacet1, errfacet2);
+  else if (waserror)
+    ;                       /* the error was logged to qh.ferr but does not effect the output */
+  trace0((qh ferr, "qh_check_bestdist: max distance outside %2.2g\n", maxdist));
+} /* check_bestdist */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="check_maxout">-</a>
+  
+  qh_check_maxout()
+    updates qh.max_outside by checking all points against bestfacet
+    if qh.ONLYgood, ignores !good facets
+
+  returns:
+    updates facet->maxoutside via qh_findbesthorizon()
+    sets qh.maxoutdone
+    if printing qh.min_vertex (qh_outerinner), 
+      it is updated to the current vertices
+    removes inside/coplanar points from coplanarset as needed
+
+  notes:
+    defines coplanar as min_vertex instead of MAXcoplanar 
+    may not need to check near-inside points because of qh.MAXcoplanar 
+      and qh.KEEPnearinside (before it was -DISTround)
+
+  see also:
+    qh_check_bestdist()
+
+  design:
+    if qh.min_vertex is needed
+      for all neighbors of all vertices
+        test distance from vertex to neighbor
+    determine facet for each point (if any)
+    for each point with an assigned facet
+      find the best facet for the point and check all coplanar facets
+        (updates outer planes)
+    remove near-inside points from coplanar sets
+*/
+#ifndef qh_NOmerge
+void qh_check_maxout (void) {
+  facetT *facet, *bestfacet, *neighbor, **neighborp, *facetlist;
+  realT dist, maxoutside, minvertex, old_maxoutside;
+  pointT *point;
+  int numpart= 0, facet_i, facet_n, notgood= 0;
+  setT *facets, *vertices;
+  vertexT *vertex;
+
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_check_maxout: check and update maxoutside for each facet.\n"));
+  maxoutside= minvertex= 0;
+  if (qh VERTEXneighbors 
+  && (qh PRINTsummary || qh KEEPinside || qh KEEPcoplanar 
+	|| qh TRACElevel || qh PRINTstatistics
+	|| qh PRINTout[0] == qh_PRINTsummary || qh PRINTout[0] == qh_PRINTnone)) { 
+    trace1((qh ferr, "qh_check_maxout: determine actual maxoutside and minvertex\n"));
+    vertices= qh_pointvertex (/*qh facet_list*/);
+    FORALLvertices {
+      FOREACHneighbor_(vertex) {
+        zinc_(Zdistvertex);  /* distance also computed by main loop below */
+	qh_distplane (vertex->point, neighbor, &dist);
+	minimize_(minvertex, dist);
+	if (-dist > qh TRACEdist || dist > qh TRACEdist 
+	|| neighbor == qh tracefacet || vertex == qh tracevertex)
+	  fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_check_maxout: p%d (v%d) is %.2g from f%d\n",
+		    qh_pointid (vertex->point), vertex->id, dist, neighbor->id);
+      }
+    }
+    if (qh MERGING) {
+      wmin_(Wminvertex, qh min_vertex);
+    }
+    qh min_vertex= minvertex;
+    qh_settempfree (&vertices);  
+  }
+  facets= qh_pointfacet (/*qh facet_list*/);
+  do {
+    old_maxoutside= fmax_(qh max_outside, maxoutside);
+    FOREACHfacet_i_(facets) {     /* for each point with facet assignment */
+      if (facet) { 
+	point= qh_point(facet_i);
+	if (point == qh GOODpointp)
+	  continue;
+	zinc_(Ztotcheck);
+	qh_distplane(point, facet, &dist);
+	numpart++;
+	bestfacet= qh_findbesthorizon (qh_IScheckmax, point, facet, !qh_NOupper, &dist, &numpart);
+	if (bestfacet && dist > maxoutside) {
+	  if (qh ONLYgood && !bestfacet->good 
+	  && !((bestfacet= qh_findgooddist (point, bestfacet, &dist, &facetlist))
+	       && dist > maxoutside))
+	    notgood++;
+	  else
+	    maxoutside= dist;
+	}
+	if (dist > qh TRACEdist || (bestfacet && bestfacet == qh tracefacet))
+	  fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_check_maxout: p%d is %.2g above f%d\n",
+		     qh_pointid (point), dist, bestfacet->id);
+      }
+    }
+  }while 
+    (maxoutside > 2*old_maxoutside);
+    /* if qh.maxoutside increases substantially, qh_SEARCHdist is not valid 
+          e.g., RBOX 5000 s Z1 G1e-13 t1001200614 | qhull */
+  zzadd_(Zcheckpart, numpart);
+  qh_settempfree (&facets);
+  wval_(Wmaxout)= maxoutside - qh max_outside;
+  wmax_(Wmaxoutside, qh max_outside);
+  qh max_outside= maxoutside;
+  qh_nearcoplanar (/*qh.facet_list*/);
+  qh maxoutdone= True;
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_check_maxout: maxoutside %2.2g, min_vertex %2.2g, outside of not good %d\n",
+       maxoutside, qh min_vertex, notgood));
+} /* check_maxout */
+#else /* qh_NOmerge */
+void qh_check_maxout (void) {
+}
+#endif
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="check_output">-</a>
+  
+  qh_check_output()
+    performs the checks at the end of qhull algorithm
+    Maybe called after voronoi output.  Will recompute otherwise centrums are Voronoi centers instead
+*/
+void qh_check_output (void) {
+  int i;
+
+  if (qh STOPcone)
+    return;
+  if (qh VERIFYoutput | qh IStracing | qh CHECKfrequently) {
+    qh_checkpolygon (qh facet_list);
+    qh_checkflipped_all (qh facet_list);
+    qh_checkconvex (qh facet_list, qh_ALGORITHMfault);
+  }else if (!qh MERGING && qh_newstats (qhstat precision, &i)) {
+    qh_checkflipped_all (qh facet_list);
+    qh_checkconvex (qh facet_list, qh_ALGORITHMfault);
+  }
+} /* check_output */
+
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="check_point">-</a>
+  
+  qh_check_point( point, facet, maxoutside, maxdist, errfacet1, errfacet2 )
+    check that point is less than maxoutside from facet
+*/
+void qh_check_point (pointT *point, facetT *facet, realT *maxoutside, realT *maxdist, facetT **errfacet1, facetT **errfacet2) {
+  realT dist;
+
+  /* occurs after statistics reported */
+  qh_distplane(point, facet, &dist);
+  if (dist > *maxoutside) {
+    if (*errfacet1 != facet) {
+      *errfacet2= *errfacet1;
+      *errfacet1= facet;
+    }
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull precision error: point p%d is outside facet f%d, distance= %6.8g maxoutside= %6.8g\n", 
+	      qh_pointid(point), facet->id, dist, *maxoutside);
+  }
+  maximize_(*maxdist, dist);
+} /* qh_check_point */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="check_points">-</a>
+  
+  qh_check_points()
+    checks that all points are inside all facets
+
+  notes:
+    if many points and qh_check_maxout not called (i.e., !qh.MERGING), 
+       calls qh_findbesthorizon (seldom done).
+    ignores flipped facets
+    maxoutside includes 2 qh.DISTrounds
+      one qh.DISTround for the computed distances in qh_check_points
+    qh_printafacet and qh_printsummary needs only one qh.DISTround
+    the computation for qh.VERIFYdirect does not account for qh.other_points
+
+  design:
+    if many points
+      use qh_check_bestdist()
+    else
+      for all facets
+        for all points
+          check that point is inside facet
+*/
+void qh_check_points (void) {
+  facetT *facet, *errfacet1= NULL, *errfacet2= NULL;
+  realT total, maxoutside, maxdist= -REALmax;
+  pointT *point, **pointp, *pointtemp;
+  boolT testouter;
+
+  maxoutside= qh_maxouter();
+  maxoutside += qh DISTround;
+  /* one more qh.DISTround for check computation */
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_check_points: check all points below %2.2g of all facet planes\n",
+	  maxoutside));
+  if (qh num_good)   /* miss counts other_points and !good facets */
+     total= (float) qh num_good * qh num_points;
+  else
+     total= (float) qh num_facets * qh num_points;
+  if (total >= qh_VERIFYdirect && !qh maxoutdone) {
+    if (!qh_QUICKhelp && qh SKIPcheckmax && qh MERGING)
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "\n\
+qhull input warning: merging without checking outer planes ('Q5' or 'Po').\n\
+Verify may report that a point is outside of a facet.\n");
+    qh_check_bestdist();
+  }else {
+    if (qh_MAXoutside && qh maxoutdone)
+      testouter= True;
+    else
+      testouter= False;
+    if (!qh_QUICKhelp) {
+      if (qh MERGEexact)
+	fprintf (qh ferr, "\n\
+qhull input warning: exact merge ('Qx').  Verify may report that a point\n\
+is outside of a facet.  See qh-optq.htm#Qx\n");
+      else if (qh SKIPcheckmax || qh NOnearinside)
+	fprintf (qh ferr, "\n\
+qhull input warning: no outer plane check ('Q5') or no processing of\n\
+near-inside points ('Q8').  Verify may report that a point is outside\n\
+of a facet.\n");
+    }
+    if (qh PRINTprecision) {
+      if (testouter)
+	fprintf (qh ferr, "\n\
+Output completed.  Verifying that all points are below outer planes of\n\
+all %sfacets.  Will make %2.0f distance computations.\n", 
+	      (qh ONLYgood ?  "good " : ""), total);
+      else
+	fprintf (qh ferr, "\n\
+Output completed.  Verifying that all points are below %2.2g of\n\
+all %sfacets.  Will make %2.0f distance computations.\n", 
+	      maxoutside, (qh ONLYgood ?  "good " : ""), total);
+    }
+    FORALLfacets {
+      if (!facet->good && qh ONLYgood)
+        continue;
+      if (facet->flipped)
+        continue;
+      if (!facet->normal) {
+	fprintf( qh ferr, "qhull warning (qh_check_points): missing normal for facet f%d\n", facet->id);
+        continue;
+      }
+      if (testouter) {
+#if qh_MAXoutside
+	maxoutside= facet->maxoutside + 2* qh DISTround;
+	/* one DISTround to actual point and another to computed point */
+#endif
+      }
+      FORALLpoints {
+	if (point != qh GOODpointp)
+	  qh_check_point (point, facet, &maxoutside, &maxdist, &errfacet1, &errfacet2);
+      }
+      FOREACHpoint_(qh other_points) {
+	if (point != qh GOODpointp)
+	  qh_check_point (point, facet, &maxoutside, &maxdist, &errfacet1, &errfacet2);
+      }
+    }
+    if (maxdist > qh outside_err) {
+      fprintf( qh ferr, "qhull precision error (qh_check_points): a coplanar point is %6.2g from convex hull.  The maximum value (qh.outside_err) is %6.2g\n",
+                maxdist, qh outside_err );
+      qh_errexit2( qh_ERRprec, errfacet1, errfacet2 );
+    }else if (errfacet1 && qh outside_err > REALmax/2)
+        qh_errexit2( qh_ERRprec, errfacet1, errfacet2 );
+    else if (errfacet1)
+        ;  /* the error was logged to qh.ferr but does not effect the output */
+    trace0((qh ferr, "qh_check_points: max distance outside %2.2g\n", maxdist));
+  }
+} /* check_points */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="checkconvex">-</a>
+  
+  qh_checkconvex( facetlist, fault )
+    check that each ridge in facetlist is convex
+    fault = qh_DATAfault if reporting errors
+          = qh_ALGORITHMfault otherwise
+
+  returns:
+    counts Zconcaveridges and Zcoplanarridges
+    errors if concaveridge or if merging an coplanar ridge
+
+  note:
+    if not merging, 
+      tests vertices for neighboring simplicial facets
+    else if ZEROcentrum, 
+      tests vertices for neighboring simplicial   facets
+    else 
+      tests centrums of neighboring facets
+
+  design:
+    for all facets
+      report flipped facets
+      if ZEROcentrum and simplicial neighbors
+        test vertices for neighboring simplicial facets
+      else
+        test centrum against all neighbors 
+*/
+void qh_checkconvex(facetT *facetlist, int fault) {
+  facetT *facet, *neighbor, **neighborp, *errfacet1=NULL, *errfacet2=NULL;
+  vertexT *vertex;
+  realT dist;
+  pointT *centrum;
+  boolT waserror= False, centrum_warning= False, tempcentrum= False, allsimplicial;
+  int neighbor_i;
+
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_checkconvex: check all ridges are convex\n"));
+  if (!qh RERUN) {
+    zzval_(Zconcaveridges)= 0;
+    zzval_(Zcoplanarridges)= 0;
+  }
+  FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+    if (facet->flipped) {
+      qh_precision ("flipped facet");
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull precision error: f%d is flipped (interior point is outside)\n",
+	       facet->id);
+      errfacet1= facet;
+      waserror= True;
+      continue;
+    }
+    if (qh MERGING && (!qh ZEROcentrum || !facet->simplicial || facet->tricoplanar))
+      allsimplicial= False;
+    else {
+      allsimplicial= True;
+      neighbor_i= 0;
+      FOREACHneighbor_(facet) {
+        vertex= SETelemt_(facet->vertices, neighbor_i++, vertexT);
+	if (!neighbor->simplicial || neighbor->tricoplanar) {
+	  allsimplicial= False;
+	  continue;
+	}
+        qh_distplane (vertex->point, neighbor, &dist);
+        if (dist > -qh DISTround) {
+	  if (fault == qh_DATAfault) {
+            qh_precision ("coplanar or concave ridge");
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull precision error: initial simplex is not convex. Distance=%.2g\n", dist);
+	    qh_errexit(qh_ERRsingular, NULL, NULL);
+	  }
+          if (dist > qh DISTround) {
+            zzinc_(Zconcaveridges);
+            qh_precision ("concave ridge");
+            fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull precision error: f%d is concave to f%d, since p%d (v%d) is %6.4g above\n",
+              facet->id, neighbor->id, qh_pointid(vertex->point), vertex->id, dist);
+            errfacet1= facet;
+            errfacet2= neighbor;
+            waserror= True;
+          }else if (qh ZEROcentrum) {
+            if (dist > 0) {     /* qh_checkzero checks that dist < - qh DISTround */
+              zzinc_(Zcoplanarridges); 
+              qh_precision ("coplanar ridge");
+              fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull precision error: f%d is clearly not convex to f%d, since p%d (v%d) is %6.4g above\n",
+                facet->id, neighbor->id, qh_pointid(vertex->point), vertex->id, dist);
+              errfacet1= facet;
+              errfacet2= neighbor;
+              waserror= True;
+	    }
+	  }else {              
+            zzinc_(Zcoplanarridges);
+            qh_precision ("coplanar ridge");
+            trace0((qh ferr, "qhull precision error: f%d may be coplanar to f%d, since p%d (v%d) is within %6.4g during p%d\n",
+              facet->id, neighbor->id, qh_pointid(vertex->point), vertex->id, dist, qh furthest_id));
+          }
+        }
+      }
+    }
+    if (!allsimplicial) {
+      if (qh CENTERtype == qh_AScentrum) {
+        if (!facet->center)
+          facet->center= qh_getcentrum (facet);
+        centrum= facet->center;
+      }else {
+	if (!centrum_warning && (!facet->simplicial || facet->tricoplanar)) {
+	   centrum_warning= True;
+	   fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull note: recomputing centrums for convexity test.  This may lead to false, precision errors.\n");
+	}
+        centrum= qh_getcentrum(facet);
+        tempcentrum= True;
+      }
+      FOREACHneighbor_(facet) {
+	if (qh ZEROcentrum && facet->simplicial && neighbor->simplicial)
+	  continue;
+	if (facet->tricoplanar || neighbor->tricoplanar)
+	  continue;
+        zzinc_(Zdistconvex);
+        qh_distplane (centrum, neighbor, &dist);
+        if (dist > qh DISTround) {
+          zzinc_(Zconcaveridges);
+          qh_precision ("concave ridge");
+          fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull precision error: f%d is concave to f%d.  Centrum of f%d is %6.4g above f%d\n",
+            facet->id, neighbor->id, facet->id, dist, neighbor->id);
+          errfacet1= facet;
+          errfacet2= neighbor;
+          waserror= True;
+	}else if (dist >= 0.0) {   /* if arithmetic always rounds the same,
+				     can test against centrum radius instead */
+          zzinc_(Zcoplanarridges);
+          qh_precision ("coplanar ridge");
+          fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull precision error: f%d is coplanar or concave to f%d.  Centrum of f%d is %6.4g above f%d\n",
+            facet->id, neighbor->id, facet->id, dist, neighbor->id);
+	  errfacet1= facet;
+	  errfacet2= neighbor;
+	  waserror= True;
+        }
+      }
+      if (tempcentrum)
+        qh_memfree(centrum, qh normal_size);
+    }
+  }
+  if (waserror && !qh FORCEoutput)
+    qh_errexit2 (qh_ERRprec, errfacet1, errfacet2);
+} /* checkconvex */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="checkfacet">-</a>
+  
+  qh_checkfacet( facet, newmerge, waserror )
+    checks for consistency errors in facet
+    newmerge set if from merge.c
+
+  returns:
+    sets waserror if any error occurs
+
+  checks:
+    vertex ids are inverse sorted
+    unless newmerge, at least hull_dim neighbors and vertices (exactly if simplicial)
+    if non-simplicial, at least as many ridges as neighbors
+    neighbors are not duplicated
+    ridges are not duplicated
+    in 3-d, ridges=verticies
+    (qh.hull_dim-1) ridge vertices
+    neighbors are reciprocated
+    ridge neighbors are facet neighbors and a ridge for every neighbor
+    simplicial neighbors match facetintersect
+    vertex intersection matches vertices of common ridges 
+    vertex neighbors and facet vertices agree
+    all ridges have distinct vertex sets
+
+  notes:  
+    uses neighbor->seen
+
+  design:
+    check sets
+    check vertices
+    check sizes of neighbors and vertices
+    check for qh_MERGEridge and qh_DUPLICATEridge flags
+    check neighbor set
+    check ridge set
+    check ridges, neighbors, and vertices
+*/
+void qh_checkfacet(facetT *facet, boolT newmerge, boolT *waserrorp) {
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp, *errother=NULL;
+  ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep, *errridge= NULL, *ridge2;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  unsigned previousid= INT_MAX;
+  int numneighbors, numvertices, numridges=0, numRvertices=0;
+  boolT waserror= False;
+  int skipA, skipB, ridge_i, ridge_n, i;
+  setT *intersection;
+
+  if (facet->visible) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_checkfacet): facet f%d is on the visible_list\n",
+      facet->id);
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, facet, NULL);
+  }
+  if (!facet->normal) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_checkfacet): facet f%d does not have  a normal\n",
+      facet->id);
+    waserror= True;
+  }
+  qh_setcheck (facet->vertices, "vertices for f", facet->id);
+  qh_setcheck (facet->ridges, "ridges for f", facet->id);
+  qh_setcheck (facet->outsideset, "outsideset for f", facet->id);
+  qh_setcheck (facet->coplanarset, "coplanarset for f", facet->id);
+  qh_setcheck (facet->neighbors, "neighbors for f", facet->id);
+  FOREACHvertex_(facet->vertices) {
+    if (vertex->deleted) {
+      fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_checkfacet): deleted vertex v%d in f%d\n", vertex->id, facet->id);
+      qh_errprint ("ERRONEOUS", NULL, NULL, NULL, vertex);
+      waserror= True;
+    }
+    if (vertex->id >= previousid) {
+      fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_checkfacet): vertices of f%d are not in descending id order at v%d\n", facet->id, vertex->id);
+      waserror= True;
+      break;
+    }
+    previousid= vertex->id;
+  }
+  numneighbors= qh_setsize(facet->neighbors);
+  numvertices= qh_setsize(facet->vertices);
+  numridges= qh_setsize(facet->ridges);
+  if (facet->simplicial) {
+    if (numvertices+numneighbors != 2*qh hull_dim 
+    && !facet->degenerate && !facet->redundant) {
+      fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_checkfacet): for simplicial facet f%d, #vertices %d + #neighbors %d != 2*qh hull_dim\n", 
+                facet->id, numvertices, numneighbors);
+      qh_setprint (qh ferr, "", facet->neighbors);
+      waserror= True;
+    }
+  }else { /* non-simplicial */
+    if (!newmerge 
+    &&(numvertices < qh hull_dim || numneighbors < qh hull_dim)
+    && !facet->degenerate && !facet->redundant) {
+      fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_checkfacet): for facet f%d, #vertices %d or #neighbors %d < qh hull_dim\n",
+         facet->id, numvertices, numneighbors);
+       waserror= True;
+    }
+    /* in 3-d, can get a vertex twice in an edge list, e.g., RBOX 1000 s W1e-13 t995849315 D2 | QHULL d Tc Tv TP624 TW1e-13 T4 */
+    if (numridges < numneighbors
+    ||(qh hull_dim == 3 && numvertices > numridges && !qh NEWfacets)
+    ||(qh hull_dim == 2 && numridges + numvertices + numneighbors != 6)) {
+      if (!facet->degenerate && !facet->redundant) {
+	fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_checkfacet): for facet f%d, #ridges %d < #neighbors %d or (3-d) > #vertices %d or (2-d) not all 2\n",
+	    facet->id, numridges, numneighbors, numvertices);
+	waserror= True;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  FOREACHneighbor_(facet) {
+    if (neighbor == qh_MERGEridge || neighbor == qh_DUPLICATEridge) {
+      fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_checkfacet): facet f%d still has a MERGE or DUP neighbor\n", facet->id);
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, facet, NULL);
+    }
+    neighbor->seen= True;
+  }
+  FOREACHneighbor_(facet) {
+    if (!qh_setin(neighbor->neighbors, facet)) {
+      fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_checkfacet): facet f%d has neighbor f%d, but f%d does not have neighbor f%d\n",
+	      facet->id, neighbor->id, neighbor->id, facet->id);
+      errother= neighbor;
+      waserror= True;
+    }
+    if (!neighbor->seen) {
+      fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_checkfacet): facet f%d has a duplicate neighbor f%d\n",
+	      facet->id, neighbor->id);
+      errother= neighbor;
+      waserror= True;
+    }    
+    neighbor->seen= False;
+  }
+  FOREACHridge_(facet->ridges) {
+    qh_setcheck (ridge->vertices, "vertices for r", ridge->id);
+    ridge->seen= False;
+  }
+  FOREACHridge_(facet->ridges) {
+    if (ridge->seen) {
+      fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_checkfacet): facet f%d has a duplicate ridge r%d\n",
+	      facet->id, ridge->id);
+      errridge= ridge;
+      waserror= True;
+    }    
+    ridge->seen= True;
+    numRvertices= qh_setsize(ridge->vertices);
+    if (numRvertices != qh hull_dim - 1) {
+      fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_checkfacet): ridge between f%d and f%d has %d vertices\n", 
+                ridge->top->id, ridge->bottom->id, numRvertices);
+      errridge= ridge;
+      waserror= True;
+    }
+    neighbor= otherfacet_(ridge, facet);
+    neighbor->seen= True;
+    if (!qh_setin(facet->neighbors, neighbor)) {
+      fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_checkfacet): for facet f%d, neighbor f%d of ridge r%d not in facet\n",
+           facet->id, neighbor->id, ridge->id);
+      errridge= ridge;
+      waserror= True;
+    }
+  }
+  if (!facet->simplicial) {
+    FOREACHneighbor_(facet) {
+      if (!neighbor->seen) {
+        fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_checkfacet): facet f%d does not have a ridge for neighbor f%d\n",
+	      facet->id, neighbor->id);
+	errother= neighbor;
+        waserror= True;
+      }
+      intersection= qh_vertexintersect_new(facet->vertices, neighbor->vertices);
+      qh_settemppush (intersection);
+      FOREACHvertex_(facet->vertices) {
+	vertex->seen= False;
+	vertex->seen2= False;
+      }
+      FOREACHvertex_(intersection)
+	vertex->seen= True;
+      FOREACHridge_(facet->ridges) {
+	if (neighbor != otherfacet_(ridge, facet))
+	    continue;
+	FOREACHvertex_(ridge->vertices) {
+	  if (!vertex->seen) {
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_checkfacet): vertex v%d in r%d not in f%d intersect f%d\n",
+  	          vertex->id, ridge->id, facet->id, neighbor->id);
+	    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, facet, ridge);
+	  }
+	  vertex->seen2= True;
+	}
+      }
+      if (!newmerge) {
+	FOREACHvertex_(intersection) {
+	  if (!vertex->seen2) {
+	    if (qh IStracing >=3 || !qh MERGING) {
+	      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull precision error (qh_checkfacet): vertex v%d in f%d intersect f%d but\n\
+ not in a ridge.  This is ok under merging.  Last point was p%d\n",
+		     vertex->id, facet->id, neighbor->id, qh furthest_id);
+	      if (!qh FORCEoutput && !qh MERGING) {
+		qh_errprint ("ERRONEOUS", facet, neighbor, NULL, vertex);
+		if (!qh MERGING)
+		  qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+	      }
+	    }
+	  }
+	}
+      }      
+      qh_settempfree (&intersection);
+    }
+  }else { /* simplicial */
+    FOREACHneighbor_(facet) {
+      if (neighbor->simplicial) {    
+	skipA= SETindex_(facet->neighbors, neighbor);
+	skipB= qh_setindex (neighbor->neighbors, facet);
+	if (!qh_setequal_skip (facet->vertices, skipA, neighbor->vertices, skipB)) {
+	  fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_checkfacet): facet f%d skip %d and neighbor f%d skip %d do not match \n",
+		   facet->id, skipA, neighbor->id, skipB);
+	  errother= neighbor;
+	  waserror= True;
+	}
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  if (qh hull_dim < 5 && (qh IStracing > 2 || qh CHECKfrequently)) {
+    FOREACHridge_i_(facet->ridges) {           /* expensive */
+      for (i= ridge_i+1; i < ridge_n; i++) {
+	ridge2= SETelemt_(facet->ridges, i, ridgeT);
+	if (qh_setequal (ridge->vertices, ridge2->vertices)) {
+	  fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_checkfacet: ridges r%d and r%d have the same vertices\n",
+		  ridge->id, ridge2->id);
+	  errridge= ridge;
+	  waserror= True;
+	}
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  if (waserror) {
+    qh_errprint("ERRONEOUS", facet, errother, errridge, NULL);
+    *waserrorp= True;
+  }
+} /* checkfacet */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="checkflipped_all">-</a>
+  
+  qh_checkflipped_all( facetlist )
+    checks orientation of facets in list against interior point
+*/
+void qh_checkflipped_all (facetT *facetlist) {
+  facetT *facet;
+  boolT waserror= False;
+  realT dist;
+
+  if (facetlist == qh facet_list)
+    zzval_(Zflippedfacets)= 0;
+  FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+    if (facet->normal && !qh_checkflipped (facet, &dist, !qh_ALL)) {
+      fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull precision error: facet f%d is flipped, distance= %6.12g\n",
+	      facet->id, dist);
+      if (!qh FORCEoutput) {
+	qh_errprint("ERRONEOUS", facet, NULL, NULL, NULL);
+	waserror= True;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  if (waserror) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "\n\
+A flipped facet occurs when its distance to the interior point is\n\
+greater than %2.2g, the maximum roundoff error.\n", -qh DISTround);
+    qh_errexit(qh_ERRprec, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+} /* checkflipped_all */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="checkpolygon">-</a>
+  
+  qh_checkpolygon( facetlist )
+    checks the correctness of the structure
+
+  notes:
+    call with either qh.facet_list or qh.newfacet_list
+    checks num_facets and num_vertices if qh.facet_list
+
+  design:
+    for each facet
+      checks facet and outside set
+    initializes vertexlist
+    for each facet
+      checks vertex set
+    if checking all facets (qh.facetlist)
+      check facet count
+      if qh.VERTEXneighbors
+        check vertex neighbors and count
+      check vertex count
+*/
+void qh_checkpolygon(facetT *facetlist) {
+  facetT *facet;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp, *vertexlist;
+  int numfacets= 0, numvertices= 0, numridges= 0;
+  int totvneighbors= 0, totvertices= 0;
+  boolT waserror= False, nextseen= False, visibleseen= False;
+  
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_checkpolygon: check all facets from f%d\n", facetlist->id));
+  if (facetlist != qh facet_list || qh ONLYgood)
+    nextseen= True;
+  FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+    if (facet == qh visible_list)
+      visibleseen= True;
+    if (!facet->visible) {
+      if (!nextseen) {
+	if (facet == qh facet_next)
+	  nextseen= True;
+	else if (qh_setsize (facet->outsideset)) {
+	  if (!qh NARROWhull
+#if !qh_COMPUTEfurthest
+	       || facet->furthestdist >= qh MINoutside
+#endif
+			) {
+	    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_checkpolygon): f%d has outside points before qh facet_next\n",
+		     facet->id);
+	    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, facet, NULL);
+	  }
+	}
+      }
+      numfacets++;
+      qh_checkfacet(facet, False, &waserror);
+    }
+  }
+  if (qh visible_list && !visibleseen && facetlist == qh facet_list) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_checkpolygon): visible list f%d no longer on facet list\n", qh visible_list->id);
+    qh_printlists();
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, qh visible_list, NULL);
+  }
+  if (facetlist == qh facet_list)
+    vertexlist= qh vertex_list;
+  else if (facetlist == qh newfacet_list)
+    vertexlist= qh newvertex_list;
+  else
+    vertexlist= NULL;
+  FORALLvertex_(vertexlist) {
+    vertex->seen= False;
+    vertex->visitid= 0;
+  }  
+  FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+    if (facet->visible)
+      continue;
+    if (facet->simplicial)
+      numridges += qh hull_dim;
+    else
+      numridges += qh_setsize (facet->ridges);
+    FOREACHvertex_(facet->vertices) {
+      vertex->visitid++;
+      if (!vertex->seen) {
+	vertex->seen= True;
+	numvertices++;
+	if (qh_pointid (vertex->point) == -1) {
+	  fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_checkpolygon): unknown point %p for vertex v%d first_point %p\n",
+		   vertex->point, vertex->id, qh first_point);
+	  waserror= True;
+	}
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  qh vertex_visit += numfacets;
+  if (facetlist == qh facet_list) {
+    if (numfacets != qh num_facets - qh num_visible) {
+      fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_checkpolygon): actual number of facets is %d, cumulative facet count is %d - %d visible facets\n",
+	      numfacets, qh num_facets, qh num_visible);
+      waserror= True;
+    }
+    qh vertex_visit++;
+    if (qh VERTEXneighbors) {
+      FORALLvertices {
+	qh_setcheck (vertex->neighbors, "neighbors for v", vertex->id);
+	if (vertex->deleted)
+	  continue;
+	totvneighbors += qh_setsize (vertex->neighbors);
+      }
+      FORALLfacet_(facetlist)
+	totvertices += qh_setsize (facet->vertices);
+      if (totvneighbors != totvertices) {
+	fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_checkpolygon): vertex neighbors inconsistent.  Totvneighbors %d, totvertices %d\n",
+		totvneighbors, totvertices);
+	waserror= True;
+      }
+    }
+    if (numvertices != qh num_vertices - qh_setsize(qh del_vertices)) {
+      fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_checkpolygon): actual number of vertices is %d, cumulative vertex count is %d\n",
+	      numvertices, qh num_vertices - qh_setsize(qh del_vertices));
+      waserror= True;
+    }
+    if (qh hull_dim == 2 && numvertices != numfacets) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_checkpolygon): #vertices %d != #facets %d\n",
+        numvertices, numfacets);
+      waserror= True;
+    }
+    if (qh hull_dim == 3 && numvertices + numfacets - numridges/2 != 2) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: #vertices %d + #facets %d - #edges %d != 2\n\
+	A vertex appears twice in a edge list.  May occur during merging.",
+        numvertices, numfacets, numridges/2);
+      /* occurs if lots of merging and a vertex ends up twice in an edge list.  e.g., RBOX 1000 s W1e-13 t995849315 D2 | QHULL d Tc Tv */
+    }
+  }
+  if (waserror) 
+    qh_errexit(qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+} /* checkpolygon */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="checkvertex">-</a>
+  
+  qh_checkvertex( vertex )
+    check vertex for consistency
+    checks vertex->neighbors
+
+  notes:
+    neighbors checked efficiently in checkpolygon
+*/
+void qh_checkvertex (vertexT *vertex) {
+  boolT waserror= False;
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp, *errfacet=NULL;
+
+  if (qh_pointid (vertex->point) == -1) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_checkvertex): unknown point id %p\n", vertex->point);
+    waserror= True;
+  }
+  if (vertex->id >= qh vertex_id) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_checkvertex): unknown vertex id %d\n", vertex->id);
+    waserror= True;
+  }
+  if (!waserror && !vertex->deleted) {
+    if (qh_setsize (vertex->neighbors)) {
+      FOREACHneighbor_(vertex) {
+        if (!qh_setin (neighbor->vertices, vertex)) {
+          fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_checkvertex): neighbor f%d does not contain v%d\n", neighbor->id, vertex->id);
+	  errfacet= neighbor;
+	  waserror= True;
+	}
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  if (waserror) {
+    qh_errprint ("ERRONEOUS", NULL, NULL, NULL, vertex);
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, errfacet, NULL);
+  }
+} /* checkvertex */
+  
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="clearcenters">-</a>
+  
+  qh_clearcenters( type )
+    clear old data from facet->center
+
+  notes:
+    sets new centertype
+    nop if CENTERtype is the same
+*/
+void qh_clearcenters (qh_CENTER type) {
+  facetT *facet;
+  
+  if (qh CENTERtype != type) {
+    FORALLfacets {
+      if (qh CENTERtype == qh_ASvoronoi){
+        if (facet->center) {
+          qh_memfree (facet->center, qh center_size);
+          facet->center= NULL;
+        }
+      }else /* qh CENTERtype == qh_AScentrum */ {
+        if (facet->center) {
+          qh_memfree (facet->center, qh normal_size);
+	  facet->center= NULL;
+        }
+      }
+    }
+    qh CENTERtype= type;
+  }
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_clearcenters: switched to center type %d\n", type));
+} /* clearcenters */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="createsimplex">-</a>
+  
+  qh_createsimplex( vertices )
+    creates a simplex from a set of vertices
+
+  returns:
+    initializes qh.facet_list to the simplex
+    initializes qh.newfacet_list, .facet_tail
+    initializes qh.vertex_list, .newvertex_list, .vertex_tail
+
+  design:
+    initializes lists
+    for each vertex
+      create a new facet
+    for each new facet
+      create its neighbor set
+*/
+void qh_createsimplex(setT *vertices) {
+  facetT *facet= NULL, *newfacet;
+  boolT toporient= True;
+  int vertex_i, vertex_n, nth;
+  setT *newfacets= qh_settemp (qh hull_dim+1);
+  vertexT *vertex;
+  
+  qh facet_list= qh newfacet_list= qh facet_tail= qh_newfacet();
+  qh num_facets= qh num_vertices= qh num_visible= 0;
+  qh vertex_list= qh newvertex_list= qh vertex_tail= qh_newvertex(NULL);
+  FOREACHvertex_i_(vertices) {
+    newfacet= qh_newfacet();
+    newfacet->vertices= qh_setnew_delnthsorted (vertices, vertex_n,
+						vertex_i, 0);
+    newfacet->toporient= toporient;
+    qh_appendfacet(newfacet);
+    newfacet->newfacet= True;
+    qh_appendvertex (vertex);
+    qh_setappend (&newfacets, newfacet);
+    toporient ^= True;
+  }
+  FORALLnew_facets {
+    nth= 0;
+    FORALLfacet_(qh newfacet_list) {
+      if (facet != newfacet) 
+        SETelem_(newfacet->neighbors, nth++)= facet;
+    }
+    qh_settruncate (newfacet->neighbors, qh hull_dim);
+  }
+  qh_settempfree (&newfacets);
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_createsimplex: created simplex\n"));
+} /* createsimplex */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="delridge">-</a>
+  
+  qh_delridge( ridge )
+    deletes ridge from data structures it belongs to
+    frees up its memory
+
+  notes:
+    in merge.c, caller sets vertex->delridge for each vertex
+    ridges also freed in qh_freeqhull
+*/
+void qh_delridge(ridgeT *ridge) {
+  void **freelistp; /* used !qh_NOmem */
+  
+  qh_setdel(ridge->top->ridges, ridge);
+  qh_setdel(ridge->bottom->ridges, ridge);
+  qh_setfree(&(ridge->vertices));
+  qh_memfree_(ridge, sizeof(ridgeT), freelistp);
+} /* delridge */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="delvertex">-</a>
+  
+  qh_delvertex( vertex )
+    deletes a vertex and frees its memory
+
+  notes:
+    assumes vertex->adjacencies have been updated if needed
+    unlinks from vertex_list
+*/
+void qh_delvertex (vertexT *vertex) {
+
+  if (vertex == qh tracevertex)
+    qh tracevertex= NULL;
+  qh_removevertex (vertex);
+  qh_setfree (&vertex->neighbors);
+  qh_memfree(vertex, sizeof(vertexT));
+} /* delvertex */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="facet3vertex">-</a>
+  
+  qh_facet3vertex(  )
+    return temporary set of 3-d vertices in qh_ORIENTclock order
+
+  design:
+    if simplicial facet
+      build set from facet->vertices with facet->toporient
+    else
+      for each ridge in order
+        build set from ridge's vertices
+*/
+setT *qh_facet3vertex (facetT *facet) {
+  ridgeT *ridge, *firstridge;
+  vertexT *vertex;
+  int cntvertices, cntprojected=0;
+  setT *vertices;
+
+  cntvertices= qh_setsize(facet->vertices);
+  vertices= qh_settemp (cntvertices);
+  if (facet->simplicial) {
+    if (cntvertices != 3) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_facet3vertex): only %d vertices for simplicial facet f%d\n", 
+                  cntvertices, facet->id);
+      qh_errexit(qh_ERRqhull, facet, NULL);
+    }
+    qh_setappend (&vertices, SETfirst_(facet->vertices));
+    if (facet->toporient ^ qh_ORIENTclock)
+      qh_setappend (&vertices, SETsecond_(facet->vertices));
+    else
+      qh_setaddnth (&vertices, 0, SETsecond_(facet->vertices));
+    qh_setappend (&vertices, SETelem_(facet->vertices, 2));
+  }else {
+    ridge= firstridge= SETfirstt_(facet->ridges, ridgeT);   /* no infinite */
+    while ((ridge= qh_nextridge3d (ridge, facet, &vertex))) {
+      qh_setappend (&vertices, vertex);
+      if (++cntprojected > cntvertices || ridge == firstridge)
+        break;
+    }
+    if (!ridge || cntprojected != cntvertices) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_facet3vertex): ridges for facet %d don't match up.  got at least %d\n", 
+                  facet->id, cntprojected);
+      qh_errexit(qh_ERRqhull, facet, ridge);
+    }
+  }
+  return vertices;
+} /* facet3vertex */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="findbestfacet">-</a>
+  
+  qh_findbestfacet( point, bestoutside, bestdist, isoutside )
+    find facet that is furthest below a point 
+
+    for Delaunay triangulations, 
+      Use qh_setdelaunay() to lift point to paraboloid and scale by 'Qbb' if needed
+      Do not use options 'Qbk', 'QBk', or 'QbB' since they scale the coordinates. 
+
+  returns:
+    if bestoutside is set (e.g., qh_ALL)
+      returns best facet that is not upperdelaunay
+      if Delaunay and inside, point is outside circumsphere of bestfacet
+    else
+      returns first facet below point
+      if point is inside, returns nearest, !upperdelaunay facet
+    distance to facet
+    isoutside set if outside of facet
+    
+  notes:
+    For tricoplanar facets, this finds one of the tricoplanar facets closest 
+    to the point.  For Delaunay triangulations, the point may be inside a 
+    different tricoplanar facet. See <a href="../html/qh-in.htm#findfacet">locate a facet with qh_findbestfacet()</a>
+    
+    If inside, qh_findbestfacet performs an exhaustive search
+       this may be too conservative.  Sometimes it is clearly required.
+
+    qh_findbestfacet is not used by qhull.
+    uses qh.visit_id and qh.coplanarset
+    
+  see:
+    <a href="geom.c#findbest">qh_findbest</a>
+*/
+facetT *qh_findbestfacet (pointT *point, boolT bestoutside,
+           realT *bestdist, boolT *isoutside) {
+  facetT *bestfacet= NULL;
+  int numpart, totpart= 0;
+  
+  bestfacet= qh_findbest (point, qh facet_list, 
+			    bestoutside, !qh_ISnewfacets, bestoutside /* qh_NOupper */,
+			    bestdist, isoutside, &totpart);
+  if (*bestdist < -qh DISTround) {
+    bestfacet= qh_findfacet_all (point, bestdist, isoutside, &numpart);
+    totpart += numpart;
+    if ((isoutside && bestoutside)
+    || (!isoutside && bestfacet->upperdelaunay)) {
+      bestfacet= qh_findbest (point, bestfacet, 
+			    bestoutside, False, bestoutside,
+			    bestdist, isoutside, &totpart);
+      totpart += numpart;
+    }
+  }
+  trace3((qh ferr, "qh_findbestfacet: f%d dist %2.2g isoutside %d totpart %d\n",
+	  bestfacet->id, *bestdist, *isoutside, totpart));
+  return bestfacet;
+} /* findbestfacet */ 
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="findbestlower">-</a>
+  
+  qh_findbestlower( facet, point, bestdist, numpart )
+    returns best non-upper, non-flipped neighbor of facet for point
+    if needed, searches vertex neighbors 
+
+  returns:
+    returns bestdist and updates numpart
+
+  notes:
+    if Delaunay and inside, point is outside of circumsphere of bestfacet
+    called by qh_findbest() for points above an upperdelaunay facet
+
+*/
+facetT *qh_findbestlower (facetT *upperfacet, pointT *point, realT *bestdistp, int *numpart) {
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp, *bestfacet= NULL;
+  realT bestdist= -REALmax/2 /* avoid underflow */;
+  realT dist;
+  vertexT *vertex;
+
+  zinc_(Zbestlower);
+  FOREACHneighbor_(upperfacet) {
+    if (neighbor->upperdelaunay || neighbor->flipped)
+      continue;
+    (*numpart)++;
+    qh_distplane (point, neighbor, &dist);
+    if (dist > bestdist) {
+      bestfacet= neighbor;
+      bestdist= dist;
+    }
+  }
+  if (!bestfacet) {
+    zinc_(Zbestlowerv);
+    /* rarely called, numpart does not count nearvertex computations */
+    vertex= qh_nearvertex (upperfacet, point, &dist);
+    qh_vertexneighbors();
+    FOREACHneighbor_(vertex) {
+      if (neighbor->upperdelaunay || neighbor->flipped)
+	continue;
+      (*numpart)++;
+      qh_distplane (point, neighbor, &dist);
+      if (dist > bestdist) {
+	bestfacet= neighbor;
+	bestdist= dist;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  if (!bestfacet) {
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "\n\
+qh_findbestlower: all neighbors of facet %d are flipped or upper Delaunay.\n\
+Please report this error to qhull_bug@qhull.org with the input and all of the output.\n",
+       upperfacet->id);
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, upperfacet, NULL);
+  }
+  *bestdistp= bestdist;
+  trace3((qh ferr, "qh_findbestlower: f%d dist %2.2g for f%d p%d\n",
+	  bestfacet->id, bestdist, upperfacet->id, qh_pointid(point)));
+  return bestfacet;
+} /* findbestlower */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="findfacet_all">-</a>
+  
+  qh_findfacet_all( point, bestdist, isoutside, numpart )
+    exhaustive search for facet below a point 
+
+    for Delaunay triangulations, 
+      Use qh_setdelaunay() to lift point to paraboloid and scale by 'Qbb' if needed
+      Do not use options 'Qbk', 'QBk', or 'QbB' since they scale the coordinates. 
+
+  returns:
+    returns first facet below point
+    if point is inside, 
+      returns nearest facet
+    distance to facet
+    isoutside if point is outside of the hull
+    number of distance tests
+*/
+facetT *qh_findfacet_all (pointT *point, realT *bestdist, boolT *isoutside,
+			  int *numpart) {
+  facetT *bestfacet= NULL, *facet;
+  realT dist;
+  int totpart= 0;
+  
+  *bestdist= REALmin;
+  *isoutside= False;
+  FORALLfacets {
+    if (facet->flipped || !facet->normal)
+      continue;
+    totpart++;
+    qh_distplane (point, facet, &dist);
+    if (dist > *bestdist) {
+      *bestdist= dist;
+      bestfacet= facet;
+      if (dist > qh MINoutside) {
+        *isoutside= True;
+        break;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  *numpart= totpart;
+  trace3((qh ferr, "qh_findfacet_all: f%d dist %2.2g isoutside %d totpart %d\n",
+	  getid_(bestfacet), *bestdist, *isoutside, totpart));
+  return bestfacet;
+} /* findfacet_all */ 
+ 
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="findgood">-</a>
+  
+  qh_findgood( facetlist, goodhorizon )
+    identify good facets for qh.PRINTgood
+    if qh.GOODvertex>0
+      facet includes point as vertex
+      if !match, returns goodhorizon
+      inactive if qh.MERGING
+    if qh.GOODpoint
+      facet is visible or coplanar (>0) or not visible (<0) 
+    if qh.GOODthreshold
+      facet->normal matches threshold
+    if !goodhorizon and !match, 
+      selects facet with closest angle
+      sets GOODclosest
+      
+  returns:
+    number of new, good facets found
+    determines facet->good
+    may update qh.GOODclosest
+    
+  notes:
+    qh_findgood_all further reduces the good region
+
+  design:
+    count good facets
+    mark good facets for qh.GOODpoint  
+    mark good facets for qh.GOODthreshold
+    if necessary
+      update qh.GOODclosest  
+*/
+int qh_findgood (facetT *facetlist, int goodhorizon) {
+  facetT *facet, *bestfacet= NULL;
+  realT angle, bestangle= REALmax, dist;
+  int  numgood=0;
+
+  FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+    if (facet->good)
+      numgood++;
+  }
+  if (qh GOODvertex>0 && !qh MERGING) {
+    FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+      if (!qh_isvertex (qh GOODvertexp, facet->vertices)) {
+        facet->good= False;
+        numgood--;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  if (qh GOODpoint && numgood) {
+    FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+      if (facet->good && facet->normal) {
+        zinc_(Zdistgood);
+        qh_distplane (qh GOODpointp, facet, &dist);
+        if ((qh GOODpoint > 0) ^ (dist > 0.0)) {
+          facet->good= False;
+          numgood--;
+        }
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  if (qh GOODthreshold && (numgood || goodhorizon || qh GOODclosest)) {
+    FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+      if (facet->good && facet->normal) {
+        if (!qh_inthresholds (facet->normal, &angle)) {
+          facet->good= False;
+          numgood--;
+          if (angle < bestangle) {
+            bestangle= angle;
+            bestfacet= facet;
+          }
+        }
+      }
+    }
+    if (!numgood && (!goodhorizon || qh GOODclosest)) {
+      if (qh GOODclosest) {
+	if (qh GOODclosest->visible)
+	  qh GOODclosest= NULL;
+	else {
+	  qh_inthresholds (qh GOODclosest->normal, &angle);
+	  if (angle < bestangle)
+	    bestfacet= qh GOODclosest;
+	}
+      }
+      if (bestfacet && bestfacet != qh GOODclosest) {
+	if (qh GOODclosest)
+	  qh GOODclosest->good= False;
+	qh GOODclosest= bestfacet;
+	bestfacet->good= True;
+	numgood++;
+	trace2((qh ferr, "qh_findgood: f%d is closest (%2.2g) to thresholds\n", 
+           bestfacet->id, bestangle));
+	return numgood;
+      }
+    }else if (qh GOODclosest) { /* numgood > 0 */
+      qh GOODclosest->good= False;
+      qh GOODclosest= NULL;
+    }
+  }
+  zadd_(Zgoodfacet, numgood);
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_findgood: found %d good facets with %d good horizon\n",
+               numgood, goodhorizon));
+  if (!numgood && qh GOODvertex>0 && !qh MERGING) 
+    return goodhorizon;
+  return numgood;
+} /* findgood */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="findgood_all">-</a>
+  
+  qh_findgood_all( facetlist )
+    apply other constraints for good facets (used by qh.PRINTgood)
+    if qh.GOODvertex 
+      facet includes (>0) or doesn't include (<0) point as vertex
+      if last good facet and ONLYgood, prints warning and continues
+    if qh.SPLITthresholds
+      facet->normal matches threshold, or if none, the closest one
+    calls qh_findgood
+    nop if good not used
+
+  returns:
+    clears facet->good if not good
+    sets qh.num_good
+
+  notes:
+    this is like qh_findgood but more restrictive
+
+  design:
+    uses qh_findgood to mark good facets
+    marks facets for qh.GOODvertex
+    marks facets for qh.SPLITthreholds  
+*/
+void qh_findgood_all (facetT *facetlist) {
+  facetT *facet, *bestfacet=NULL;
+  realT angle, bestangle= REALmax;
+  int  numgood=0, startgood;
+
+  if (!qh GOODvertex && !qh GOODthreshold && !qh GOODpoint 
+  && !qh SPLITthresholds)
+    return;
+  if (!qh ONLYgood)
+    qh_findgood (qh facet_list, 0);
+  FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+    if (facet->good)
+      numgood++;
+  }
+  if (qh GOODvertex <0 || (qh GOODvertex > 0 && qh MERGING)) {
+    FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+      if (facet->good && ((qh GOODvertex > 0) ^ !!qh_isvertex (qh GOODvertexp, facet->vertices))) {
+        if (!--numgood) {
+	  if (qh ONLYgood) {
+            fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: good vertex p%d does not match last good facet f%d.  Ignored.\n",
+               qh_pointid(qh GOODvertexp), facet->id);
+	    return;
+	  }else if (qh GOODvertex > 0)
+            fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: point p%d is not a vertex ('QV%d').\n",
+		qh GOODvertex-1, qh GOODvertex-1);
+	  else
+            fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull warning: point p%d is a vertex for every facet ('QV-%d').\n",
+	        -qh GOODvertex - 1, -qh GOODvertex - 1);
+        }
+        facet->good= False;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  startgood= numgood;
+  if (qh SPLITthresholds) {
+    FORALLfacet_(facetlist) {
+      if (facet->good) {
+        if (!qh_inthresholds (facet->normal, &angle)) {
+          facet->good= False;
+          numgood--;
+          if (angle < bestangle) {
+            bestangle= angle;
+            bestfacet= facet;
+          }
+        }
+      }
+    }
+    if (!numgood && bestfacet) {
+      bestfacet->good= True;
+      numgood++;
+      trace0((qh ferr, "qh_findgood_all: f%d is closest (%2.2g) to thresholds\n", 
+           bestfacet->id, bestangle));
+      return;
+    }
+  }
+  qh num_good= numgood;
+  trace0((qh ferr, "qh_findgood_all: %d good facets remain out of %d facets\n",
+        numgood, startgood));
+} /* findgood_all */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="furthestnext">-</a>
+  
+  qh_furthestnext()
+    set qh.facet_next to facet with furthest of all furthest points
+    searches all facets on qh.facet_list
+
+  notes:
+    this may help avoid precision problems
+*/
+void qh_furthestnext (void /* qh facet_list */) {
+  facetT *facet, *bestfacet= NULL;
+  realT dist, bestdist= -REALmax;
+
+  FORALLfacets {
+    if (facet->outsideset) {
+#if qh_COMPUTEfurthest
+      pointT *furthest;
+      furthest= (pointT*)qh_setlast (facet->outsideset);
+      zinc_(Zcomputefurthest);
+      qh_distplane (furthest, facet, &dist);
+#else
+      dist= facet->furthestdist;
+#endif
+      if (dist > bestdist) {
+	bestfacet= facet;
+	bestdist= dist;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  if (bestfacet) {
+    qh_removefacet (bestfacet);
+    qh_prependfacet (bestfacet, &qh facet_next);
+    trace1((qh ferr, "qh_furthestnext: made f%d next facet (dist %.2g)\n",
+	    bestfacet->id, bestdist));
+  }
+} /* furthestnext */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="furthestout">-</a>
+  
+  qh_furthestout( facet )
+    make furthest outside point the last point of outsideset
+
+  returns:
+    updates facet->outsideset
+    clears facet->notfurthest
+    sets facet->furthestdist
+
+  design:
+    determine best point of outsideset
+    make it the last point of outsideset
+*/
+void qh_furthestout (facetT *facet) {
+  pointT *point, **pointp, *bestpoint= NULL;
+  realT dist, bestdist= -REALmax;
+
+  FOREACHpoint_(facet->outsideset) {
+    qh_distplane (point, facet, &dist);
+    zinc_(Zcomputefurthest);
+    if (dist > bestdist) {
+      bestpoint= point;
+      bestdist= dist;
+    }
+  }
+  if (bestpoint) {
+    qh_setdel (facet->outsideset, point);
+    qh_setappend (&facet->outsideset, point);
+#if !qh_COMPUTEfurthest
+    facet->furthestdist= bestdist;
+#endif
+  }
+  facet->notfurthest= False;
+  trace3((qh ferr, "qh_furthestout: p%d is furthest outside point of f%d\n",
+	  qh_pointid (point), facet->id));
+} /* furthestout */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="infiniteloop">-</a>
+  
+  qh_infiniteloop( facet )
+    report infinite loop error due to facet
+*/
+void qh_infiniteloop (facetT *facet) {
+
+  fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_infiniteloop): potential infinite loop detected\n");
+  qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, facet, NULL);
+} /* qh_infiniteloop */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="initbuild">-</a>
+  
+  qh_initbuild()
+    initialize hull and outside sets with point array
+    qh.FIRSTpoint/qh.NUMpoints is point array
+    if qh.GOODpoint
+      adds qh.GOODpoint to initial hull
+
+  returns:
+    qh_facetlist with initial hull
+    points partioned into outside sets, coplanar sets, or inside
+    initializes qh.GOODpointp, qh.GOODvertexp,
+
+  design:
+    initialize global variables used during qh_buildhull
+    determine precision constants and points with max/min coordinate values
+      if qh.SCALElast, scale last coordinate (for 'd')
+    build initial simplex
+    partition input points into facets of initial simplex
+    set up lists
+    if qh.ONLYgood
+      check consistency  
+      add qh.GOODvertex if defined
+*/
+void qh_initbuild( void) {
+  setT *maxpoints, *vertices;
+  facetT *facet;
+  int i, numpart;
+  realT dist;
+  boolT isoutside;
+
+  qh furthest_id= -1;
+  qh lastreport= 0;
+  qh facet_id= qh vertex_id= qh ridge_id= 0;
+  qh visit_id= qh vertex_visit= 0;
+  qh maxoutdone= False;
+
+  if (qh GOODpoint > 0) 
+    qh GOODpointp= qh_point (qh GOODpoint-1);
+  else if (qh GOODpoint < 0) 
+    qh GOODpointp= qh_point (-qh GOODpoint-1);
+  if (qh GOODvertex > 0)
+    qh GOODvertexp= qh_point (qh GOODvertex-1);
+  else if (qh GOODvertex < 0) 
+    qh GOODvertexp= qh_point (-qh GOODvertex-1);
+  if ((qh GOODpoint  
+       && (qh GOODpointp < qh first_point  /* also catches !GOODpointp */
+	   || qh GOODpointp > qh_point (qh num_points-1)))
+    || (qh GOODvertex
+	&& (qh GOODvertexp < qh first_point  /* also catches !GOODvertexp */
+	    || qh GOODvertexp > qh_point (qh num_points-1)))) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: either QGn or QVn point is > p%d\n",
+	     qh num_points-1);
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  maxpoints= qh_maxmin(qh first_point, qh num_points, qh hull_dim);
+  if (qh SCALElast)
+    qh_scalelast (qh first_point, qh num_points, qh hull_dim,
+               qh MINlastcoord, qh MAXlastcoord, qh MAXwidth);
+  qh_detroundoff();
+  if (qh DELAUNAY && qh upper_threshold[qh hull_dim-1] > REALmax/2
+                  && qh lower_threshold[qh hull_dim-1] < -REALmax/2) {
+    for (i= qh_PRINTEND; i--; ) {
+      if (qh PRINTout[i] == qh_PRINTgeom && qh DROPdim < 0 
+ 	  && !qh GOODthreshold && !qh SPLITthresholds)
+	break;  /* in this case, don't set upper_threshold */
+    }
+    if (i < 0) {
+      if (qh UPPERdelaunay) { /* matches qh.upperdelaunay in qh_setfacetplane */
+	qh lower_threshold[qh hull_dim-1]= qh ANGLEround * qh_ZEROdelaunay;
+	qh GOODthreshold= True;
+      }else { 
+	qh upper_threshold[qh hull_dim-1]= -qh ANGLEround * qh_ZEROdelaunay;
+        if (!qh GOODthreshold) 
+	  qh SPLITthresholds= True; /* build upper-convex hull even if Qg */
+          /* qh_initqhull_globals errors if Qg without Pdk/etc. */
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  vertices= qh_initialvertices(qh hull_dim, maxpoints, qh first_point, qh num_points); 
+  qh_initialhull (vertices);  /* initial qh facet_list */
+  qh_partitionall (vertices, qh first_point, qh num_points);
+  if (qh PRINToptions1st || qh TRACElevel || qh IStracing) {
+    if (qh TRACElevel || qh IStracing)
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "\nTrace level %d for %s | %s\n", 
+         qh IStracing ? qh IStracing : qh TRACElevel, qh rbox_command, qh qhull_command);
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "Options selected for Qhull %s:\n%s\n", qh_version, qh qhull_options);
+  }
+  qh_resetlists (False, qh_RESETvisible /*qh visible_list newvertex_list newfacet_list */);
+  qh facet_next= qh facet_list;
+  qh_furthestnext (/* qh facet_list */);
+  if (qh PREmerge) {
+    qh cos_max= qh premerge_cos;
+    qh centrum_radius= qh premerge_centrum;
+  }
+  if (qh ONLYgood) {
+    if (qh GOODvertex > 0 && qh MERGING) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: 'Qg QVn' (only good vertex) does not work with merging.\nUse 'QJ' to joggle the input or 'Q0' to turn off merging.\n");
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+    if (!(qh GOODthreshold || qh GOODpoint
+         || (!qh MERGEexact && !qh PREmerge && qh GOODvertexp))) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: 'Qg' (ONLYgood) needs a good threshold ('Pd0D0'), a\n\
+good point (QGn or QG-n), or a good vertex with 'QJ' or 'Q0' (QVn).\n");
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+    if (qh GOODvertex > 0  && !qh MERGING  /* matches qh_partitionall */
+	&& !qh_isvertex (qh GOODvertexp, vertices)) {
+      facet= qh_findbestnew (qh GOODvertexp, qh facet_list, 
+			  &dist, !qh_ALL, &isoutside, &numpart);
+      zadd_(Zdistgood, numpart);
+      if (!isoutside) {
+        fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull input error: point for QV%d is inside initial simplex.  It can not be made a vertex.\n",
+	       qh_pointid(qh GOODvertexp));
+        qh_errexit (qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+      }
+      if (!qh_addpoint (qh GOODvertexp, facet, False)) {
+	qh_settempfree(&vertices);
+	qh_settempfree(&maxpoints);
+	return;
+      }
+    }
+    qh_findgood (qh facet_list, 0);
+  }
+  qh_settempfree(&vertices);
+  qh_settempfree(&maxpoints);
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_initbuild: initial hull created and points partitioned\n"));
+} /* initbuild */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="initialhull">-</a>
+  
+  qh_initialhull( vertices )
+    constructs the initial hull as a DIM3 simplex of vertices
+
+  design:
+    creates a simplex (initializes lists)
+    determines orientation of simplex
+    sets hyperplanes for facets
+    doubles checks orientation (in case of axis-parallel facets with Gaussian elimination)
+    checks for flipped facets and qh.NARROWhull
+    checks the result   
+*/
+void qh_initialhull(setT *vertices) {
+  facetT *facet, *firstfacet, *neighbor, **neighborp;
+  realT dist, angle, minangle= REALmax;
+#ifndef qh_NOtrace
+  int k;
+#endif
+
+  qh_createsimplex(vertices);  /* qh facet_list */
+  qh_resetlists (False, qh_RESETvisible);
+  qh facet_next= qh facet_list;      /* advance facet when processed */
+  qh interior_point= qh_getcenter(vertices);
+  firstfacet= qh facet_list;
+  qh_setfacetplane(firstfacet);
+  zinc_(Znumvisibility); /* needs to be in printsummary */
+  qh_distplane(qh interior_point, firstfacet, &dist);
+  if (dist > 0) {  
+    FORALLfacets
+      facet->toporient ^= True;
+  }
+  FORALLfacets
+    qh_setfacetplane(facet);
+  FORALLfacets {
+    if (!qh_checkflipped (facet, NULL, qh_ALL)) {/* due to axis-parallel facet */
+      trace1((qh ferr, "qh_initialhull: initial orientation incorrect.  Correct all facets\n"));
+      facet->flipped= False;
+      FORALLfacets {
+	facet->toporient ^= True;
+	qh_orientoutside (facet);
+      }
+      break;
+    }
+  }
+  FORALLfacets {
+    if (!qh_checkflipped (facet, NULL, !qh_ALL)) {  /* can happen with 'R0.1' */
+      qh_precision ("initial facet is coplanar with interior point");
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull precision error: initial facet %d is coplanar with the interior point\n",
+                   facet->id);
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRsingular, facet, NULL);
+    }
+    FOREACHneighbor_(facet) {
+      angle= qh_getangle (facet->normal, neighbor->normal);
+      minimize_( minangle, angle);
+    }
+  }
+  if (minangle < qh_MAXnarrow && !qh NOnarrow) { 
+    realT diff= 1.0 + minangle;
+
+    qh NARROWhull= True;
+    qh_option ("_narrow-hull", NULL, &diff);
+    if (minangle < qh_WARNnarrow && !qh RERUN && qh PRINTprecision)
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull precision warning: \n\
+The initial hull is narrow (cosine of min. angle is %.16f).\n\
+A coplanar point may lead to a wide facet.  Options 'QbB' (scale to unit box)\n\
+or 'Qbb' (scale last coordinate) may remove this warning.  Use 'Pp' to skip\n\
+this warning.  See 'Limitations' in qh-impre.htm.\n",
+          -minangle);   /* convert from angle between normals to angle between facets */
+  }
+  zzval_(Zprocessed)= qh hull_dim+1;
+  qh_checkpolygon (qh facet_list);
+  qh_checkconvex(qh facet_list,   qh_DATAfault);
+#ifndef qh_NOtrace
+  if (qh IStracing >= 1) {
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "qh_initialhull: simplex constructed, interior point:");
+    for (k=0; k < qh hull_dim; k++) 
+      fprintf (qh ferr, " %6.4g", qh interior_point[k]);
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "\n");
+  }
+#endif
+} /* initialhull */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="initialvertices">-</a>
+  
+  qh_initialvertices( dim, maxpoints, points, numpoints )
+    determines a non-singular set of initial vertices
+    maxpoints may include duplicate points
+
+  returns:
+    temporary set of dim+1 vertices in descending order by vertex id
+    if qh.RANDOMoutside && !qh.ALLpoints
+      picks random points
+    if dim >= qh_INITIALmax, 
+      uses min/max x and max points with non-zero determinants
+
+  notes:
+    unless qh.ALLpoints, 
+      uses maxpoints as long as determinate is non-zero
+*/
+setT *qh_initialvertices(int dim, setT *maxpoints, pointT *points, int numpoints) {
+  pointT *point, **pointp;
+  setT *vertices, *simplex, *tested;
+  realT randr;
+  int index, point_i, point_n, k;
+  boolT nearzero= False;
+  
+  vertices= qh_settemp (dim + 1);
+  simplex= qh_settemp (dim+1);
+  if (qh ALLpoints) 
+    qh_maxsimplex (dim, NULL, points, numpoints, &simplex);
+  else if (qh RANDOMoutside) {
+    while (qh_setsize (simplex) != dim+1) {
+      randr= qh_RANDOMint;
+      randr= randr/(qh_RANDOMmax+1);
+      index= (int)floor(qh num_points * randr);
+      while (qh_setin (simplex, qh_point (index))) {
+	index++; /* in case qh_RANDOMint always returns the same value */
+        index= index < qh num_points ? index : 0;
+      }
+      qh_setappend (&simplex, qh_point (index));
+    }
+  }else if (qh hull_dim >= qh_INITIALmax) {
+    tested= qh_settemp (dim+1);
+    qh_setappend (&simplex, SETfirst_(maxpoints));   /* max and min X coord */
+    qh_setappend (&simplex, SETsecond_(maxpoints));
+    qh_maxsimplex (fmin_(qh_INITIALsearch, dim), maxpoints, points, numpoints, &simplex);
+    k= qh_setsize (simplex);
+    FOREACHpoint_i_(maxpoints) { 
+      if (point_i & 0x1) {     /* first pick up max. coord. points */
+      	if (!qh_setin (simplex, point) && !qh_setin (tested, point)){
+	  qh_detsimplex(point, simplex, k, &nearzero);
+          if (nearzero)
+            qh_setappend (&tested, point);
+          else {
+            qh_setappend (&simplex, point);
+            if (++k == dim)  /* use search for last point */
+	      break;
+	  }
+	}
+      }
+    }
+    while (k != dim && (point= (pointT*)qh_setdellast (maxpoints))) {
+      if (!qh_setin (simplex, point) && !qh_setin (tested, point)){
+        qh_detsimplex (point, simplex, k, &nearzero);
+        if (nearzero)
+          qh_setappend (&tested, point);
+        else {
+          qh_setappend (&simplex, point);
+          k++;
+	}
+      }
+    }
+    index= 0;
+    while (k != dim && (point= qh_point (index++))) {
+      if (!qh_setin (simplex, point) && !qh_setin (tested, point)){
+        qh_detsimplex (point, simplex, k, &nearzero);
+        if (!nearzero){
+          qh_setappend (&simplex, point);
+          k++;
+	}
+      }
+    }
+    qh_settempfree (&tested);
+    qh_maxsimplex (dim, maxpoints, points, numpoints, &simplex);
+  }else
+    qh_maxsimplex (dim, maxpoints, points, numpoints, &simplex);
+  FOREACHpoint_(simplex) 
+    qh_setaddnth (&vertices, 0, qh_newvertex(point)); /* descending order */
+  qh_settempfree (&simplex);
+  return vertices;
+} /* initialvertices */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="isvertex">-</a>
+  
+  qh_isvertex(  )
+    returns vertex if point is in vertex set, else returns NULL
+
+  notes:
+    for qh.GOODvertex
+*/
+vertexT *qh_isvertex (pointT *point, setT *vertices) {
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+
+  FOREACHvertex_(vertices) {
+    if (vertex->point == point)
+      return vertex;
+  }
+  return NULL;
+} /* isvertex */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="makenewfacets">-</a>
+  
+  qh_makenewfacets( point )
+    make new facets from point and qh.visible_list
+
+  returns:
+    qh.newfacet_list= list of new facets with hyperplanes and ->newfacet
+    qh.newvertex_list= list of vertices in new facets with ->newlist set
+    
+    if (qh.ONLYgood)
+      newfacets reference horizon facets, but not vice versa
+      ridges reference non-simplicial horizon ridges, but not vice versa
+      does not change existing facets
+    else
+      sets qh.NEWfacets
+      new facets attached to horizon facets and ridges
+      for visible facets, 
+        visible->r.replace is corresponding new facet
+
+  see also: 
+    qh_makenewplanes() -- make hyperplanes for facets
+    qh_attachnewfacets() -- attachnewfacets if not done here (qh ONLYgood)
+    qh_matchnewfacets() -- match up neighbors
+    qh_updatevertices() -- update vertex neighbors and delvertices
+    qh_deletevisible() -- delete visible facets
+    qh_checkpolygon() --check the result
+    qh_triangulate() -- triangulate a non-simplicial facet
+
+  design:
+    for each visible facet
+      make new facets to its horizon facets
+      update its f.replace 
+      clear its neighbor set
+*/
+vertexT *qh_makenewfacets (pointT *point /*visible_list*/) {
+  facetT *visible, *newfacet= NULL, *newfacet2= NULL, *neighbor, **neighborp;
+  vertexT *apex;
+  int numnew=0;
+
+  qh newfacet_list= qh facet_tail;
+  qh newvertex_list= qh vertex_tail;
+  apex= qh_newvertex(point);
+  qh_appendvertex (apex);  
+  qh visit_id++;
+  if (!qh ONLYgood)
+    qh NEWfacets= True;
+  FORALLvisible_facets {
+    FOREACHneighbor_(visible) 
+      neighbor->seen= False;
+    if (visible->ridges) {
+      visible->visitid= qh visit_id;
+      newfacet2= qh_makenew_nonsimplicial (visible, apex, &numnew);
+    }
+    if (visible->simplicial)
+      newfacet= qh_makenew_simplicial (visible, apex, &numnew);
+    if (!qh ONLYgood) {
+      if (newfacet2)  /* newfacet is null if all ridges defined */
+        newfacet= newfacet2;
+      if (newfacet)
+      	visible->f.replace= newfacet;
+      else
+        zinc_(Zinsidevisible);
+      SETfirst_(visible->neighbors)= NULL;
+    }
+  }
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_makenewfacets: created %d new facets from point p%d to horizon\n",
+	  numnew, qh_pointid(point)));
+  if (qh IStracing >= 4)
+    qh_printfacetlist (qh newfacet_list, NULL, qh_ALL);
+  return apex;
+} /* makenewfacets */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="matchduplicates">-</a>
+  
+  qh_matchduplicates( atfacet, atskip, hashsize, hashcount )
+    match duplicate ridges in qh.hash_table for atfacet/atskip
+    duplicates marked with ->dupridge and qh_DUPLICATEridge
+
+  returns:
+    picks match with worst merge (min distance apart)
+    updates hashcount
+  
+  see also:
+    qh_matchneighbor
+
+  notes:
+
+  design:
+    compute hash value for atfacet and atskip
+    repeat twice -- once to make best matches, once to match the rest
+      for each possible facet in qh.hash_table
+        if it is a matching facet and pass 2
+          make match 
+	  unless tricoplanar, mark match for merging (qh_MERGEridge)
+          [e.g., tricoplanar RBOX s 1000 t993602376 | QHULL C-1e-3 d Qbb FA Qt]
+        if it is a matching facet and pass 1
+          test if this is a better match
+      if pass 1,
+        make best match (it will not be merged)
+*/
+#ifndef qh_NOmerge
+void qh_matchduplicates (facetT *atfacet, int atskip, int hashsize, int *hashcount) {
+  boolT same, ismatch;
+  int hash, scan;
+  facetT *facet, *newfacet, *maxmatch= NULL, *maxmatch2= NULL, *nextfacet;
+  int skip, newskip, nextskip= 0, maxskip= 0, maxskip2= 0, makematch;
+  realT maxdist= -REALmax, mindist, dist2, low, high;
+
+  hash= (int)qh_gethash (hashsize, atfacet->vertices, qh hull_dim, 1, 
+                     SETelem_(atfacet->vertices, atskip));
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_matchduplicates: find duplicate matches for f%d skip %d hash %d hashcount %d\n",
+	  atfacet->id, atskip, hash, *hashcount));
+  for (makematch= 0; makematch < 2; makematch++) {
+    qh visit_id++;
+    for (newfacet= atfacet, newskip= atskip; newfacet; newfacet= nextfacet, newskip= nextskip) {
+      zinc_(Zhashlookup);
+      nextfacet= NULL;
+      newfacet->visitid= qh visit_id;
+      for (scan= hash; (facet= SETelemt_(qh hash_table, scan, facetT)); 
+	   scan= (++scan >= hashsize ? 0 : scan)) {
+	if (!facet->dupridge || facet->visitid == qh visit_id)
+	  continue;
+	zinc_(Zhashtests);
+	if (qh_matchvertices (1, newfacet->vertices, newskip, facet->vertices, &skip, &same)) {
+	  ismatch= (same == (newfacet->toporient ^ facet->toporient));
+	  if (SETelemt_(facet->neighbors, skip, facetT) != qh_DUPLICATEridge) {
+	    if (!makematch) {
+	      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_matchduplicates): missing dupridge at f%d skip %d for new f%d skip %d hash %d\n",
+		     facet->id, skip, newfacet->id, newskip, hash);
+	      qh_errexit2 (qh_ERRqhull, facet, newfacet);
+	    }
+	  }else if (ismatch && makematch) {
+	    if (SETelemt_(newfacet->neighbors, newskip, facetT) == qh_DUPLICATEridge) {
+	      SETelem_(facet->neighbors, skip)= newfacet;
+	      if (newfacet->tricoplanar)
+  		SETelem_(newfacet->neighbors, newskip)= facet;
+	      else
+		SETelem_(newfacet->neighbors, newskip)= qh_MERGEridge;
+	      *hashcount -= 2; /* removed two unmatched facets */
+	      trace4((qh ferr, "qh_matchduplicates: duplicate f%d skip %d matched with new f%d skip %d merge\n",
+		    facet->id, skip, newfacet->id, newskip));
+	    }
+	  }else if (ismatch) {
+	    mindist= qh_getdistance (facet, newfacet, &low, &high);
+	    dist2= qh_getdistance (newfacet, facet, &low, &high);
+	    minimize_(mindist, dist2);
+	    if (mindist > maxdist) {
+	      maxdist= mindist;
+	      maxmatch= facet;
+	      maxskip= skip;
+	      maxmatch2= newfacet;
+	      maxskip2= newskip;
+	    }
+	    trace3((qh ferr, "qh_matchduplicates: duplicate f%d skip %d new f%d skip %d at dist %2.2g, max is now f%d f%d\n",
+		    facet->id, skip, newfacet->id, newskip, mindist, 
+		    maxmatch->id, maxmatch2->id));
+	  }else { /* !ismatch */
+	    nextfacet= facet;
+	    nextskip= skip;
+	  }
+	}
+	if (makematch && !facet 
+        && SETelemt_(facet->neighbors, skip, facetT) == qh_DUPLICATEridge) {
+	  fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_matchduplicates): no MERGEridge match for duplicate f%d skip %d at hash %d\n",
+		     newfacet->id, newskip, hash);
+	  qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, newfacet, NULL);
+	}
+      }
+    } /* end of for each new facet at hash */
+    if (!makematch) {
+      if (!maxmatch) {
+	fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_matchduplicates): no maximum match at duplicate f%d skip %d at hash %d\n",
+		     atfacet->id, atskip, hash);
+	qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, atfacet, NULL);
+      }
+      SETelem_(maxmatch->neighbors, maxskip)= maxmatch2;
+      SETelem_(maxmatch2->neighbors, maxskip2)= maxmatch;
+      *hashcount -= 2; /* removed two unmatched facets */
+      zzinc_(Zmultiridge);
+      trace0((qh ferr, "qh_matchduplicates: duplicate f%d skip %d matched with new f%d skip %d keep\n",
+	      maxmatch->id, maxskip, maxmatch2->id, maxskip2));
+      qh_precision ("ridge with multiple neighbors");
+      if (qh IStracing >= 4)
+	qh_errprint ("DUPLICATED/MATCH", maxmatch, maxmatch2, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+  }
+} /* matchduplicates */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="nearcoplanar">-</a>
+  
+  qh_nearcoplanar()
+    for all facets, remove near-inside points from facet->coplanarset</li>
+    coplanar points defined by innerplane from qh_outerinner()
+
+  returns:
+    if qh KEEPcoplanar && !qh KEEPinside
+      facet->coplanarset only contains coplanar points
+    if qh.JOGGLEmax
+      drops inner plane by another qh.JOGGLEmax diagonal since a
+        vertex could shift out while a coplanar point shifts in
+  
+  notes:
+    used for qh.PREmerge and qh.JOGGLEmax
+    must agree with computation of qh.NEARcoplanar in qh_detroundoff()
+  design:
+    if not keeping coplanar or inside points
+      free all coplanar sets
+    else if not keeping both coplanar and inside points
+      remove !coplanar or !inside points from coplanar sets
+*/
+void qh_nearcoplanar ( void /* qh.facet_list */) {
+  facetT *facet;
+  pointT *point, **pointp;
+  int numpart;
+  realT dist, innerplane;
+
+  if (!qh KEEPcoplanar && !qh KEEPinside) {
+    FORALLfacets {
+      if (facet->coplanarset) 
+        qh_setfree( &facet->coplanarset);
+    }
+  }else if (!qh KEEPcoplanar || !qh KEEPinside) {
+    qh_outerinner (NULL, NULL, &innerplane);
+    if (qh JOGGLEmax < REALmax/2)
+      innerplane -= qh JOGGLEmax * sqrt (qh hull_dim);
+    numpart= 0;
+    FORALLfacets { 
+      if (facet->coplanarset) {
+        FOREACHpoint_(facet->coplanarset) {
+          numpart++;
+	  qh_distplane (point, facet, &dist); 
+  	  if (dist < innerplane) {
+	    if (!qh KEEPinside)
+              SETref_(point)= NULL;
+          }else if (!qh KEEPcoplanar)
+            SETref_(point)= NULL;
+        }
+	qh_setcompact (facet->coplanarset);
+      }
+    }
+    zzadd_(Zcheckpart, numpart);
+  }
+} /* nearcoplanar */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="nearvertex">-</a>
+  
+  qh_nearvertex( facet, point, bestdist )
+    return nearest vertex in facet to point
+
+  returns:
+    vertex and its distance
+    
+  notes:
+    if qh.DELAUNAY
+      distance is measured in the input set
+    searches neighboring tricoplanar facets (requires vertexneighbors)
+      Slow implementation.  Recomputes vertex set for each point.
+    The vertex set could be stored in the qh.keepcentrum facet.
+*/
+vertexT *qh_nearvertex (facetT *facet, pointT *point, realT *bestdistp) {
+  realT bestdist= REALmax, dist;
+  vertexT *bestvertex= NULL, *vertex, **vertexp, *apex;
+  coordT *center;
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp;
+  setT *vertices;
+  int dim= qh hull_dim;
+
+  if (qh DELAUNAY)
+    dim--;
+  if (facet->tricoplanar) {
+    if (!qh VERTEXneighbors || !facet->center) {
+      fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_nearvertex): qh.VERTEXneighbors and facet->center required for tricoplanar facets\n");
+      qh_errexit(qh_ERRqhull, facet, NULL);
+    }
+    vertices= qh_settemp (qh TEMPsize);
+    apex= SETfirst_(facet->vertices);
+    center= facet->center;
+    FOREACHneighbor_(apex) {
+      if (neighbor->center == center) {
+	FOREACHvertex_(neighbor->vertices) 
+	  qh_setappend(&vertices, vertex);
+      }
+    }
+  }else 
+    vertices= facet->vertices;
+  FOREACHvertex_(vertices) {
+    dist= qh_pointdist (vertex->point, point, -dim);
+    if (dist < bestdist) {
+      bestdist= dist;
+      bestvertex= vertex;
+    }
+  }
+  if (facet->tricoplanar)
+    qh_settempfree (&vertices);
+  *bestdistp= sqrt (bestdist);
+  trace3((qh ferr, "qh_nearvertex: v%d dist %2.2g for f%d p%d\n", 
+        bestvertex->id, *bestdistp, facet->id, qh_pointid(point)));
+  return bestvertex;
+} /* nearvertex */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="newhashtable">-</a>
+  
+  qh_newhashtable( newsize )
+    returns size of qh.hash_table of at least newsize slots
+
+  notes:
+    assumes qh.hash_table is NULL
+    qh_HASHfactor determines the number of extra slots
+    size is not divisible by 2, 3, or 5
+*/
+int qh_newhashtable(int newsize) {
+  int size;
+
+  size= ((newsize+1)*qh_HASHfactor) | 0x1;  /* odd number */
+  while (True) { 
+    if ((size%3) && (size%5))
+      break;
+    size += 2;
+    /* loop terminates because there is an infinite number of primes */
+  }
+  qh hash_table= qh_setnew (size);
+  qh_setzero (qh hash_table, 0, size);
+  return size;
+} /* newhashtable */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="newvertex">-</a>
+  
+  qh_newvertex( point )
+    returns a new vertex for point
+*/
+vertexT *qh_newvertex(pointT *point) {
+  vertexT *vertex;
+
+  zinc_(Ztotvertices);
+  vertex= (vertexT *)qh_memalloc(sizeof(vertexT));
+  memset ((char *) vertex, 0, sizeof (vertexT));
+  if (qh vertex_id == 0xFFFFFF) {
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull input error: more than %d vertices.  ID field overflows and two vertices\n\
+may have the same identifier.  Vertices not sorted correctly.\n", 0xFFFFFF);
+    qh_errexit(qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  if (qh vertex_id == qh tracevertex_id)
+    qh tracevertex= vertex;
+  vertex->id= qh vertex_id++;
+  vertex->point= point;
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_newvertex: vertex p%d (v%d) created\n", qh_pointid(vertex->point), 
+	  vertex->id));
+  return (vertex);
+} /* newvertex */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="nextridge3d">-</a>
+  
+  qh_nextridge3d( atridge, facet, vertex )
+    return next ridge and vertex for a 3d facet
+
+  notes:
+    in qh_ORIENTclock order
+    this is a O(n^2) implementation to trace all ridges
+    be sure to stop on any 2nd visit
+  
+  design:
+    for each ridge
+      exit if it is the ridge after atridge
+*/
+ridgeT *qh_nextridge3d (ridgeT *atridge, facetT *facet, vertexT **vertexp) {
+  vertexT *atvertex, *vertex, *othervertex;
+  ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep;
+
+  if ((atridge->top == facet) ^ qh_ORIENTclock)
+    atvertex= SETsecondt_(atridge->vertices, vertexT);
+  else
+    atvertex= SETfirstt_(atridge->vertices, vertexT);
+  FOREACHridge_(facet->ridges) {
+    if (ridge == atridge)
+      continue;
+    if ((ridge->top == facet) ^ qh_ORIENTclock) {
+      othervertex= SETsecondt_(ridge->vertices, vertexT);
+      vertex= SETfirstt_(ridge->vertices, vertexT);
+    }else {
+      vertex= SETsecondt_(ridge->vertices, vertexT);
+      othervertex= SETfirstt_(ridge->vertices, vertexT);
+    }
+    if (vertex == atvertex) {
+      if (vertexp)
+        *vertexp= othervertex;
+      return ridge;
+    }
+  }
+  return NULL;
+} /* nextridge3d */
+#else /* qh_NOmerge */
+void qh_matchduplicates (facetT *atfacet, int atskip, int hashsize, int *hashcount) {
+}
+ridgeT *qh_nextridge3d (ridgeT *atridge, facetT *facet, vertexT **vertexp) {
+
+  return NULL;
+}
+#endif /* qh_NOmerge */
+  
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="outcoplanar">-</a>
+  
+  qh_outcoplanar()
+    move points from all facets' outsidesets to their coplanarsets
+
+  notes:
+    for post-processing under qh.NARROWhull
+
+  design:
+    for each facet
+      for each outside point for facet
+        partition point into coplanar set
+*/
+void qh_outcoplanar (void /* facet_list */) {
+  pointT *point, **pointp;
+  facetT *facet;
+  realT dist;
+
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_outcoplanar: move outsideset to coplanarset for qh NARROWhull\n"));
+  FORALLfacets {
+    FOREACHpoint_(facet->outsideset) {
+      qh num_outside--;
+      if (qh KEEPcoplanar || qh KEEPnearinside) {
+	qh_distplane (point, facet, &dist);
+        zinc_(Zpartition);
+	qh_partitioncoplanar (point, facet, &dist);
+      }
+    }
+    qh_setfree (&facet->outsideset);
+  }
+} /* outcoplanar */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="point">-</a>
+  
+  qh_point( id )
+    return point for a point id, or NULL if unknown
+
+  alternative code:
+    return ((pointT *)((unsigned   long)qh.first_point
+           + (unsigned long)((id)*qh.normal_size)));
+*/
+pointT *qh_point (int id) {
+
+  if (id < 0)
+    return NULL;
+  if (id < qh num_points)
+    return qh first_point + id * qh hull_dim;
+  id -= qh num_points;
+  if (id < qh_setsize (qh other_points))
+    return SETelemt_(qh other_points, id, pointT);
+  return NULL;
+} /* point */
+  
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="point_add">-</a>
+  
+  qh_point_add( set, point, elem )
+    stores elem at set[point.id]
+  
+  returns:
+    access function for qh_pointfacet and qh_pointvertex
+
+  notes:
+    checks point.id
+*/
+void qh_point_add (setT *set, pointT *point, void *elem) {
+  int id, size;
+
+  SETreturnsize_(set, size);
+  if ((id= qh_pointid(point)) < 0)
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal warning (point_add): unknown point %p id %d\n", 
+      point, id);
+  else if (id >= size) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal errror (point_add): point p%d is out of bounds (%d)\n",
+	     id, size);
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }else
+    SETelem_(set, id)= elem;
+} /* point_add */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="pointfacet">-</a>
+  
+  qh_pointfacet()
+    return temporary set of facet for each point
+    the set is indexed by point id
+
+  notes:
+    vertices assigned to one of the facets
+    coplanarset assigned to the facet
+    outside set assigned to the facet
+    NULL if no facet for point (inside)
+      includes qh.GOODpointp
+
+  access:
+    FOREACHfacet_i_(facets) { ... }
+    SETelem_(facets, i)
+  
+  design:
+    for each facet
+      add each vertex
+      add each coplanar point
+      add each outside point
+*/
+setT *qh_pointfacet (void /*qh facet_list*/) {
+  int numpoints= qh num_points + qh_setsize (qh other_points);
+  setT *facets;
+  facetT *facet;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  pointT *point, **pointp;
+  
+  facets= qh_settemp (numpoints);
+  qh_setzero (facets, 0, numpoints);
+  qh vertex_visit++;
+  FORALLfacets {
+    FOREACHvertex_(facet->vertices) {
+      if (vertex->visitid != qh vertex_visit) {
+        vertex->visitid= qh vertex_visit;
+        qh_point_add (facets, vertex->point, facet);
+      }
+    }
+    FOREACHpoint_(facet->coplanarset) 
+      qh_point_add (facets, point, facet);
+    FOREACHpoint_(facet->outsideset) 
+      qh_point_add (facets, point, facet);
+  }
+  return facets;
+} /* pointfacet */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="pointvertex">-</a>
+  
+  qh_pointvertex(  )
+    return temporary set of vertices indexed by point id
+    entry is NULL if no vertex for a point
+      this will include qh.GOODpointp
+
+  access:
+    FOREACHvertex_i_(vertices) { ... }
+    SETelem_(vertices, i)
+*/
+setT *qh_pointvertex (void /*qh facet_list*/) {
+  int numpoints= qh num_points + qh_setsize (qh other_points);
+  setT *vertices;
+  vertexT *vertex;
+  
+  vertices= qh_settemp (numpoints);
+  qh_setzero (vertices, 0, numpoints);
+  FORALLvertices 
+    qh_point_add (vertices, vertex->point, vertex);
+  return vertices;
+} /* pointvertex */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="prependfacet">-</a>
+  
+  qh_prependfacet( facet, facetlist )
+    prepend facet to the start of a facetlist
+
+  returns:
+    increments qh.numfacets
+    updates facetlist, qh.facet_list, facet_next
+  
+  notes:
+    be careful of prepending since it can lose a pointer.
+      e.g., can lose _next by deleting and then prepending before _next
+*/
+void qh_prependfacet(facetT *facet, facetT **facetlist) {
+  facetT *prevfacet, *list;
+  
+
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_prependfacet: prepend f%d before f%d\n",
+	  facet->id, getid_(*facetlist)));
+  if (!*facetlist)
+    (*facetlist)= qh facet_tail;
+  list= *facetlist;
+  prevfacet= list->previous;
+  facet->previous= prevfacet;
+  if (prevfacet)
+    prevfacet->next= facet;
+  list->previous= facet;
+  facet->next= *facetlist;
+  if (qh facet_list == list)  /* this may change *facetlist */
+    qh facet_list= facet;
+  if (qh facet_next == list)
+    qh facet_next= facet;
+  *facetlist= facet;
+  qh num_facets++;
+} /* prependfacet */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printhashtable">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printhashtable( fp )
+    print hash table to fp
+
+  notes:
+    not in I/O to avoid bringing io.c in
+  
+  design:
+    for each hash entry
+      if defined
+        if unmatched or will merge (NULL, qh_MERGEridge, qh_DUPLICATEridge)
+          print entry and neighbors
+*/
+void qh_printhashtable(FILE *fp) {
+  facetT *facet, *neighbor;
+  int id, facet_i, facet_n, neighbor_i= 0, neighbor_n= 0;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+
+  FOREACHfacet_i_(qh hash_table) {
+    if (facet) {
+      FOREACHneighbor_i_(facet) {
+        if (!neighbor || neighbor == qh_MERGEridge || neighbor == qh_DUPLICATEridge) 
+          break;
+      }
+      if (neighbor_i == neighbor_n)
+        continue;
+      fprintf (fp, "hash %d f%d ", facet_i, facet->id);
+      FOREACHvertex_(facet->vertices)
+        fprintf (fp, "v%d ", vertex->id);
+      fprintf (fp, "\n neighbors:");
+      FOREACHneighbor_i_(facet) {
+	if (neighbor == qh_MERGEridge)
+	  id= -3;
+	else if (neighbor == qh_DUPLICATEridge)
+	  id= -2;
+	else
+	  id= getid_(neighbor);
+        fprintf (fp, " %d", id);
+      }
+      fprintf (fp, "\n");
+    }
+  }
+} /* printhashtable */
+     
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printlists">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printlists( fp )
+    print out facet and vertex list for debugging (without 'f/v' tags)
+*/
+void qh_printlists (void) {
+  facetT *facet;
+  vertexT *vertex;
+  int count= 0;
+  
+  fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_printlists: facets:");
+  FORALLfacets {
+    if (++count % 100 == 0)
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "\n     ");
+    fprintf (qh ferr, " %d", facet->id);
+  }
+  fprintf (qh ferr, "\n  new facets %d visible facets %d next facet for qh_addpoint %d\n  vertices (new %d):",
+     getid_(qh newfacet_list), getid_(qh visible_list), getid_(qh facet_next),
+     getid_(qh newvertex_list));
+  count = 0;
+  FORALLvertices {
+    if (++count % 100 == 0)
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "\n     ");
+    fprintf (qh ferr, " %d", vertex->id);
+  }
+  fprintf (qh ferr, "\n");
+} /* printlists */
+  
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="resetlists">-</a>
+  
+  qh_resetlists( stats, qh_RESETvisible )
+    reset newvertex_list, newfacet_list, visible_list
+    if stats, 
+      maintains statistics
+
+  returns:
+    visible_list is empty if qh_deletevisible was called
+*/
+void qh_resetlists (boolT stats, boolT resetVisible /*qh newvertex_list newfacet_list visible_list*/) {
+  vertexT *vertex;
+  facetT *newfacet, *visible;
+  int totnew=0, totver=0;
+  
+  if (stats) {
+    FORALLvertex_(qh newvertex_list)
+      totver++;
+    FORALLnew_facets 
+      totnew++;
+    zadd_(Zvisvertextot, totver);
+    zmax_(Zvisvertexmax, totver);
+    zadd_(Znewfacettot, totnew);
+    zmax_(Znewfacetmax, totnew);
+  }
+  FORALLvertex_(qh newvertex_list)
+    vertex->newlist= False;
+  qh newvertex_list= NULL;
+  FORALLnew_facets
+    newfacet->newfacet= False;
+  qh newfacet_list= NULL;
+  if (resetVisible) {
+    FORALLvisible_facets {
+      visible->f.replace= NULL;
+      visible->visible= False;
+    }
+    qh num_visible= 0;
+  }
+  qh visible_list= NULL; /* may still have visible facets via qh_triangulate */
+  qh NEWfacets= False;
+} /* resetlists */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="setvoronoi_all">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setvoronoi_all()
+    compute Voronoi centers for all facets
+    includes upperDelaunay facets if qh.UPPERdelaunay ('Qu')
+
+  returns:
+    facet->center is the Voronoi center
+    
+  notes:
+    this is unused/untested code
+      please email bradb@shore.net if this works ok for you
+  
+  use:
+    FORALLvertices {...} to locate the vertex for a point.  
+    FOREACHneighbor_(vertex) {...} to visit the Voronoi centers for a Voronoi cell.
+*/
+void qh_setvoronoi_all (void) {
+  facetT *facet;
+
+  qh_clearcenters (qh_ASvoronoi);
+  qh_vertexneighbors();
+  
+  FORALLfacets {
+    if (!facet->normal || !facet->upperdelaunay || qh UPPERdelaunay) {
+      if (!facet->center)
+        facet->center= qh_facetcenter (facet->vertices);
+    }
+  }
+} /* setvoronoi_all */
+
+#ifndef qh_NOmerge
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="triangulate">-</a>
+  
+  qh_triangulate()
+    triangulate non-simplicial facets on qh.facet_list, 
+    if qh.CENTERtype=qh_ASvoronoi, sets Voronoi centers of non-simplicial facets
+
+  returns:
+    all facets simplicial
+    each tricoplanar facet has ->f.triowner == owner of ->center,normal,etc.
+
+  notes:
+    call after qh_check_output since may switch to Voronoi centers
+    Output may overwrite ->f.triowner with ->f.area
+*/
+void qh_triangulate (void /*qh facet_list*/) {
+  facetT *facet, *nextfacet, *owner;
+  int onlygood= qh ONLYgood;
+  facetT *neighbor, *visible= NULL, *facet1, *facet2, *new_facet_list= NULL;
+  facetT *orig_neighbor= NULL, *otherfacet;
+  vertexT *new_vertex_list= NULL;
+  mergeT *merge; 
+  mergeType mergetype;
+  int neighbor_i, neighbor_n;
+
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_triangulate: triangulate non-simplicial facets\n"));
+  if (qh hull_dim == 2)
+    return;
+  if (qh VORONOI) {  /* otherwise lose Voronoi centers [could rebuild vertex set from tricoplanar] */
+    qh_clearcenters (qh_ASvoronoi);
+    qh_vertexneighbors();
+  }
+  qh ONLYgood= False; /* for makenew_nonsimplicial */
+  qh visit_id++;
+  qh NEWfacets= True;
+  qh degen_mergeset= qh_settemp (qh TEMPsize);
+  qh newvertex_list= qh vertex_tail;
+  for (facet= qh facet_list; facet && facet->next; facet= nextfacet) { /* non-simplicial facets moved to end */
+    nextfacet= facet->next;
+    if (facet->visible || facet->simplicial)
+      continue;
+    /* triangulate all non-simplicial facets, otherwise merging does not work, e.g., RBOX c P-0.1 P+0.1 P+0.1 D3 | QHULL d Qt Tv */
+    if (!new_facet_list)
+      new_facet_list= facet;  /* will be moved to end */
+    qh_triangulate_facet (facet, &new_vertex_list);
+  }
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_triangulate: delete null facets from f%d -- apex same as second vertex\n", getid_(new_facet_list)));
+  for (facet= new_facet_list; facet && facet->next; facet= nextfacet) { /* null facets moved to end */
+    nextfacet= facet->next;
+    if (facet->visible) 
+      continue;
+    if (facet->ridges) {
+      if (qh_setsize(facet->ridges) > 0) {
+	fprintf( qh ferr, "qhull error (qh_triangulate): ridges still defined for f%d\n", facet->id);
+	qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, facet, NULL);
+      }
+      qh_setfree (&facet->ridges);
+    }
+    if (SETfirst_(facet->vertices) == SETsecond_(facet->vertices)) {
+      zinc_(Ztrinull);
+      qh_triangulate_null (facet);
+    }
+  }
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_triangulate: delete %d or more mirror facets -- same vertices and neighbors\n", qh_setsize(qh degen_mergeset)));
+  qh visible_list= qh facet_tail;
+  while ((merge= (mergeT*)qh_setdellast (qh degen_mergeset))) {
+    facet1= merge->facet1;
+    facet2= merge->facet2;
+    mergetype= merge->type;
+    qh_memfree (merge, sizeof(mergeT));
+    if (mergetype == MRGmirror) {
+      zinc_(Ztrimirror);
+      qh_triangulate_mirror (facet1, facet2);
+    }
+  }
+  qh_settempfree(&qh degen_mergeset);
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_triangulate: update neighbor lists for vertices from v%d\n", getid_(new_vertex_list)));
+  qh newvertex_list= new_vertex_list;  /* all vertices of new facets */
+  qh visible_list= NULL;
+  qh_updatevertices(/*qh newvertex_list, empty newfacet_list and visible_list*/);
+  qh_resetlists (False, !qh_RESETvisible /*qh newvertex_list, empty newfacet_list and visible_list*/);
+
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_triangulate: identify degenerate tricoplanar facets from f%d\n", getid_(new_facet_list)));
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_triangulate: and replace facet->f.triowner with tricoplanar facets that own center, normal, etc.\n"));
+  FORALLfacet_(new_facet_list) {
+    if (facet->tricoplanar && !facet->visible) {
+      FOREACHneighbor_i_(facet) {
+	if (neighbor_i == 0) {  /* first iteration */
+	  if (neighbor->tricoplanar)
+            orig_neighbor= neighbor->f.triowner;
+	  else
+	    orig_neighbor= neighbor;
+	}else {
+	  if (neighbor->tricoplanar)
+  	    otherfacet= neighbor->f.triowner;
+	  else
+	    otherfacet= neighbor;
+	  if (orig_neighbor == otherfacet) {
+	    zinc_(Ztridegen);
+	    facet->degenerate= True;
+	    break;
+	  }
+	}
+      }
+    }
+  }
+
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_triangulate: delete visible facets -- non-simplicial, null, and mirrored facets\n"));
+  owner= NULL;
+  visible= NULL;
+  for (facet= new_facet_list; facet && facet->next; facet= nextfacet) { /* may delete facet */
+    nextfacet= facet->next;
+    if (facet->visible) {
+      if (facet->tricoplanar) { /* a null or mirrored facet */
+	qh_delfacet(facet);
+	qh num_visible--;
+      }else {  /* a non-simplicial facet followed by its tricoplanars */
+	if (visible && !owner) {
+	  /*  RBOX 200 s D5 t1001471447 | QHULL Qt C-0.01 Qx Qc Tv Qt -- f4483 had 6 vertices/neighbors and 8 ridges */
+	  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_triangulate: all tricoplanar facets degenerate for non-simplicial facet f%d\n",
+		       visible->id));
+	  qh_delfacet(visible);
+	  qh num_visible--;
+	}
+	visible= facet;
+	owner= NULL;
+      }
+    }else if (facet->tricoplanar) {
+      if (facet->f.triowner != visible) { 
+	fprintf( qh ferr, "qhull error (qh_triangulate): tricoplanar facet f%d not owned by its visible, non-simplicial facet f%d\n", facet->id, getid_(visible));
+	qh_errexit2 (qh_ERRqhull, facet, visible);
+      }
+      if (owner) 
+	facet->f.triowner= owner;
+      else if (!facet->degenerate) {
+	owner= facet;
+	nextfacet= visible->next; /* rescan tricoplanar facets with owner */
+	facet->keepcentrum= True;  /* one facet owns ->normal, etc. */
+	facet->coplanarset= visible->coplanarset;
+	facet->outsideset= visible->outsideset;
+  	visible->coplanarset= NULL;
+	visible->outsideset= NULL;
+        if (!qh TRInormals) { /* center and normal copied to tricoplanar facets */
+	  visible->center= NULL;
+	  visible->normal= NULL;
+	}
+	qh_delfacet(visible);
+	qh num_visible--;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  if (visible && !owner) {
+    trace2((qh ferr, "qh_triangulate: all tricoplanar facets degenerate for last non-simplicial facet f%d\n",
+	         visible->id));
+    qh_delfacet(visible);
+    qh num_visible--;
+  }
+  qh NEWfacets= False;
+  qh ONLYgood= onlygood; /* restore value */
+  if (qh CHECKfrequently) 
+    qh_checkpolygon (qh facet_list);
+} /* triangulate */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="triangulate_facet">-</a>
+  
+  qh_triangulate_facet (facetA)
+    triangulate a non-simplicial facet
+      if qh.CENTERtype=qh_ASvoronoi, sets its Voronoi center
+  returns:
+    qh.newfacet_list == simplicial facets
+      facet->tricoplanar set and ->keepcentrum false
+      facet->degenerate set if duplicated apex
+      facet->f.trivisible set to facetA
+      facet->center copied from facetA (created if qh_ASvoronoi)
+	qh_eachvoronoi, qh_detvridge, qh_detvridge3 assume centers copied
+      facet->normal,offset,maxoutside copied from facetA
+
+  notes:
+      qh_makenew_nonsimplicial uses neighbor->seen for the same
+
+  see also:
+      qh_addpoint() -- add a point
+      qh_makenewfacets() -- construct a cone of facets for a new vertex
+
+  design:
+      if qh_ASvoronoi, 
+	 compute Voronoi center (facet->center)
+      select first vertex (highest ID to preserve ID ordering of ->vertices)
+      triangulate from vertex to ridges
+      copy facet->center, normal, offset
+      update vertex neighbors
+*/
+void qh_triangulate_facet (facetT *facetA, vertexT **first_vertex) {
+  facetT *newfacet;
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp;
+  vertexT *apex;
+  int numnew=0;
+
+  trace3((qh ferr, "qh_triangulate_facet: triangulate facet f%d\n", facetA->id));
+
+  if (qh IStracing >= 4)
+    qh_printfacet (qh ferr, facetA);
+  FOREACHneighbor_(facetA) {
+    neighbor->seen= False;
+    neighbor->coplanar= False;
+  }
+  if (qh CENTERtype == qh_ASvoronoi && !facetA->center  /* matches upperdelaunay in qh_setfacetplane() */
+        && fabs_(facetA->normal[qh hull_dim -1]) >= qh ANGLEround * qh_ZEROdelaunay) {
+    facetA->center= qh_facetcenter (facetA->vertices);
+  }
+  qh_willdelete (facetA, NULL);
+  qh newfacet_list= qh facet_tail;
+  facetA->visitid= qh visit_id;
+  apex= SETfirst_(facetA->vertices);
+  qh_makenew_nonsimplicial (facetA, apex, &numnew);
+  SETfirst_(facetA->neighbors)= NULL;
+  FORALLnew_facets {
+    newfacet->tricoplanar= True;
+    newfacet->f.trivisible= facetA;
+    newfacet->degenerate= False;
+    newfacet->upperdelaunay= facetA->upperdelaunay;
+    newfacet->good= facetA->good;
+    if (qh TRInormals) { 
+      newfacet->keepcentrum= True;
+      newfacet->normal= qh_copypoints (facetA->normal, 1, qh hull_dim);
+      if (qh CENTERtype == qh_AScentrum) 
+	newfacet->center= qh_getcentrum (newfacet);
+      else
+	newfacet->center= qh_copypoints (facetA->center, 1, qh hull_dim);
+    }else {
+      newfacet->keepcentrum= False;
+      newfacet->normal= facetA->normal;
+      newfacet->center= facetA->center;
+    }
+    newfacet->offset= facetA->offset;
+#if qh_MAXoutside
+    newfacet->maxoutside= facetA->maxoutside;
+#endif
+  }
+  qh_matchnewfacets(/*qh newfacet_list*/);
+  zinc_(Ztricoplanar);
+  zadd_(Ztricoplanartot, numnew);
+  zmax_(Ztricoplanarmax, numnew);
+  qh visible_list= NULL;
+  if (!(*first_vertex))
+    (*first_vertex)= qh newvertex_list;
+  qh newvertex_list= NULL;
+  qh_updatevertices(/*qh newfacet_list, empty visible_list and newvertex_list*/);
+  qh_resetlists (False, !qh_RESETvisible /*qh newfacet_list, empty visible_list and newvertex_list*/);
+} /* triangulate_facet */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="triangulate_link">-</a>
+  
+  qh_triangulate_link (oldfacetA, facetA, oldfacetB, facetB)
+    relink facetA to facetB via oldfacets
+  returns:
+    adds mirror facets to qh degen_mergeset (4-d and up only)
+  design:
+    if they are already neighbors, the opposing neighbors become MRGmirror facets
+*/
+void qh_triangulate_link (facetT *oldfacetA, facetT *facetA, facetT *oldfacetB, facetT *facetB) {
+  int errmirror= False;
+
+  trace3((qh ferr, "qh_triangulate_link: relink old facets f%d and f%d between neighbors f%d and f%d\n", 
+         oldfacetA->id, oldfacetB->id, facetA->id, facetB->id));
+  if (qh_setin (facetA->neighbors, facetB)) {
+    if (!qh_setin (facetB->neighbors, facetA)) 
+      errmirror= True;
+    else
+      qh_appendmergeset (facetA, facetB, MRGmirror, NULL);
+  }else if (qh_setin (facetB->neighbors, facetA)) 
+    errmirror= True;
+  if (errmirror) {
+    fprintf( qh ferr, "qhull error (qh_triangulate_link): mirror facets f%d and f%d do not match for old facets f%d and f%d\n",
+       facetA->id, facetB->id, oldfacetA->id, oldfacetB->id);
+    qh_errexit2 (qh_ERRqhull, facetA, facetB);
+  }
+  qh_setreplace (facetB->neighbors, oldfacetB, facetA);
+  qh_setreplace (facetA->neighbors, oldfacetA, facetB);
+} /* triangulate_link */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="triangulate_mirror">-</a>
+  
+  qh_triangulate_mirror (facetA, facetB)
+    delete mirrored facets from qh_triangulate_null() and qh_triangulate_mirror
+      a mirrored facet shares the same vertices of a logical ridge
+  design:
+    since a null facet duplicates the first two vertices, the opposing neighbors absorb the null facet
+    if they are already neighbors, the opposing neighbors become MRGmirror facets
+*/
+void qh_triangulate_mirror (facetT *facetA, facetT *facetB) {
+  facetT *neighbor, *neighborB;
+  int neighbor_i, neighbor_n;
+
+  trace3((qh ferr, "qh_triangulate_mirror: delete mirrored facets f%d and f%d\n", 
+         facetA->id, facetB->id));
+  FOREACHneighbor_i_(facetA) {
+    neighborB= SETelemt_(facetB->neighbors, neighbor_i, facetT);
+    if (neighbor == neighborB)
+      continue; /* occurs twice */
+    qh_triangulate_link (facetA, neighbor, facetB, neighborB);
+  }
+  qh_willdelete (facetA, NULL);
+  qh_willdelete (facetB, NULL);
+} /* triangulate_mirror */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="triangulate_null">-</a>
+  
+  qh_triangulate_null (facetA)
+    remove null facetA from qh_triangulate_facet()
+      a null facet has vertex #1 (apex) == vertex #2
+  returns:
+    adds facetA to ->visible for deletion after qh_updatevertices
+    qh degen_mergeset contains mirror facets (4-d and up only)
+  design:
+    since a null facet duplicates the first two vertices, the opposing neighbors absorb the null facet
+    if they are already neighbors, the opposing neighbors become MRGmirror facets
+*/
+void qh_triangulate_null (facetT *facetA) {
+  facetT *neighbor, *otherfacet;
+
+  trace3((qh ferr, "qh_triangulate_null: delete null facet f%d\n", facetA->id));
+  neighbor= SETfirst_(facetA->neighbors);
+  otherfacet= SETsecond_(facetA->neighbors);
+  qh_triangulate_link (facetA, neighbor, facetA, otherfacet);
+  qh_willdelete (facetA, NULL);
+} /* triangulate_null */
+
+#else /* qh_NOmerge */
+void qh_triangulate (void) {
+}
+#endif /* qh_NOmerge */
+
+   /*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="vertexintersect">-</a>
+  
+  qh_vertexintersect( vertexsetA, vertexsetB )
+    intersects two vertex sets (inverse id ordered)
+    vertexsetA is a temporary set at the top of qhmem.tempstack
+
+  returns:
+    replaces vertexsetA with the intersection
+  
+  notes:
+    could overwrite vertexsetA if currently too slow
+*/
+void qh_vertexintersect(setT **vertexsetA,setT *vertexsetB) {
+  setT *intersection;
+
+  intersection= qh_vertexintersect_new (*vertexsetA, vertexsetB);
+  qh_settempfree (vertexsetA);
+  *vertexsetA= intersection;
+  qh_settemppush (intersection);
+} /* vertexintersect */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="vertexintersect_new">-</a>
+  
+  qh_vertexintersect_new(  )
+    intersects two vertex sets (inverse id ordered)
+
+  returns:
+    a new set
+*/
+setT *qh_vertexintersect_new (setT *vertexsetA,setT *vertexsetB) {
+  setT *intersection= qh_setnew (qh hull_dim - 1);
+  vertexT **vertexA= SETaddr_(vertexsetA, vertexT); 
+  vertexT **vertexB= SETaddr_(vertexsetB, vertexT); 
+
+  while (*vertexA && *vertexB) {
+    if (*vertexA  == *vertexB) {
+      qh_setappend(&intersection, *vertexA);
+      vertexA++; vertexB++;
+    }else {
+      if ((*vertexA)->id > (*vertexB)->id)
+        vertexA++;
+      else
+        vertexB++;
+    }
+  }
+  return intersection;
+} /* vertexintersect_new */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="vertexneighbors">-</a>
+  
+  qh_vertexneighbors()
+    for each vertex in qh.facet_list, 
+      determine its neighboring facets 
+
+  returns:
+    sets qh.VERTEXneighbors
+      nop if qh.VERTEXneighbors already set
+      qh_addpoint() will maintain them
+
+  notes:
+    assumes all vertex->neighbors are NULL
+
+  design:
+    for each facet
+      for each vertex
+        append facet to vertex->neighbors
+*/
+void qh_vertexneighbors (void /*qh facet_list*/) {
+  facetT *facet;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+
+  if (qh VERTEXneighbors)
+    return;
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_vertexneighbors: determing neighboring facets for each vertex\n"));
+  qh vertex_visit++;
+  FORALLfacets {
+    if (facet->visible)
+      continue;
+    FOREACHvertex_(facet->vertices) {
+      if (vertex->visitid != qh vertex_visit) {
+        vertex->visitid= qh vertex_visit;
+        vertex->neighbors= qh_setnew (qh hull_dim);
+      }
+      qh_setappend (&vertex->neighbors, facet);
+    }
+  }
+  qh VERTEXneighbors= True;
+} /* vertexneighbors */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="vertexsubset">-</a>
+  
+  qh_vertexsubset( vertexsetA, vertexsetB )
+    returns True if vertexsetA is a subset of vertexsetB
+    assumes vertexsets are sorted
+
+  note:    
+    empty set is a subset of any other set
+*/
+boolT qh_vertexsubset(setT *vertexsetA, setT *vertexsetB) {
+  vertexT **vertexA= (vertexT **) SETaddr_(vertexsetA, vertexT);
+  vertexT **vertexB= (vertexT **) SETaddr_(vertexsetB, vertexT);
+
+  while (True) {
+    if (!*vertexA)
+      return True;
+    if (!*vertexB)
+      return False;
+    if ((*vertexA)->id > (*vertexB)->id)
+      return False;
+    if (*vertexA  == *vertexB)
+      vertexA++;
+    vertexB++; 
+  }
+  return False; /* avoid warnings */
+} /* vertexsubset */

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qconvex.c
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qconvex.c	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qconvex.c	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,334 @@
+/*<html><pre>  -<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="TOP">-</a>
+
+   qconvex.c
+      compute convex hulls using qhull
+
+   see unix.c for full interface
+
+   copyright (c) 1993-2003, The Geometry Center
+*/
+
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <ctype.h>
+#include <math.h>
+#include "qhull.h"
+#include "mem.h"
+#include "qset.h"
+
+#if __MWERKS__ && __POWERPC__
+#include <SIOUX.h>
+#include <Files.h>
+#include <console.h>
+#include <Desk.h>
+
+#elif __cplusplus
+extern "C" {
+  int isatty (int);
+}
+
+#elif _MSC_VER
+#include <io.h>
+#define isatty _isatty
+
+#else
+int isatty (int);  /* returns 1 if stdin is a tty
+		   if "Undefined symbol" this can be deleted along with call in main() */
+#endif
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="prompt">-</a>
+
+  qh_prompt
+    long prompt for qconvex
+    
+  notes:
+    restricted version of qhull.c
+
+  see:
+    concise prompt below
+*/  
+
+/* duplicated in qconvex.htm */
+char hidden_options[]=" d v H Qbb Qf Qg Qm Qr Qu Qv Qx Qz TR E V Fp Gt Q0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 ";
+	       
+char qh_prompta[]= "\n\
+qconvex- compute the convex hull\n\
+    http://www.qhull.org  %s\n\
+\n\
+input (stdin):\n\
+    first lines: dimension and number of points (or vice-versa).\n\
+    other lines: point coordinates, best if one point per line\n\
+    comments:    start with a non-numeric character\n\
+\n\
+options:\n\
+    Qt   - triangulated output\n\
+    QJ   - joggled input instead of merged facets\n\
+    Qc   - keep coplanar points with nearest facet\n\
+    Qi   - keep interior points with nearest facet\n\
+\n\
+Qhull control options:\n\
+    Qbk:n   - scale coord k so that low bound is n\n\
+      QBk:n - scale coord k so that upper bound is n (QBk is %2.2g)\n\
+    QbB  - scale input to unit cube centered at the origin\n\
+    Qbk:0Bk:0 - remove k-th coordinate from input\n\
+    QJn  - randomly joggle input in range [-n,n]\n\
+    QRn  - random rotation (n=seed, n=0 time, n=-1 time/no rotate)\n\
+%s%s%s%s";  /* split up qh_prompt for Visual C++ */
+char qh_promptb[]= "\
+    Qs   - search all points for the initial simplex\n\
+    QGn  - good facet if visible from point n, -n for not visible\n\
+    QVn  - good facet if it includes point n, -n if not\n\
+\n\
+";
+char qh_promptc[]= "\
+Trace options:\n\
+    T4   - trace at level n, 4=all, 5=mem/gauss, -1= events\n\
+    Tc   - check frequently during execution\n\
+    Ts   - print statistics\n\
+    Tv   - verify result: structure, convexity, and point inclusion\n\
+    Tz   - send all output to stdout\n\
+    TFn  - report summary when n or more facets created\n\
+    TI file - input data from file, no spaces or single quotes\n\
+    TO file - output results to file, may be enclosed in single quotes\n\
+    TPn  - turn on tracing when point n added to hull\n\
+     TMn - turn on tracing at merge n\n\
+     TWn - trace merge facets when width > n\n\
+    TVn  - stop qhull after adding point n, -n for before (see TCn)\n\
+     TCn - stop qhull after building cone for point n (see TVn)\n\
+\n\
+Precision options:\n\
+    Cn   - radius of centrum (roundoff added).  Merge facets if non-convex\n\
+     An  - cosine of maximum angle.  Merge facets if cosine > n or non-convex\n\
+           C-0 roundoff, A-0.99/C-0.01 pre-merge, A0.99/C0.01 post-merge\n\
+    Rn   - randomly perturb computations by a factor of [1-n,1+n]\n\
+    Un   - max distance below plane for a new, coplanar point\n\
+    Wn   - min facet width for outside point (before roundoff)\n\
+\n\
+Output formats (may be combined; if none, produces a summary to stdout):\n\
+    f    - facet dump\n\
+    G    - Geomview output (see below)\n\
+    i    - vertices incident to each facet\n\
+    m    - Mathematica output (2-d and 3-d)\n\
+    n    - normals with offsets\n\
+    o    - OFF file format (dim, points and facets; Voronoi regions)\n\
+    p    - point coordinates \n\
+    s    - summary (stderr)\n\
+\n\
+";
+char qh_promptd[]= "\
+More formats:\n\
+    Fa   - area for each facet\n\
+    FA   - compute total area and volume for option 's'\n\
+    Fc   - count plus coplanar points for each facet\n\
+           use 'Qc' (default) for coplanar and 'Qi' for interior\n\
+    FC   - centrum for each facet\n\
+    Fd   - use cdd format for input (homogeneous with offset first)\n\
+    FD   - use cdd format for numeric output (offset first)\n\
+    FF   - facet dump without ridges\n\
+    Fi   - inner plane for each facet\n\
+    FI   - ID for each facet\n\
+    Fm   - merge count for each facet (511 max)\n\
+    Fn   - count plus neighboring facets for each facet\n\
+    FN   - count plus neighboring facets for each point\n\
+    Fo   - outer plane (or max_outside) for each facet\n\
+    FO   - options and precision constants\n\
+    FP   - nearest vertex for each coplanar point\n\
+    FQ   - command used for qconvex\n\
+    Fs   - summary: #int (8), dimension, #points, tot vertices, tot facets,\n\
+                      for output: #vertices, #facets,\n\
+                                  #coplanar points, #non-simplicial facets\n\
+                    #real (2), max outer plane, min vertex\n\
+    FS   - sizes:   #int (0) \n\
+                    #real(2) tot area, tot volume\n\
+    Ft   - triangulation with centrums for non-simplicial facets (OFF format)\n\
+    Fv   - count plus vertices for each facet\n\
+    FV   - average of vertices (a feasible point for 'H')\n\
+    Fx   - extreme points (in order for 2-d)\n\
+\n\
+";
+char qh_prompte[]= "\
+Geomview output (2-d, 3-d, and 4-d)\n\
+    Ga   - all points as dots\n\
+     Gp  -  coplanar points and vertices as radii\n\
+     Gv  -  vertices as spheres\n\
+    Gi   - inner planes only\n\
+     Gn  -  no planes\n\
+     Go  -  outer planes only\n\
+    Gc   - centrums\n\
+    Gh   - hyperplane intersections\n\
+    Gr   - ridges\n\
+    GDn  - drop dimension n in 3-d and 4-d output\n\
+\n\
+Print options:\n\
+    PAn  - keep n largest facets by area\n\
+    Pdk:n - drop facet if normal[k] <= n (default 0.0)\n\
+    PDk:n - drop facet if normal[k] >= n\n\
+    Pg   - print good facets (needs 'QGn' or 'QVn')\n\
+    PFn  - keep facets whose area is at least n\n\
+    PG   - print neighbors of good facets\n\
+    PMn  - keep n facets with most merges\n\
+    Po   - force output.  If error, output neighborhood of facet\n\
+    Pp   - do not report precision problems\n\
+\n\
+    .    - list of all options\n\
+    -    - one line descriptions of all options\n\
+";
+/* for opts, don't assign 'e' or 'E' to a flag (already used for exponent) */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="prompt2">-</a>
+
+  qh_prompt2
+    synopsis for qhull 
+*/  
+char qh_prompt2[]= "\n\
+qconvex- compute the convex hull.  Qhull %s\n\
+    input (stdin): dimension, number of points, point coordinates\n\
+    comments start with a non-numeric character\n\
+\n\
+options (qconvex.htm):\n\
+    Qt   - triangulated output\n\
+    QJ   - joggled input instead of merged facets\n\
+    Tv   - verify result: structure, convexity, and point inclusion\n\
+    .    - concise list of all options\n\
+    -    - one-line description of all options\n\
+\n\
+output options (subset):\n\
+    s    - summary of results (default)\n\
+    i    - vertices incident to each facet\n\
+    n    - normals with offsets\n\
+    p    - vertex coordinates (includes coplanar points if 'Qc')\n\
+    Fx   - extreme points (convex hull vertices)\n\
+    FA   - compute total area and volume\n\
+    o    - OFF format (dim, n, points, facets)\n\
+    G    - Geomview output (2-d, 3-d, and 4-d)\n\
+    m    - Mathematica output (2-d and 3-d)\n\
+    QVn  - print facets that include point n, -n if not\n\
+    TO file- output results to file, may be enclosed in single quotes\n\
+\n\
+examples:\n\
+    rbox c D2 | qconvex s n                    rbox c D2 | qconvex i\n\
+    rbox c D2 | qconvex o                      rbox 1000 s | qconvex s Tv FA\n\
+    rbox c d D2 | qconvex s Qc Fx              rbox y 1000 W0 | qconvex s n\n\
+    rbox y 1000 W0 | qconvex s QJ              rbox d G1 D12 | qconvex QR0 FA Pp\n\
+    rbox c D7 | qconvex FA TF1000\n\
+\n\
+";
+/* for opts, don't assign 'e' or 'E' to a flag (already used for exponent) */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="prompt3">-</a>
+
+  qh_prompt3
+    concise prompt for qhull 
+*/  
+char qh_prompt3[]= "\n\
+Qhull %s.\n\
+Except for 'F.' and 'PG', upper-case options take an argument.\n\
+\n\
+ incidences     mathematica    normals        OFF_format     points\n\
+ summary        facet_dump\n\
+\n\
+ Farea          FArea_total    Fcoplanars     FCentrums      Fd_cdd_in\n\
+ FD_cdd_out     FFacet_xridge  Finner         FIDs           Fmerges\n\
+ Fneighbors     FNeigh_vertex  Fouter         FOptions       FPoint_near\n\
+ FQhull         Fsummary       FSize          Fvertices      FVertex_ave\n\
+ Fxtremes       FMaple\n\
+\n\
+ Gvertices      Gpoints        Gall_points    Gno_planes     Ginner\n\
+ Gcentrums      Ghyperplanes   Gridges        Gouter         GDrop_dim\n\
+\n\
+ PArea_keep     Pdrop d0:0D0   PFacet_area_keep Pgood        PGood_neighbors\n\
+ PMerge_keep    Poutput_forced Pprecision_not\n\
+\n\
+ QbBound 0:0.5  QbB_scale_box  Qcoplanar      QGood_point    Qinterior\n\
+ QJoggle        Qrandom        QRotate        Qsearch_1st    Qtriangulate\n\
+ QVertex_good\n\
+\n\
+ T4_trace       Tcheck_often   Tstatistics    Tverify        Tz_stdout\n\
+ TFacet_log     TInput_file    TPoint_trace   TMerge_trace   TOutput_file\n\
+ TWide_trace    TVertex_stop   TCone_stop\n\
+\n\
+ Angle_max      Centrum_size   Random_dist    Ucoplanar_max  Wide_outside\n\
+";
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="main">-</a>
+  
+  main( argc, argv )
+    processes the command line, calls qhull() to do the work, and exits
+  
+  design:
+    initializes data structures
+    reads points
+    finishes initialization
+    computes convex hull and other structures
+    checks the result
+    writes the output
+    frees memory
+*/
+int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
+  int curlong, totlong; /* used !qh_NOmem */
+  int exitcode, numpoints, dim;
+  coordT *points;
+  boolT ismalloc;
+
+#if __MWERKS__ && __POWERPC__
+  char inBuf[BUFSIZ], outBuf[BUFSIZ], errBuf[BUFSIZ];
+  SIOUXSettings.showstatusline= false;
+  SIOUXSettings.tabspaces= 1;
+  SIOUXSettings.rows= 40;
+  if (setvbuf (stdin, inBuf, _IOFBF, sizeof(inBuf)) < 0   /* w/o, SIOUX I/O is slow*/
+  || setvbuf (stdout, outBuf, _IOFBF, sizeof(outBuf)) < 0
+  || (stdout != stderr && setvbuf (stderr, errBuf, _IOFBF, sizeof(errBuf)) < 0)) 
+    fprintf (stderr, "qhull internal warning (main): could not change stdio to fully buffered.\n");
+  argc= ccommand(&argv);
+#endif
+
+  if ((argc == 1) && isatty( 0 /*stdin*/)) {      
+    fprintf(stdout, qh_prompt2, qh_version);
+    exit(qh_ERRnone);
+  }
+  if (argc > 1 && *argv[1] == '-' && !*(argv[1]+1)) {
+    fprintf(stdout, qh_prompta, qh_version, qh_DEFAULTbox, 
+		qh_promptb, qh_promptc, qh_promptd, qh_prompte);
+    exit(qh_ERRnone);
+  }
+  if (argc >1 && *argv[1] == '.' && !*(argv[1]+1)) {
+    fprintf(stdout, qh_prompt3, qh_version);
+    exit(qh_ERRnone);
+  }
+  qh_init_A (stdin, stdout, stderr, argc, argv);  /* sets qh qhull_command */
+  exitcode= setjmp (qh errexit); /* simple statement for CRAY J916 */
+  if (!exitcode) {
+    qh_checkflags (qh qhull_command, hidden_options);
+    qh_initflags (qh qhull_command);
+    points= qh_readpoints (&numpoints, &dim, &ismalloc);
+    if (dim >= 5) {
+      qh_option ("Qxact_merge", NULL, NULL);
+      qh MERGEexact= True; /* 'Qx' always */
+    }
+    qh_init_B (points, numpoints, dim, ismalloc);
+    qh_qhull();
+    qh_check_output();
+    qh_produce_output();
+    if (qh VERIFYoutput && !qh FORCEoutput && !qh STOPpoint && !qh STOPcone)
+      qh_check_points();
+    exitcode= qh_ERRnone;
+  }
+  qh NOerrexit= True;  /* no more setjmp */
+#ifdef qh_NOmem
+  qh_freeqhull( True);
+#else
+  qh_freeqhull( False);
+  qh_memfreeshort (&curlong, &totlong);
+  if (curlong || totlong) 
+    fprintf (stderr, "qhull internal warning (main): did not free %d bytes of long memory (%d pieces)\n",
+       totlong, curlong);
+#endif
+  return exitcode;
+} /* main */
+

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qdelaun.c
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qdelaun.c	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qdelaun.c	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,324 @@
+/*<html><pre>  -<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="TOP">-</a>
+
+   qdelaun.c
+     compute Delaunay triangulations and furthest-point Delaunay
+     triangulations using qhull
+
+   see unix.c for full interface
+
+   copyright (c) 1993-2003, The Geometry Center
+*/
+
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <ctype.h>
+#include <math.h>
+#include "qhull.h"
+#include "mem.h"
+#include "qset.h"
+
+#if __MWERKS__ && __POWERPC__
+#include <SIOUX.h>
+#include <Files.h>
+#include <console.h>
+#include <Desk.h>
+
+#elif __cplusplus
+extern "C" {
+  int isatty (int);
+}
+
+#elif _MSC_VER
+#include <io.h>
+#define isatty _isatty
+
+#else
+int isatty (int);  /* returns 1 if stdin is a tty
+		   if "Undefined symbol" this can be deleted along with call in main() */
+#endif
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="prompt">-</a>
+
+  qh_prompt 
+    long prompt for qhull
+    
+  notes:
+    restricted version of qhull.c
+ 
+  see:
+    concise prompt below
+*/  
+
+/* duplicated in qdelau_f.htm and qdelaun.htm */
+char hidden_options[]=" d n v H U Qb QB Qc Qf Qg Qi Qm Qr QR Qv Qx TR E V FC Fi Fo Ft Fp FV Q0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 ";
+
+char qh_prompta[]= "\n\
+qdelaunay- compute the Delaunay triangulation\n\
+    http://www.qhull.org  %s\n\
+\n\
+input (stdin):\n\
+    first lines: dimension and number of points (or vice-versa).\n\
+    other lines: point coordinates, best if one point per line\n\
+    comments:    start with a non-numeric character\n\
+\n\
+options:\n\
+    Qu   - compute furthest-site Delaunay triangulation\n\
+    Qt   - triangulated output\n\
+    QJ   - joggled input instead of merged facets\n\
+\n\
+Qhull control options:\n\
+    QJn  - randomly joggle input in range [-n,n]\n\
+%s%s%s%s";  /* split up qh_prompt for Visual C++ */
+char qh_promptb[]= "\
+    Qs   - search all points for the initial simplex\n\
+    Qz   - add point-at-infinity to Delaunay triangulation\n\
+    QGn  - print Delaunay region if visible from point n, -n if not\n\
+    QVn  - print Delaunay regions that include point n, -n if not\n\
+\n\
+";
+char qh_promptc[]= "\
+Trace options:\n\
+    T4   - trace at level n, 4=all, 5=mem/gauss, -1= events\n\
+    Tc   - check frequently during execution\n\
+    Ts   - print statistics\n\
+    Tv   - verify result: structure, convexity, and in-circle test\n\
+    Tz   - send all output to stdout\n\
+    TFn  - report summary when n or more facets created\n\
+    TI file - input data from file, no spaces or single quotes\n\
+    TO file - output results to file, may be enclosed in single quotes\n\
+    TPn  - turn on tracing when point n added to hull\n\
+     TMn - turn on tracing at merge n\n\
+     TWn - trace merge facets when width > n\n\
+    TVn  - stop qhull after adding point n, -n for before (see TCn)\n\
+     TCn - stop qhull after building cone for point n (see TVn)\n\
+\n\
+Precision options:\n\
+    Cn   - radius of centrum (roundoff added).  Merge facets if non-convex\n\
+     An  - cosine of maximum angle.  Merge facets if cosine > n or non-convex\n\
+           C-0 roundoff, A-0.99/C-0.01 pre-merge, A0.99/C0.01 post-merge\n\
+    Rn   - randomly perturb computations by a factor of [1-n,1+n]\n\
+    Wn   - min facet width for outside point (before roundoff)\n\
+\n\
+Output formats (may be combined; if none, produces a summary to stdout):\n\
+    f    - facet dump\n\
+    G    - Geomview output (see below)\n\
+    i    - vertices incident to each Delaunay region\n\
+    m    - Mathematica output (2-d only, lifted to a paraboloid)\n\
+    o    - OFF format (dim, points, and facets as a paraboloid)\n\
+    p    - point coordinates (lifted to a paraboloid)\n\
+    s    - summary (stderr)\n\
+\n\
+";
+char qh_promptd[]= "\
+More formats:\n\
+    Fa   - area for each Delaunay region\n\
+    FA   - compute total area for option 's'\n\
+    Fc   - count plus coincident points for each Delaunay region\n\
+    Fd   - use cdd format for input (homogeneous with offset first)\n\
+    FD   - use cdd format for numeric output (offset first)\n\
+    FF   - facet dump without ridges\n\
+    FI   - ID of each Delaunay region\n\
+    Fm   - merge count for each Delaunay region (511 max)\n\
+    FM   - Maple output (2-d only, lifted to a paraboloid)\n\
+    Fn   - count plus neighboring region for each Delaunay region\n\
+    FN   - count plus neighboring region for each point\n\
+    FO   - options and precision constants\n\
+    FP   - nearest point and distance for each coincident point\n\
+    FQ   - command used for qdelaunay\n\
+    Fs   - summary: #int (8), dimension, #points, tot vertices, tot facets,\n\
+                    for output: #vertices, #Delaunay regions,\n\
+                                #coincident points, #non-simplicial regions\n\
+                    #real (2), max outer plane, min vertex\n\
+    FS   - sizes:   #int (0)\n\
+                    #real(2) tot area, 0\n\
+    Fv   - count plus vertices for each Delaunay region\n\
+    Fx   - extreme points of Delaunay triangulation (on convex hull)\n\
+\n\
+";
+char qh_prompte[]= "\
+Geomview options (2-d and 3-d)\n\
+    Ga   - all points as dots\n\
+     Gp  -  coplanar points and vertices as radii\n\
+     Gv  -  vertices as spheres\n\
+    Gi   - inner planes only\n\
+     Gn  -  no planes\n\
+     Go  -  outer planes only\n\
+    Gc	   - centrums\n\
+    Gh   - hyperplane intersections\n\
+    Gr   - ridges\n\
+    GDn  - drop dimension n in 3-d and 4-d output\n\
+    Gt   - transparent outer ridges to view 3-d Delaunay\n\
+\n\
+Print options:\n\
+    PAn  - keep n largest Delaunay regions by area\n\
+    Pdk:n - drop facet if normal[k] <= n (default 0.0)\n\
+    PDk:n - drop facet if normal[k] >= n\n\
+    Pg   - print good Delaunay regions (needs 'QGn' or 'QVn')\n\
+    PFn  - keep Delaunay regions whose area is at least n\n\
+    PG   - print neighbors of good regions (needs 'QGn' or 'QVn')\n\
+    PMn  - keep n Delaunay regions with most merges\n\
+    Po   - force output.  If error, output neighborhood of facet\n\
+    Pp   - do not report precision problems\n\
+\n\
+    .    - list of all options\n\
+    -    - one line descriptions of all options\n\
+";
+/* for opts, don't assign 'e' or 'E' to a flag (already used for exponent) */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="prompt2">-</a>
+
+  qh_prompt2
+    synopsis for qhull 
+*/  
+char qh_prompt2[]= "\n\
+qdelaunay- compute the Delaunay triangulation.  Qhull %s\n\
+    input (stdin): dimension, number of points, point coordinates\n\
+    comments start with a non-numeric character\n\
+\n\
+options (qdelaun.htm):\n\
+    Qu   - furthest-site Delaunay triangulation\n\
+    Qt   - triangulated output\n\
+    QJ   - joggled input instead of merged facets\n\
+    Tv   - verify result: structure, convexity, and in-circle test\n\
+    .    - concise list of all options\n\
+    -    - one-line description of all options\n\
+\n\
+output options (subset):\n\
+    s    - summary of results (default)\n\
+    i    - vertices incident to each Delaunay region\n\
+    Fx   - extreme points (vertices of the convex hull)\n\
+    o    - OFF format (shows the points lifted to a paraboloid)\n\
+    G    - Geomview output (2-d and 3-d points lifted to a paraboloid)\n\
+    m    - Mathematica output (2-d inputs lifted to a paraboloid)\n\
+    QVn  - print Delaunay regions that include point n, -n if not\n\
+    TO file- output results to file, may be enclosed in single quotes\n\
+\n\
+examples:\n\
+    rbox c P0 D2 | qdelaunay s o          rbox c P0 D2 | qdelaunay i\n\
+    rbox c P0 D2 | qdelaunay Fv           rbox c P0 D2 | qdelaunay s Qu Fv\n\
+    rbox c G1 d D2 | qdelaunay s i        rbox c G1 d D2 | qdelaunay Qt\n\
+    rbox M3,4 z 100 D2 | qdelaunay s      rbox M3,4 z 100 D2 | qdelaunay s Qt\n\
+\n\
+";
+/* for opts, don't assign 'e' or 'E' to a flag (already used for exponent) */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="prompt3">-</a>
+
+  qh_prompt3
+    concise prompt for qhull 
+*/  
+char qh_prompt3[]= "\n\
+Qhull %s.\n\
+Except for 'F.' and 'PG', upper-case options take an argument.\n\
+\n\
+ incidences     mathematica    OFF_format     points_lifted  summary\n\
+ facet_dump\n\
+\n\
+ Farea          FArea_total    Fcoincident    Fd_cdd_in      FD_cdd_out\n\
+ FF_dump_xridge FIDs           Fmerges        Fneighbors     FNeigh_vertex\n\
+ FOptions       FPoint_near    FQdelaun       Fsummary       FSize\n\
+ Fvertices      Fxtremes       FMaple\n\
+\n\
+ Gvertices      Gpoints        Gall_points    Gno_planes     Ginner\n\
+ Gcentrums      Ghyperplanes   Gridges        Gouter         GDrop_dim\n\
+ Gtransparent\n\
+\n\
+ PArea_keep     Pdrop d0:0D0   Pgood          PFacet_area_keep\n\
+ PGood_neighbors PMerge_keep   Poutput_forced Pprecision_not\n\
+\n\
+ QGood_point    QJoggle        Qsearch_1st    Qtriangulate   QupperDelaunay\n\
+ QVertex_good   Qzinfinite\n\
+\n\
+ T4_trace       Tcheck_often   Tstatistics    Tverify        Tz_stdout\n\
+ TFacet_log     TInput_file    TPoint_trace   TMerge_trace   TOutput_file\n\
+ TWide_trace    TVertex_stop   TCone_stop\n\
+\n\
+ Angle_max      Centrum_size   Random_dist    Wide_outside\n\
+";
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="main">-</a>
+  
+  main( argc, argv )
+    processes the command line, calls qhull() to do the work, and exits
+  
+  design:
+    initializes data structures
+    reads points
+    finishes initialization
+    computes convex hull and other structures
+    checks the result
+    writes the output
+    frees memory
+*/
+int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
+  int curlong, totlong; /* used !qh_NOmem */
+  int exitcode, numpoints, dim;
+  coordT *points;
+  boolT ismalloc;
+
+#if __MWERKS__ && __POWERPC__
+  char inBuf[BUFSIZ], outBuf[BUFSIZ], errBuf[BUFSIZ];
+  SIOUXSettings.showstatusline= false;
+  SIOUXSettings.tabspaces= 1;
+  SIOUXSettings.rows= 40;
+  if (setvbuf (stdin, inBuf, _IOFBF, sizeof(inBuf)) < 0   /* w/o, SIOUX I/O is slow*/
+  || setvbuf (stdout, outBuf, _IOFBF, sizeof(outBuf)) < 0
+  || (stdout != stderr && setvbuf (stderr, errBuf, _IOFBF, sizeof(errBuf)) < 0)) 
+    fprintf (stderr, "qhull internal warning (main): could not change stdio to fully buffered.\n");
+  argc= ccommand(&argv);
+#endif
+
+  if ((argc == 1) && isatty( 0 /*stdin*/)) {      
+    fprintf(stdout, qh_prompt2, qh_version);
+    exit(qh_ERRnone);
+  }
+  if (argc > 1 && *argv[1] == '-' && !*(argv[1]+1)) {
+    fprintf(stdout, qh_prompta, qh_version,
+		qh_promptb, qh_promptc, qh_promptd, qh_prompte);
+    exit(qh_ERRnone);
+  }
+  if (argc >1 && *argv[1] == '.' && !*(argv[1]+1)) {
+    fprintf(stdout, qh_prompt3, qh_version);
+    exit(qh_ERRnone);
+  }
+  qh_init_A (stdin, stdout, stderr, argc, argv);  /* sets qh qhull_command */
+  exitcode= setjmp (qh errexit); /* simple statement for CRAY J916 */
+  if (!exitcode) {
+    qh_option ("delaunay  Qbbound-last", NULL, NULL);
+    qh DELAUNAY= True;     /* 'd'   */
+    qh SCALElast= True;    /* 'Qbb' */
+    qh KEEPcoplanar= True; /* 'Qc', to keep coplanars in 'p' */
+    qh_checkflags (qh qhull_command, hidden_options);
+    qh_initflags (qh qhull_command);
+    points= qh_readpoints (&numpoints, &dim, &ismalloc);
+    if (dim >= 5) {
+      qh_option ("Qxact_merge", NULL, NULL);
+      qh MERGEexact= True; /* 'Qx' always */
+    }
+    qh_init_B (points, numpoints, dim, ismalloc);
+    qh_qhull();
+    qh_check_output();
+    qh_produce_output();
+    if (qh VERIFYoutput && !qh FORCEoutput && !qh STOPpoint && !qh STOPcone)
+      qh_check_points();
+    exitcode= qh_ERRnone;
+  }
+  qh NOerrexit= True;  /* no more setjmp */
+#ifdef qh_NOmem
+  qh_freeqhull( True);
+#else
+  qh_freeqhull( False);
+  qh_memfreeshort (&curlong, &totlong);
+  if (curlong || totlong) 
+    fprintf (stderr, "qhull internal warning (main): did not free %d bytes of long memory (%d pieces)\n",
+       totlong, curlong);
+#endif
+  return exitcode;
+} /* main */
+

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qhalf.c
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qhalf.c	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qhalf.c	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,325 @@
+/*<html><pre>  -<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="TOP">-</a>
+
+   qhalf.c
+     compute the intersection of halfspaces about a point
+
+   see unix.c for full interface
+
+   copyright (c) 1993-2003, The Geometry Center
+*/
+
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <ctype.h>
+#include <math.h>
+#include "qhull.h"
+#include "mem.h"
+#include "qset.h"
+
+#if __MWERKS__ && __POWERPC__
+#include <SIOUX.h>
+#include <Files.h>
+#include <console.h>
+#include <Desk.h>
+
+#elif __cplusplus
+extern "C" {
+  int isatty (int);
+}
+
+#elif _MSC_VER
+#include <io.h>
+#define isatty _isatty
+
+#else
+int isatty (int);  /* returns 1 if stdin is a tty
+		   if "Undefined symbol" this can be deleted along with call in main() */
+#endif
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="prompt">-</a>
+
+  qh_prompt 
+    long prompt for qhull
+    
+  notes:
+    restricted version of qhull.c
+ 
+  see:
+    concise prompt below
+*/  
+
+/* duplicated in qhalf.htm */
+char hidden_options[]=" d n v Qbb QbB Qf Qg Qm Qr QR Qv Qx Qz TR E V Fa FA FC FD FS Ft FV Gt Q0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 ";
+
+char qh_prompta[]= "\n\
+qhalf- compute the intersection of halfspaces about a point\n\
+    http://www.qhull.org  %s\n\
+\n\
+input (stdin):\n\
+    optional interior point: dimension, 1, coordinates\n\
+    first lines: dimension+1 and number of halfspaces\n\
+    other lines: halfspace coefficients followed by offset\n\
+    comments:    start with a non-numeric character\n\
+\n\
+options:\n\
+    Hn,n - specify coordinates of interior point\n\
+    Qt   - triangulated output\n\
+    QJ   - joggled input instead of merged facets\n\
+    Qc   - keep coplanar halfspaces\n\
+    Qi   - keep other redundant halfspaces\n\
+\n\
+Qhull control options:\n\
+    QJn  - randomly joggle input in range [-n,n]\n\
+%s%s%s%s";  /* split up qh_prompt for Visual C++ */
+char qh_promptb[]= "\
+    Qbk:0Bk:0 - remove k-th coordinate from input\n\
+    Qs   - search all halfspaces for the initial simplex\n\
+    QGn  - print intersection if visible to halfspace n, -n for not\n\
+    QVn  - print intersections for halfspace n, -n if not\n\
+\n\
+";
+char qh_promptc[]= "\
+Trace options:\n\
+    T4   - trace at level n, 4=all, 5=mem/gauss, -1= events\n\
+    Tc   - check frequently during execution\n\
+    Ts   - print statistics\n\
+    Tv   - verify result: structure, convexity, and redundancy\n\
+    Tz   - send all output to stdout\n\
+    TFn  - report summary when n or more facets created\n\
+    TI file - input data from file, no spaces or single quotes\n\
+    TO file - output results to file, may be enclosed in single quotes\n\
+    TPn  - turn on tracing when halfspace n added to intersection\n\
+    TMn  - turn on tracing at merge n\n\
+    TWn  - trace merge facets when width > n\n\
+    TVn  - stop qhull after adding halfspace n, -n for before (see TCn)\n\
+    TCn  - stop qhull after building cone for halfspace n (see TVn)\n\
+\n\
+Precision options:\n\
+    Cn   - radius of centrum (roundoff added).  Merge facets if non-convex\n\
+     An  - cosine of maximum angle.  Merge facets if cosine > n or non-convex\n\
+           C-0 roundoff, A-0.99/C-0.01 pre-merge, A0.99/C0.01 post-merge\n\
+    Rn   - randomly perturb computations by a factor of [1-n,1+n]\n\
+    Un   - max distance below plane for a new, coplanar halfspace\n\
+    Wn   - min facet width for outside halfspace (before roundoff)\n\
+\n\
+Output formats (may be combined; if none, produces a summary to stdout):\n\
+    f    - facet dump\n\
+    G    - Geomview output (dual convex hull)\n\
+    i    - non-redundant halfspaces incident to each intersection\n\
+    m    - Mathematica output (dual convex hull)\n\
+    o    - OFF format (dual convex hull: dimension, points, and facets)\n\
+    p    - vertex coordinates of dual convex hull (coplanars if 'Qc' or 'Qi')\n\
+    s    - summary (stderr)\n\
+\n\
+";
+char qh_promptd[]= "\
+More formats:\n\
+    Fc   - count plus redundant halfspaces for each intersection\n\
+         -   Qc (default) for coplanar and Qi for other redundant\n\
+    Fd   - use cdd format for input (homogeneous with offset first)\n\
+    FF   - facet dump without ridges\n\
+    FI   - ID of each intersection\n\
+    Fm   - merge count for each intersection (511 max)\n\
+    FM   - Maple output (dual convex hull)\n\
+    Fn   - count plus neighboring intersections for each intersection\n\
+    FN   - count plus intersections for each non-redundant halfspace\n\
+    FO   - options and precision constants\n\
+    Fp   - dim, count, and intersection coordinates\n\
+    FP   - nearest halfspace and distance for each redundant halfspace\n\
+    FQ   - command used for qhalf\n\
+    Fs   - summary: #int (8), dim, #halfspaces, #non-redundant, #intersections\n\
+                      for output: #non-redundant, #intersections, #coplanar\n\
+                                  halfspaces, #non-simplicial intersections\n\
+                    #real (2), max outer plane, min vertex\n\
+    Fv   - count plus non-redundant halfspaces for each intersection\n\
+    Fx   - non-redundant halfspaces\n\
+\n\
+";
+char qh_prompte[]= "\
+Geomview output (2-d, 3-d and 4-d; dual convex hull)\n\
+    Ga   - all points (i.e., transformed halfspaces) as dots\n\
+     Gp  -  coplanar points and vertices as radii\n\
+     Gv  -  vertices (i.e., non-redundant halfspaces) as spheres\n\
+    Gi   - inner planes (i.e., halfspace intersections) only\n\
+     Gn  -  no planes\n\
+     Go  -  outer planes only\n\
+    Gc	 - centrums\n\
+    Gh   - hyperplane intersections\n\
+    Gr   - ridges\n\
+    GDn  - drop dimension n in 3-d and 4-d output\n\
+\n\
+Print options:\n\
+    PAn  - keep n largest facets (i.e., intersections) by area\n\
+    Pdk:n- drop facet if normal[k] <= n (default 0.0)\n\
+    PDk:n- drop facet if normal[k] >= n\n\
+    Pg   - print good facets (needs 'QGn' or 'QVn')\n\
+    PFn  - keep facets whose area is at least n\n\
+    PG   - print neighbors of good facets\n\
+    PMn  - keep n facets with most merges\n\
+    Po   - force output.  If error, output neighborhood of facet\n\
+    Pp   - do not report precision problems\n\
+\n\
+    .    - list of all options\n\
+    -    - one line descriptions of all options\n\
+";
+/* for opts, don't assign 'e' or 'E' to a flag (already used for exponent) */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="prompt2">-</a>
+
+  qh_prompt2
+    synopsis for qhull 
+*/  
+char qh_prompt2[]= "\n\
+qhalf- halfspace intersection about a point.  Qhull %s\n\
+    input (stdin): [dim, 1, interior point], dim+1, n, coefficients+offset\n\
+    comments start with a non-numeric character\n\
+\n\
+options (qhalf.htm):\n\
+    Hn,n - specify coordinates of interior point\n\
+    Qt   - triangulated output\n\
+    QJ   - joggled input instead of merged facets\n\
+    Tv   - verify result: structure, convexity, and redundancy\n\
+    .    - concise list of all options\n\
+    -    - one-line description of all options\n\
+\n\
+output options (subset):\n\
+    s    - summary of results (default)\n\
+    Fp   - intersection coordinates\n\
+    Fv   - non-redundant halfspaces incident to each intersection\n\
+    Fx   - non-redundant halfspaces\n\
+    o    - OFF file format (dual convex hull)\n\
+    G    - Geomview output (dual convex hull)\n\
+    m    - Mathematica output (dual convex hull)\n\
+    QVn  - print intersections for halfspace n, -n if not\n\
+    TO file - output results to file, may be enclosed in single quotes\n\
+\n\
+examples:\n\
+    rbox d | qconvex FQ n | qhalf s H0,0,0 Fp\n\
+    rbox c | qconvex FQ FV n | qhalf s i\n\
+    rbox c | qconvex FQ FV n | qhalf s o\n\
+\n\
+";
+/* for opts, don't assign 'e' or 'E' to a flag (already used for exponent) */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="prompt3">-</a>
+
+  qh_prompt3
+    concise prompt for qhull 
+*/  
+char qh_prompt3[]= "\n\
+Qhull %s.\n\
+Except for 'F.' and 'PG', upper_case options take an argument.\n\
+\n\
+ incidences     Geomview       mathematica    OFF_format     point_dual\n\
+ summary        facet_dump\n\
+\n\
+ Fc_redundant   Fd_cdd_in      FF_dump_xridge FIDs           Fmerges\n\
+ Fneighbors     FN_intersect   FOptions       Fp_coordinates FP_nearest\n\
+ FQhalf         Fsummary       Fv_halfspace   FMaple         Fx_non_redundant\n\
+\n\
+ Gvertices      Gpoints        Gall_points    Gno_planes     Ginner\n\
+ Gcentrums      Ghyperplanes   Gridges        Gouter         GDrop_dim\n\
+\n\
+ PArea_keep     Pdrop d0:0D0   Pgood          PFacet_area_keep\n\
+ PGood_neighbors PMerge_keep   Poutput_forced Pprecision_not\n\
+\n\
+ Qbk:0Bk:0_drop Qcoplanar      QG_half_good   Qi_redundant   QJoggle\n\
+ Qsearch_1st    Qtriangulate   QVertex_good\n\
+\n\
+ T4_trace       Tcheck_often   Tstatistics    Tverify        Tz_stdout\n\
+ TFacet_log     TInput_file    TPoint_trace   TMerge_trace   TOutput_file\n\
+ TWide_trace    TVertex_stop   TCone_stop\n\
+\n\
+ Angle_max      Centrum_size   Random_dist    Ucoplanar_max  Wide_outside\n\
+";
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="main">-</a>
+  
+  main( argc, argv )
+    processes the command line, calls qhull() to do the work, and exits
+  
+  design:
+    initializes data structures
+    reads points
+    finishes initialization
+    computes convex hull and other structures
+    checks the result
+    writes the output
+    frees memory
+*/
+int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
+  int curlong, totlong; /* used !qh_NOmem */
+  int exitcode, numpoints, dim;
+  coordT *points;
+  boolT ismalloc;
+
+#if __MWERKS__ && __POWERPC__
+  char inBuf[BUFSIZ], outBuf[BUFSIZ], errBuf[BUFSIZ];
+  SIOUXSettings.showstatusline= false;
+  SIOUXSettings.tabspaces= 1;
+  SIOUXSettings.rows= 40;
+  if (setvbuf (stdin, inBuf, _IOFBF, sizeof(inBuf)) < 0   /* w/o, SIOUX I/O is slow*/
+  || setvbuf (stdout, outBuf, _IOFBF, sizeof(outBuf)) < 0
+  || (stdout != stderr && setvbuf (stderr, errBuf, _IOFBF, sizeof(errBuf)) < 0)) 
+    fprintf (stderr, "qhull internal warning (main): could not change stdio to fully buffered.\n");
+  argc= ccommand(&argv);
+#endif
+
+  if ((argc == 1) && isatty( 0 /*stdin*/)) {      
+    fprintf(stdout, qh_prompt2, qh_version);
+    exit(qh_ERRnone);
+  }
+  if (argc > 1 && *argv[1] == '-' && !*(argv[1]+1)) {
+    fprintf(stdout, qh_prompta, qh_version, 
+        qh_promptb, qh_promptc, qh_promptd, qh_prompte);
+    exit(qh_ERRnone);
+  }
+  if (argc >1 && *argv[1] == '.' && !*(argv[1]+1)) {
+    fprintf(stdout, qh_prompt3, qh_version);
+    exit(qh_ERRnone);
+  }
+  qh_init_A (stdin, stdout, stderr, argc, argv);  /* sets qh qhull_command */
+  exitcode= setjmp (qh errexit); /* simple statement for CRAY J916 */
+  if (!exitcode) {
+    qh_option ("Halfspace", NULL, NULL);
+    qh HALFspace= True;    /* 'H'   */
+    qh_checkflags (qh qhull_command, hidden_options);
+    qh_initflags (qh qhull_command);
+    if (qh SCALEinput) {
+      fprintf(qh ferr, "\
+qhull error: options 'Qbk:n' and 'QBk:n' are not used with qhalf.\n\
+             Use 'Qbk:0Bk:0 to drop dimension k.\n");
+      qh_errexit(qh_ERRinput, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+    points= qh_readpoints (&numpoints, &dim, &ismalloc);
+    if (dim >= 5) {
+      qh_option ("Qxact_merge", NULL, NULL);
+      qh MERGEexact= True; /* 'Qx' always */
+    }
+    qh_init_B (points, numpoints, dim, ismalloc);
+    qh_qhull();
+    qh_check_output();
+    qh_produce_output();
+    if (qh VERIFYoutput && !qh FORCEoutput && !qh STOPpoint && !qh STOPcone)
+      qh_check_points();
+    exitcode= qh_ERRnone;
+  }
+  qh NOerrexit= True;  /* no more setjmp */
+#ifdef qh_NOmem
+  qh_freeqhull( True);
+#else
+  qh_freeqhull( False);
+  qh_memfreeshort (&curlong, &totlong);
+  if (curlong || totlong) 
+    fprintf (stderr, "qhull internal warning (main): did not free %d bytes of long memory (%d pieces)\n",
+       totlong, curlong);
+#endif
+  return exitcode;
+} /* main */
+

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qhull.c
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qhull.c	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qhull.c	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,1396 @@
+/*<html><pre>  -<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="TOP">-</a>
+
+   qhull.c
+   Quickhull algorithm for convex hulls
+
+   qhull() and top-level routines
+
+   see qh-qhull.htm, qhull.h, unix.c
+
+   see qhull_a.h for internal functions
+
+   copyright (c) 1993-2003 The Geometry Center        
+*/
+
+#include "qhull_a.h" 
+
+/*============= functions in alphabetic order after qhull() =======*/
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="qhull">-</a>
+  
+  qh_qhull()
+    compute DIM3 convex hull of qh.num_points starting at qh.first_point
+    qh contains all global options and variables
+
+  returns:
+    returns polyhedron
+      qh.facet_list, qh.num_facets, qh.vertex_list, qh.num_vertices,
+    
+    returns global variables
+      qh.hulltime, qh.max_outside, qh.interior_point, qh.max_vertex, qh.min_vertex
+    
+    returns precision constants
+      qh.ANGLEround, centrum_radius, cos_max, DISTround, MAXabs_coord, ONEmerge
+
+  notes:
+    unless needed for output
+      qh.max_vertex and qh.min_vertex are max/min due to merges
+      
+  see:
+    to add individual points to either qh.num_points
+      use qh_addpoint()
+      
+    if qh.GETarea
+      qh_produceoutput() returns qh.totarea and qh.totvol via qh_getarea()
+
+  design:
+    record starting time
+    initialize hull and partition points
+    build convex hull
+    unless early termination
+      update facet->maxoutside for vertices, coplanar, and near-inside points
+    error if temporary sets exist
+    record end time
+*/
+
+void qh_qhull (void) {
+  int numoutside;
+
+  qh hulltime= qh_CPUclock;
+  if (qh RERUN || qh JOGGLEmax < REALmax/2) 
+    qh_build_withrestart();
+  else {
+    qh_initbuild();
+    qh_buildhull();
+  }
+  if (!qh STOPpoint && !qh STOPcone) {
+    if (qh ZEROall_ok && !qh TESTvneighbors && qh MERGEexact)
+      qh_checkzero( qh_ALL);
+    if (qh ZEROall_ok && !qh TESTvneighbors && !qh WAScoplanar) {
+      trace2((qh ferr, "qh_qhull: all facets are clearly convex and no coplanar points.  Post-merging and check of maxout not needed.\n"));
+      qh DOcheckmax= False;
+    }else {
+      if (qh MERGEexact || (qh hull_dim > qh_DIMreduceBuild && qh PREmerge))
+        qh_postmerge ("First post-merge", qh premerge_centrum, qh premerge_cos, 
+             (qh POSTmerge ? False : qh TESTvneighbors));
+      else if (!qh POSTmerge && qh TESTvneighbors) 
+        qh_postmerge ("For testing vertex neighbors", qh premerge_centrum,
+             qh premerge_cos, True); 
+      if (qh POSTmerge)
+        qh_postmerge ("For post-merging", qh postmerge_centrum, 
+             qh postmerge_cos, qh TESTvneighbors);
+      if (qh visible_list == qh facet_list) { /* i.e., merging done */
+        qh findbestnew= True;
+        qh_partitionvisible (/*visible_list, newfacet_list*/ !qh_ALL, &numoutside);
+        qh findbestnew= False;
+        qh_deletevisible (/*qh visible_list*/);
+        qh_resetlists (False, qh_RESETvisible /*qh visible_list newvertex_list newfacet_list */);
+      }
+    }
+    if (qh DOcheckmax){
+      if (qh REPORTfreq) {
+	qh_buildtracing (NULL, NULL); 
+	fprintf (qh ferr, "\nTesting all coplanar points.\n");
+      }
+      qh_check_maxout();
+    }
+    if (qh KEEPnearinside && !qh maxoutdone)  
+      qh_nearcoplanar();
+  }
+  if (qh_setsize ((setT*)qhmem.tempstack) != 0) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_qhull): temporary sets not empty (%d)\n",
+	     qh_setsize ((setT*)qhmem.tempstack));
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  qh hulltime= qh_CPUclock - qh hulltime;
+  qh QHULLfinished= True;
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_qhull: algorithm completed\n"));
+} /* qhull */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="addpoint">-</a>
+  
+  qh_addpoint( furthest, facet, checkdist )
+    add point (usually furthest point) above facet to hull 
+    if checkdist, 
+      check that point is above facet.
+      if point is not outside of the hull, uses qh_partitioncoplanar()
+      assumes that facet is defined by qh_findbestfacet()
+    else if facet specified,
+      assumes that point is above facet (major damage if below)
+    for Delaunay triangulations, 
+      Use qh_setdelaunay() to lift point to paraboloid and scale by 'Qbb' if needed
+      Do not use options 'Qbk', 'QBk', or 'QbB' since they scale the coordinates. 
+
+  returns:
+    returns False if user requested an early termination
+     qh.visible_list, newfacet_list, delvertex_list, NEWfacets may be defined
+    updates qh.facet_list, qh.num_facets, qh.vertex_list, qh.num_vertices
+    clear qh.maxoutdone (will need to call qh_check_maxout() for facet->maxoutside)
+    if unknown point, adds a pointer to qh.other_points
+      do not deallocate the point's coordinates
+  
+  notes:
+    assumes point is near its best facet and not at a local minimum of a lens
+      distributions.  Use qh_findbestfacet to avoid this case.
+    uses qh.visible_list, qh.newfacet_list, qh.delvertex_list, qh.NEWfacets
+
+  see also:
+    qh_triangulate() -- triangulate non-simplicial facets
+
+  design:
+    check point in qh.first_point/.num_points
+    if checkdist
+      if point not above facet
+        partition coplanar point 
+        exit
+    exit if pre STOPpoint requested
+    find horizon and visible facets for point
+    make new facets for point to horizon
+    make hyperplanes for point
+    compute balance statistics
+    match neighboring new facets
+    update vertex neighbors and delete interior vertices
+    exit if STOPcone requested
+    merge non-convex new facets
+    if merge found, many merges, or 'Qf'
+       use qh_findbestnew() instead of qh_findbest()
+    partition outside points from visible facets
+    delete visible facets
+    check polyhedron if requested
+    exit if post STOPpoint requested
+    reset working lists of facets and vertices
+*/
+boolT qh_addpoint (pointT *furthest, facetT *facet, boolT checkdist) {
+  int goodvisible, goodhorizon;
+  vertexT *vertex;
+  facetT *newfacet;
+  realT dist, newbalance, pbalance;
+  boolT isoutside= False;
+  int numpart, numpoints, numnew, firstnew;
+
+  qh maxoutdone= False;
+  if (qh_pointid (furthest) == -1)
+    qh_setappend (&qh other_points, furthest);
+  if (!facet) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_addpoint: NULL facet.  Need to call qh_findbestfacet first\n");
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  if (checkdist) {
+    facet= qh_findbest (furthest, facet, !qh_ALL, !qh_ISnewfacets, !qh_NOupper,
+			&dist, &isoutside, &numpart);
+    zzadd_(Zpartition, numpart);
+    if (!isoutside) {
+      zinc_(Znotmax);  /* last point of outsideset is no longer furthest. */
+      facet->notfurthest= True;
+      qh_partitioncoplanar (furthest, facet, &dist);
+      return True;
+    }
+  }
+  qh_buildtracing (furthest, facet);
+  if (qh STOPpoint < 0 && qh furthest_id == -qh STOPpoint-1) {
+    facet->notfurthest= True;
+    return False;
+  }
+  qh_findhorizon (furthest, facet, &goodvisible, &goodhorizon); 
+  if (qh ONLYgood && !(goodvisible+goodhorizon) && !qh GOODclosest) {
+    zinc_(Znotgood);  
+    facet->notfurthest= True;
+    /* last point of outsideset is no longer furthest.  This is ok
+       since all points of the outside are likely to be bad */
+    qh_resetlists (False, qh_RESETvisible /*qh visible_list newvertex_list newfacet_list */);
+    return True;
+  }
+  zzinc_(Zprocessed);
+  firstnew= qh facet_id;
+  vertex= qh_makenewfacets (furthest /*visible_list, attaches if !ONLYgood */);
+  qh_makenewplanes (/* newfacet_list */);
+  numnew= qh facet_id - firstnew;
+  newbalance= numnew - (realT) (qh num_facets-qh num_visible)
+                         * qh hull_dim/qh num_vertices;
+  wadd_(Wnewbalance, newbalance);
+  wadd_(Wnewbalance2, newbalance * newbalance);
+  if (qh ONLYgood 
+  && !qh_findgood (qh newfacet_list, goodhorizon) && !qh GOODclosest) {
+    FORALLnew_facets 
+      qh_delfacet (newfacet);
+    qh_delvertex (vertex);
+    qh_resetlists (True, qh_RESETvisible /*qh visible_list newvertex_list newfacet_list */);
+    zinc_(Znotgoodnew);
+    facet->notfurthest= True;
+    return True;
+  }
+  if (qh ONLYgood)
+    qh_attachnewfacets(/*visible_list*/);
+  qh_matchnewfacets();
+  qh_updatevertices();
+  if (qh STOPcone && qh furthest_id == qh STOPcone-1) {
+    facet->notfurthest= True;
+    return False;  /* visible_list etc. still defined */
+  }
+  qh findbestnew= False;
+  if (qh PREmerge || qh MERGEexact) {
+    qh_premerge (vertex, qh premerge_centrum, qh premerge_cos);
+    if (qh_USEfindbestnew)
+      qh findbestnew= True;
+    else {
+      FORALLnew_facets {
+	if (!newfacet->simplicial) {
+	  qh findbestnew= True;  /* use qh_findbestnew instead of qh_findbest*/
+	  break;
+	}
+      }
+    }
+  }else if (qh BESToutside)
+    qh findbestnew= True;
+  qh_partitionvisible (/*visible_list, newfacet_list*/ !qh_ALL, &numpoints);
+  qh findbestnew= False;
+  qh findbest_notsharp= False;
+  zinc_(Zpbalance);
+  pbalance= numpoints - (realT) qh hull_dim /* assumes all points extreme */
+                * (qh num_points - qh num_vertices)/qh num_vertices;
+  wadd_(Wpbalance, pbalance);
+  wadd_(Wpbalance2, pbalance * pbalance);
+  qh_deletevisible (/*qh visible_list*/);
+  zmax_(Zmaxvertex, qh num_vertices);
+  qh NEWfacets= False;
+  if (qh IStracing >= 4) {
+    if (qh num_facets < 2000)
+      qh_printlists();
+    qh_printfacetlist (qh newfacet_list, NULL, True);
+    qh_checkpolygon (qh facet_list);
+  }else if (qh CHECKfrequently) {
+    if (qh num_facets < 50)
+      qh_checkpolygon (qh facet_list);
+    else
+      qh_checkpolygon (qh newfacet_list);
+  }
+  if (qh STOPpoint > 0 && qh furthest_id == qh STOPpoint-1) 
+    return False; 
+  qh_resetlists (True, qh_RESETvisible /*qh visible_list newvertex_list newfacet_list */);
+  /* qh_triangulate(); to test qh.TRInormals */
+  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_addpoint: added p%d new facets %d new balance %2.2g point balance %2.2g\n",
+    qh_pointid (furthest), numnew, newbalance, pbalance));
+  return True;
+} /* addpoint */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="build_withrestart">-</a>
+  
+  qh_build_withrestart()
+    allow restarts due to qh.JOGGLEmax while calling qh_buildhull()
+    qh.FIRSTpoint/qh.NUMpoints is point array
+        it may be moved by qh_joggleinput()
+*/
+void qh_build_withrestart (void) {
+  int restart;
+
+  qh ALLOWrestart= True;
+  while (True) {
+    restart= setjmp (qh restartexit); /* simple statement for CRAY J916 */
+    if (restart) {       /* only from qh_precision() */
+      zzinc_(Zretry);
+      wmax_(Wretrymax, qh JOGGLEmax);
+      qh ERREXITcalled= False;
+      qh STOPcone= True; /* if break, prevents normal output */
+    }
+    if (!qh RERUN && qh JOGGLEmax < REALmax/2) {
+      if (qh build_cnt > qh_JOGGLEmaxretry) {
+	fprintf(qh ferr, "\n\
+qhull precision error: %d attempts to construct a convex hull\n\
+        with joggled input.  Increase joggle above 'QJ%2.2g'\n\
+	or modify qh_JOGGLE... parameters in user.h\n",
+	   qh build_cnt, qh JOGGLEmax);
+	qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+      }
+      if (qh build_cnt && !restart)
+	break;
+    }else if (qh build_cnt && qh build_cnt >= qh RERUN)
+      break;
+    qh STOPcone= False;
+    qh_freebuild (True);  /* first call is a nop */
+    qh build_cnt++;
+    if (!qh qhull_optionsiz)
+      qh qhull_optionsiz= strlen (qh qhull_options);
+    else { 
+      qh qhull_options [qh qhull_optionsiz]= '\0';
+      qh qhull_optionlen= 80;
+    }
+    qh_option("_run", &qh build_cnt, NULL);
+    if (qh build_cnt == qh RERUN) {
+      qh IStracing= qh TRACElastrun;  /* duplicated from qh_initqhull_globals */
+      if (qh TRACEpoint != -1 || qh TRACEdist < REALmax/2 || qh TRACEmerge) {
+        qh TRACElevel= (qh IStracing? qh IStracing : 3);
+        qh IStracing= 0;
+      }
+      qhmem.IStracing= qh IStracing;
+    }
+    if (qh JOGGLEmax < REALmax/2)
+      qh_joggleinput();
+    qh_initbuild();
+    qh_buildhull();
+    if (qh JOGGLEmax < REALmax/2 && !qh MERGING)
+      qh_checkconvex (qh facet_list, qh_ALGORITHMfault);
+  }
+  qh ALLOWrestart= False;
+} /* qh_build_withrestart */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="buildhull">-</a>
+  
+  qh_buildhull()
+    construct a convex hull by adding outside points one at a time
+
+  returns:
+  
+  notes:
+    may be called multiple times
+    checks facet and vertex lists for incorrect flags
+    to recover from STOPcone, call qh_deletevisible and qh_resetlists
+
+  design:
+    check visible facet and newfacet flags
+    check newlist vertex flags and qh.STOPcone/STOPpoint
+    for each facet with a furthest outside point
+      add point to facet
+      exit if qh.STOPcone or qh.STOPpoint requested
+    if qh.NARROWhull for initial simplex
+      partition remaining outside points to coplanar sets
+*/
+void qh_buildhull(void) {
+  facetT *facet;
+  pointT *furthest;
+  vertexT *vertex;
+  int id;
+  
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_buildhull: start build hull\n"));
+  FORALLfacets {
+    if (facet->visible || facet->newfacet) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_buildhull): visible or new facet f%d in facet list\n",
+                   facet->id);    
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, facet, NULL);
+    }
+  }
+  FORALLvertices {
+    if (vertex->newlist) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_buildhull): new vertex f%d in vertex list\n",
+                   vertex->id);
+      qh_errprint ("ERRONEOUS", NULL, NULL, NULL, vertex);
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+    id= qh_pointid (vertex->point);
+    if ((qh STOPpoint>0 && id == qh STOPpoint-1) ||
+	(qh STOPpoint<0 && id == -qh STOPpoint-1) ||
+	(qh STOPcone>0 && id == qh STOPcone-1)) {
+      trace1((qh ferr,"qh_buildhull: stop point or cone P%d in initial hull\n", id));
+      return;
+    }
+  }
+  qh facet_next= qh facet_list;      /* advance facet when processed */
+  while ((furthest= qh_nextfurthest (&facet))) {
+    qh num_outside--;  /* if ONLYmax, furthest may not be outside */
+    if (!qh_addpoint (furthest, facet, qh ONLYmax))
+      break;
+  }
+  if (qh NARROWhull) /* move points from outsideset to coplanarset */
+    qh_outcoplanar( /* facet_list */ );
+  if (qh num_outside && !furthest) {
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_buildhull): %d outside points were never processed.\n", qh num_outside);
+    qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_buildhull: completed the hull construction\n"));
+} /* buildhull */
+  
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="buildtracing">-</a>
+  
+  qh_buildtracing( furthest, facet )
+    trace an iteration of qh_buildhull() for furthest point and facet
+    if !furthest, prints progress message
+
+  returns:
+    tracks progress with qh.lastreport
+    updates qh.furthest_id (-3 if furthest is NULL)
+    also resets visit_id, vertext_visit on wrap around
+
+  see:
+    qh_tracemerging()
+
+  design:
+    if !furthest
+      print progress message
+      exit
+    if 'TFn' iteration
+      print progress message
+    else if tracing
+      trace furthest point and facet
+    reset qh.visit_id and qh.vertex_visit if overflow may occur
+    set qh.furthest_id for tracing
+*/
+void qh_buildtracing (pointT *furthest, facetT *facet) {
+  realT dist= 0;
+  float cpu;
+  int total, furthestid;
+  time_t timedata;
+  struct tm *tp;
+  vertexT *vertex;
+
+  qh old_randomdist= qh RANDOMdist;
+  qh RANDOMdist= False;
+  if (!furthest) {
+    time (&timedata);
+    tp= localtime (&timedata);
+    cpu= qh_CPUclock - qh hulltime;
+    cpu /= qh_SECticks;
+    total= zzval_(Ztotmerge) - zzval_(Zcyclehorizon) + zzval_(Zcyclefacettot);
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "\n\
+At %02d:%02d:%02d & %2.5g CPU secs, qhull has created %d facets and merged %d.\n\
+ The current hull contains %d facets and %d vertices.  Last point was p%d\n",
+      tp->tm_hour, tp->tm_min, tp->tm_sec, cpu, qh facet_id -1,
+      total, qh num_facets, qh num_vertices, qh furthest_id);
+    return;
+  }
+  furthestid= qh_pointid (furthest);
+  if (qh TRACEpoint == furthestid) {
+    qh IStracing= qh TRACElevel;
+    qhmem.IStracing= qh TRACElevel;
+  }else if (qh TRACEpoint != -1 && qh TRACEdist < REALmax/2) {
+    qh IStracing= 0;
+    qhmem.IStracing= 0;
+  }
+  if (qh REPORTfreq && (qh facet_id-1 > qh lastreport+qh REPORTfreq)) {
+    qh lastreport= qh facet_id-1;
+    time (&timedata);
+    tp= localtime (&timedata);
+    cpu= qh_CPUclock - qh hulltime;
+    cpu /= qh_SECticks;
+    total= zzval_(Ztotmerge) - zzval_(Zcyclehorizon) + zzval_(Zcyclefacettot);
+    zinc_(Zdistio);
+    qh_distplane (furthest, facet, &dist);
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "\n\
+At %02d:%02d:%02d & %2.5g CPU secs, qhull has created %d facets and merged %d.\n\
+ The current hull contains %d facets and %d vertices.  There are %d\n\
+ outside points.  Next is point p%d (v%d), %2.2g above f%d.\n",
+      tp->tm_hour, tp->tm_min, tp->tm_sec, cpu, qh facet_id -1,
+      total, qh num_facets, qh num_vertices, qh num_outside+1,
+      furthestid, qh vertex_id, dist, getid_(facet));
+  }else if (qh IStracing >=1) {
+    cpu= qh_CPUclock - qh hulltime;
+    cpu /= qh_SECticks;
+    qh_distplane (furthest, facet, &dist);
+    fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_addpoint: add p%d (v%d) to hull of %d facets (%2.2g above f%d) and %d outside at %4.4g CPU secs.  Previous was p%d.\n",
+      furthestid, qh vertex_id, qh num_facets, dist,
+      getid_(facet), qh num_outside+1, cpu, qh furthest_id);
+  }
+  if (qh visit_id > (unsigned) INT_MAX) {
+    qh visit_id= 0;
+    FORALLfacets
+      facet->visitid= qh visit_id;
+  }
+  if (qh vertex_visit > (unsigned) INT_MAX) {
+    qh vertex_visit= 0;
+    FORALLvertices
+      vertex->visitid= qh vertex_visit;
+  }
+  qh furthest_id= furthestid;
+  qh RANDOMdist= qh old_randomdist;
+} /* buildtracing */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="errexit2">-</a>
+  
+  qh_errexit2( exitcode, facet, otherfacet )
+    return exitcode to system after an error
+    report two facets
+
+  returns:
+    assumes exitcode non-zero
+
+  see:
+    normally use qh_errexit() in user.c (reports a facet and a ridge)
+*/
+void qh_errexit2(int exitcode, facetT *facet, facetT *otherfacet) {
+  
+  qh_errprint("ERRONEOUS", facet, otherfacet, NULL, NULL);
+  qh_errexit (exitcode, NULL, NULL);
+} /* errexit2 */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="findhorizon">-</a>
+  
+  qh_findhorizon( point, facet, goodvisible, goodhorizon )
+    given a visible facet, find the point's horizon and visible facets
+    for all facets, !facet-visible
+
+  returns:
+    returns qh.visible_list/num_visible with all visible facets 
+      marks visible facets with ->visible 
+    updates count of good visible and good horizon facets
+    updates qh.max_outside, qh.max_vertex, facet->maxoutside
+
+  see:
+    similar to qh_delpoint()
+
+  design:
+    move facet to qh.visible_list at end of qh.facet_list
+    for all visible facets
+     for each unvisited neighbor of a visible facet
+       compute distance of point to neighbor
+       if point above neighbor
+         move neighbor to end of qh.visible_list
+       else if point is coplanar with neighbor
+         update qh.max_outside, qh.max_vertex, neighbor->maxoutside
+         mark neighbor coplanar (will create a samecycle later)
+         update horizon statistics         
+*/
+void qh_findhorizon(pointT *point, facetT *facet, int *goodvisible, int *goodhorizon) {
+  facetT *neighbor, **neighborp, *visible;
+  int numhorizon= 0, coplanar= 0;
+  realT dist;
+  
+  trace1((qh ferr,"qh_findhorizon: find horizon for point p%d facet f%d\n",qh_pointid(point),facet->id));
+  *goodvisible= *goodhorizon= 0;
+  zinc_(Ztotvisible);
+  qh_removefacet(facet);  /* visible_list at end of qh facet_list */
+  qh_appendfacet(facet);
+  qh num_visible= 1;
+  if (facet->good)
+    (*goodvisible)++;
+  qh visible_list= facet;
+  facet->visible= True;
+  facet->f.replace= NULL;
+  if (qh IStracing >=4)
+    qh_errprint ("visible", facet, NULL, NULL, NULL);
+  qh visit_id++;
+  FORALLvisible_facets {
+    if (visible->tricoplanar && !qh TRInormals) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_findhorizon: does not work for tricoplanar facets.  Use option 'Q11'\n");
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, visible, NULL);
+    }
+    visible->visitid= qh visit_id;
+    FOREACHneighbor_(visible) {
+      if (neighbor->visitid == qh visit_id) 
+        continue;
+      neighbor->visitid= qh visit_id;
+      zzinc_(Znumvisibility);
+      qh_distplane(point, neighbor, &dist);
+      if (dist > qh MINvisible) {
+        zinc_(Ztotvisible);
+	qh_removefacet(neighbor);  /* append to end of qh visible_list */
+	qh_appendfacet(neighbor);
+	neighbor->visible= True;
+        neighbor->f.replace= NULL;
+	qh num_visible++;
+	if (neighbor->good)
+	  (*goodvisible)++;
+        if (qh IStracing >=4)
+          qh_errprint ("visible", neighbor, NULL, NULL, NULL);
+      }else {
+ 	if (dist > - qh MAXcoplanar) {
+    	  neighbor->coplanar= True;
+          zzinc_(Zcoplanarhorizon);
+          qh_precision ("coplanar horizon");
+	  coplanar++;
+	  if (qh MERGING) {
+	    if (dist > 0) {
+	      maximize_(qh max_outside, dist);
+	      maximize_(qh max_vertex, dist);
+#if qh_MAXoutside
+	      maximize_(neighbor->maxoutside, dist);
+#endif
+	    }else
+	      minimize_(qh min_vertex, dist);  /* due to merge later */
+	  }
+      	  trace2((qh ferr, "qh_findhorizon: point p%d is coplanar to horizon f%d, dist=%2.7g < qh MINvisible (%2.7g)\n",
+	      qh_pointid(point), neighbor->id, dist, qh MINvisible));
+	}else
+    	  neighbor->coplanar= False;
+    	zinc_(Ztothorizon);
+        numhorizon++;
+	if (neighbor->good)
+	  (*goodhorizon)++;
+        if (qh IStracing >=4)
+          qh_errprint ("horizon", neighbor, NULL, NULL, NULL);
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  if (!numhorizon) {
+    qh_precision ("empty horizon");
+    fprintf(qh ferr, "qhull precision error (qh_findhorizon): empty horizon\n\
+Point p%d was above all facets.\n", qh_pointid(point));
+    qh_printfacetlist (qh facet_list, NULL, True);
+    qh_errexit(qh_ERRprec, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_findhorizon: %d horizon facets (good %d), %d visible (good %d), %d coplanar\n", 
+       numhorizon, *goodhorizon, qh num_visible, *goodvisible, coplanar));
+  if (qh IStracing >= 4 && qh num_facets < 50) 
+    qh_printlists ();
+} /* findhorizon */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="nextfurthest">-</a>
+  
+  qh_nextfurthest( visible )
+    returns next furthest point and visible facet for qh_addpoint()
+    starts search at qh.facet_next
+
+  returns:
+    removes furthest point from outside set
+    NULL if none available
+    advances qh.facet_next over facets with empty outside sets  
+
+  design:
+    for each facet from qh.facet_next
+      if empty outside set
+        advance qh.facet_next
+      else if qh.NARROWhull
+        determine furthest outside point
+        if furthest point is not outside
+          advance qh.facet_next (point will be coplanar)
+    remove furthest point from outside set
+*/
+pointT *qh_nextfurthest (facetT **visible) {
+  facetT *facet;
+  int size, index;
+  realT randr, dist;
+  pointT *furthest;
+
+  while ((facet= qh facet_next) != qh facet_tail) {
+    if (!facet->outsideset) {
+      qh facet_next= facet->next;
+      continue;
+    }
+    SETreturnsize_(facet->outsideset, size);
+    if (!size) {
+      qh_setfree (&facet->outsideset);
+      qh facet_next= facet->next;
+      continue;
+    }
+    if (qh NARROWhull) {
+      if (facet->notfurthest) 
+	qh_furthestout (facet);
+      furthest= (pointT*)qh_setlast (facet->outsideset);
+#if qh_COMPUTEfurthest
+      qh_distplane (furthest, facet, &dist);
+      zinc_(Zcomputefurthest);
+#else
+      dist= facet->furthestdist;
+#endif
+      if (dist < qh MINoutside) { /* remainder of outside set is coplanar for qh_outcoplanar */
+	qh facet_next= facet->next;
+	continue;
+      }
+    }
+    if (!qh RANDOMoutside && !qh VIRTUALmemory) {
+      if (qh PICKfurthest) {
+	qh_furthestnext (/* qh facet_list */);
+	facet= qh facet_next;
+      }
+      *visible= facet;
+      return ((pointT*)qh_setdellast (facet->outsideset));
+    }
+    if (qh RANDOMoutside) {
+      int outcoplanar = 0;
+      if (qh NARROWhull) {
+        FORALLfacets {
+	  if (facet == qh facet_next)
+	    break;
+	  if (facet->outsideset)
+  	    outcoplanar += qh_setsize( facet->outsideset);
+	}
+      }
+      randr= qh_RANDOMint;
+      randr= randr/(qh_RANDOMmax+1);
+      index= (int)floor((qh num_outside - outcoplanar) * randr);
+      FORALLfacet_(qh facet_next) {
+        if (facet->outsideset) {
+          SETreturnsize_(facet->outsideset, size);
+          if (!size)
+            qh_setfree (&facet->outsideset);
+          else if (size > index) {
+            *visible= facet;
+            return ((pointT*)qh_setdelnth (facet->outsideset, index));
+          }else
+            index -= size;
+        }
+      }
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_nextfurthest): num_outside %d is too low\nby at least %d, or a random real %g >= 1.0\n",
+              qh num_outside, index+1, randr);
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+    }else { /* VIRTUALmemory */
+      facet= qh facet_tail->previous;
+      if (!(furthest= (pointT*)qh_setdellast(facet->outsideset))) {
+        if (facet->outsideset)
+          qh_setfree (&facet->outsideset);
+        qh_removefacet (facet);
+        qh_prependfacet (facet, &qh facet_list);
+        continue;
+      }
+      *visible= facet;
+      return furthest;
+    }
+  }
+  return NULL;
+} /* nextfurthest */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="partitionall">-</a>
+  
+  qh_partitionall( vertices, points, numpoints )
+    partitions all points in points/numpoints to the outsidesets of facets
+    vertices= vertices in qh.facet_list (not partitioned)
+
+  returns:
+    builds facet->outsideset
+    does not partition qh.GOODpoint
+    if qh.ONLYgood && !qh.MERGING, 
+      does not partition qh.GOODvertex
+
+  notes:
+    faster if qh.facet_list sorted by anticipated size of outside set
+
+  design:
+    initialize pointset with all points
+    remove vertices from pointset
+    remove qh.GOODpointp from pointset (unless it's qh.STOPcone or qh.STOPpoint)
+    for all facets
+      for all remaining points in pointset
+        compute distance from point to facet
+        if point is outside facet
+          remove point from pointset (by not reappending)
+          update bestpoint
+          append point or old bestpoint to facet's outside set
+      append bestpoint to facet's outside set (furthest)
+    for all points remaining in pointset
+      partition point into facets' outside sets and coplanar sets
+*/
+void qh_partitionall(setT *vertices, pointT *points, int numpoints){
+  setT *pointset;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  pointT *point, **pointp, *bestpoint;
+  int size, point_i, point_n, point_end, remaining, i, id;
+  facetT *facet;
+  realT bestdist= -REALmax, dist, distoutside;
+    
+  trace1((qh ferr, "qh_partitionall: partition all points into outside sets\n"));
+  pointset= qh_settemp (numpoints);
+  qh num_outside= 0;
+  pointp= SETaddr_(pointset, pointT);
+  for (i=numpoints, point= points; i--; point += qh hull_dim)
+    *(pointp++)= point;
+  qh_settruncate (pointset, numpoints);
+  FOREACHvertex_(vertices) {
+    if ((id= qh_pointid(vertex->point)) >= 0)
+      SETelem_(pointset, id)= NULL;
+  }
+  id= qh_pointid (qh GOODpointp);
+  if (id >=0 && qh STOPcone-1 != id && -qh STOPpoint-1 != id)
+    SETelem_(pointset, id)= NULL;
+  if (qh GOODvertexp && qh ONLYgood && !qh MERGING) { /* matches qhull()*/
+    if ((id= qh_pointid(qh GOODvertexp)) >= 0)
+      SETelem_(pointset, id)= NULL;
+  }
+  if (!qh BESToutside) {  /* matches conditional for qh_partitionpoint below */
+    distoutside= qh_DISToutside; /* multiple of qh.MINoutside & qh.max_outside, see user.h */
+    zval_(Ztotpartition)= qh num_points - qh hull_dim - 1; /*misses GOOD... */
+    remaining= qh num_facets;
+    point_end= numpoints;
+    FORALLfacets {
+      size= point_end/(remaining--) + 100;
+      facet->outsideset= qh_setnew (size);
+      bestpoint= NULL;
+      point_end= 0;
+      FOREACHpoint_i_(pointset) {
+        if (point) {
+          zzinc_(Zpartitionall);
+          qh_distplane (point, facet, &dist);
+          if (dist < distoutside)
+            SETelem_(pointset, point_end++)= point;
+          else {
+	    qh num_outside++;
+            if (!bestpoint) {
+              bestpoint= point;
+              bestdist= dist;
+            }else if (dist > bestdist) {
+              qh_setappend (&facet->outsideset, bestpoint);
+              bestpoint= point;
+              bestdist= dist;
+            }else 
+              qh_setappend (&facet->outsideset, point);
+          }
+        }
+      }
+      if (bestpoint) {
+        qh_setappend (&facet->outsideset, bestpoint);
+#if !qh_COMPUTEfurthest
+	facet->furthestdist= bestdist;
+#endif
+      }else
+        qh_setfree (&facet->outsideset);
+      qh_settruncate (pointset, point_end);
+    }
+  }
+  /* if !qh BESToutside, pointset contains points not assigned to outsideset */
+  if (qh BESToutside || qh MERGING || qh KEEPcoplanar || qh KEEPinside) {
+    qh findbestnew= True;
+    FOREACHpoint_i_(pointset) { 
+      if (point)
+        qh_partitionpoint(point, qh facet_list);
+    }
+    qh findbestnew= False;
+  }
+  zzadd_(Zpartitionall, zzval_(Zpartition));
+  zzval_(Zpartition)= 0;
+  qh_settempfree(&pointset);
+  if (qh IStracing >= 4)
+    qh_printfacetlist (qh facet_list, NULL, True);
+} /* partitionall */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="partitioncoplanar">-</a>
+  
+  qh_partitioncoplanar( point, facet, dist )
+    partition coplanar point to a facet
+    dist is distance from point to facet
+    if dist NULL, 
+      searches for bestfacet and does nothing if inside
+    if qh.findbestnew set, 
+      searches new facets instead of using qh_findbest()
+
+  returns:
+    qh.max_ouside updated
+    if qh.KEEPcoplanar or qh.KEEPinside
+      point assigned to best coplanarset
+  
+  notes:
+    facet->maxoutside is updated at end by qh_check_maxout
+
+  design:
+    if dist undefined
+      find best facet for point
+      if point sufficiently below facet (depends on qh.NEARinside and qh.KEEPinside)
+        exit
+    if keeping coplanar/nearinside/inside points
+      if point is above furthest coplanar point
+        append point to coplanar set (it is the new furthest)
+        update qh.max_outside
+      else
+        append point one before end of coplanar set
+    else if point is clearly outside of qh.max_outside and bestfacet->coplanarset
+    and bestfacet is more than perpendicular to facet
+      repartition the point using qh_findbest() -- it may be put on an outsideset
+    else
+      update qh.max_outside
+*/
+void qh_partitioncoplanar (pointT *point, facetT *facet, realT *dist) {
+  facetT *bestfacet;
+  pointT *oldfurthest;
+  realT bestdist, dist2, angle;
+  int numpart= 0, oldfindbest;
+  boolT isoutside;
+
+  qh WAScoplanar= True;
+  if (!dist) {
+    if (qh findbestnew)
+      bestfacet= qh_findbestnew (point, facet, &bestdist, qh_ALL, &isoutside, &numpart);
+    else
+      bestfacet= qh_findbest (point, facet, qh_ALL, !qh_ISnewfacets, qh DELAUNAY, 
+                          &bestdist, &isoutside, &numpart);
+    zinc_(Ztotpartcoplanar);
+    zzadd_(Zpartcoplanar, numpart);
+    if (!qh DELAUNAY && !qh KEEPinside) { /*  for 'd', bestdist skips upperDelaunay facets */
+      if (qh KEEPnearinside) {
+        if (bestdist < -qh NEARinside) { 
+          zinc_(Zcoplanarinside);
+	  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_partitioncoplanar: point p%d is more than near-inside facet f%d dist %2.2g findbestnew %d\n",
+		  qh_pointid(point), bestfacet->id, bestdist, qh findbestnew));
+          return;
+        }
+      }else if (bestdist < -qh MAXcoplanar) {
+	  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_partitioncoplanar: point p%d is inside facet f%d dist %2.2g findbestnew %d\n",
+		  qh_pointid(point), bestfacet->id, bestdist, qh findbestnew));
+        zinc_(Zcoplanarinside);
+        return;
+      }
+    }
+  }else {
+    bestfacet= facet;
+    bestdist= *dist;
+  }
+  if (bestdist > qh max_outside) {
+    if (!dist && facet != bestfacet) { 
+      zinc_(Zpartangle);
+      angle= qh_getangle(facet->normal, bestfacet->normal);
+      if (angle < 0) {
+	/* typically due to deleted vertex and coplanar facets, e.g.,
+	     RBOX 1000 s Z1 G1e-13 t1001185205 | QHULL Tv */
+	zinc_(Zpartflip);
+	trace2((qh ferr, "qh_partitioncoplanar: repartition point p%d from f%d.  It is above flipped facet f%d dist %2.2g\n",
+		qh_pointid(point), facet->id, bestfacet->id, bestdist));
+	oldfindbest= qh findbestnew;
+        qh findbestnew= False;
+	qh_partitionpoint(point, bestfacet);
+        qh findbestnew= oldfindbest;
+	return;
+      }
+    }
+    qh max_outside= bestdist;
+    if (bestdist > qh TRACEdist) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qh_partitioncoplanar: ====== p%d from f%d increases max_outside to %2.2g of f%d last p%d\n",
+		     qh_pointid(point), facet->id, bestdist, bestfacet->id, qh furthest_id);
+      qh_errprint ("DISTANT", facet, bestfacet, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+  }
+  if (qh KEEPcoplanar + qh KEEPinside + qh KEEPnearinside) {
+    oldfurthest= (pointT*)qh_setlast (bestfacet->coplanarset);
+    if (oldfurthest) {
+      zinc_(Zcomputefurthest);
+      qh_distplane (oldfurthest, bestfacet, &dist2);
+    }
+    if (!oldfurthest || dist2 < bestdist) 
+      qh_setappend(&bestfacet->coplanarset, point);
+    else 
+      qh_setappend2ndlast(&bestfacet->coplanarset, point);
+  }
+  trace4((qh ferr, "qh_partitioncoplanar: point p%d is coplanar with facet f%d (or inside) dist %2.2g\n",
+	  qh_pointid(point), bestfacet->id, bestdist));
+} /* partitioncoplanar */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="partitionpoint">-</a>
+  
+  qh_partitionpoint( point, facet )
+    assigns point to an outside set, coplanar set, or inside set (i.e., dropt)
+    if qh.findbestnew
+      uses qh_findbestnew() to search all new facets
+    else
+      uses qh_findbest()
+  
+  notes:
+    after qh_distplane(), this and qh_findbest() are most expensive in 3-d
+
+  design:
+    find best facet for point 
+      (either exhaustive search of new facets or directed search from facet)
+    if qh.NARROWhull
+      retain coplanar and nearinside points as outside points
+    if point is outside bestfacet
+      if point above furthest point for bestfacet
+        append point to outside set (it becomes the new furthest)
+        if outside set was empty
+          move bestfacet to end of qh.facet_list (i.e., after qh.facet_next)
+        update bestfacet->furthestdist
+      else
+        append point one before end of outside set
+    else if point is coplanar to bestfacet
+      if keeping coplanar points or need to update qh.max_outside
+        partition coplanar point into bestfacet
+    else if near-inside point        
+      partition as coplanar point into bestfacet
+    else is an inside point
+      if keeping inside points 
+        partition as coplanar point into bestfacet
+*/
+void qh_partitionpoint (pointT *point, facetT *facet) {
+  realT bestdist;
+  boolT isoutside;
+  facetT *bestfacet;
+  int numpart;
+#if qh_COMPUTEfurthest
+  realT dist;
+#endif
+
+  if (qh findbestnew)
+    bestfacet= qh_findbestnew (point, facet, &bestdist, qh BESToutside, &isoutside, &numpart);
+  else
+    bestfacet= qh_findbest (point, facet, qh BESToutside, qh_ISnewfacets, !qh_NOupper,
+			  &bestdist, &isoutside, &numpart);
+  zinc_(Ztotpartition);
+  zzadd_(Zpartition, numpart);
+  if (qh NARROWhull) {
+    if (qh DELAUNAY && !isoutside && bestdist >= -qh MAXcoplanar)
+      qh_precision ("nearly incident point (narrow hull)");
+    if (qh KEEPnearinside) {
+      if (bestdist >= -qh NEARinside)
+	isoutside= True;
+    }else if (bestdist >= -qh MAXcoplanar)
+      isoutside= True;
+  }
+
+  if (isoutside) {
+    if (!bestfacet->outsideset 
+    || !qh_setlast (bestfacet->outsideset)) {
+      qh_setappend(&(bestfacet->outsideset), point);
+      if (!bestfacet->newfacet) {
+        qh_removefacet (bestfacet);  /* make sure it's after qh facet_next */
+        qh_appendfacet (bestfacet);
+      }
+#if !qh_COMPUTEfurthest
+      bestfacet->furthestdist= bestdist;
+#endif
+    }else {
+#if qh_COMPUTEfurthest
+      zinc_(Zcomputefurthest);
+      qh_distplane (oldfurthest, bestfacet, &dist);
+      if (dist < bestdist) 
+	qh_setappend(&(bestfacet->outsideset), point);
+      else
+	qh_setappend2ndlast(&(bestfacet->outsideset), point);
+#else
+      if (bestfacet->furthestdist < bestdist) {
+	qh_setappend(&(bestfacet->outsideset), point);
+	bestfacet->furthestdist= bestdist;
+      }else
+	qh_setappend2ndlast(&(bestfacet->outsideset), point);
+#endif
+    }
+    qh num_outside++;
+    trace4((qh ferr, "qh_partitionpoint: point p%d is outside facet f%d new? %d(or narrowhull)\n",
+	  qh_pointid(point), bestfacet->id, bestfacet->newfacet));
+  }else if (qh DELAUNAY || bestdist >= -qh MAXcoplanar) { /* for 'd', bestdist skips upperDelaunay facets */
+    zzinc_(Zcoplanarpart);
+    if (qh DELAUNAY)
+      qh_precision ("nearly incident point");
+    if ((qh KEEPcoplanar + qh KEEPnearinside) || bestdist > qh max_outside) 
+      qh_partitioncoplanar (point, bestfacet, &bestdist);
+    else {
+      trace4((qh ferr, "qh_partitionpoint: point p%d is coplanar to facet f%d (dropped)\n",
+	  qh_pointid(point), bestfacet->id));
+    }
+  }else if (qh KEEPnearinside && bestdist > -qh NEARinside) {
+    zinc_(Zpartnear);
+    qh_partitioncoplanar (point, bestfacet, &bestdist);
+  }else {
+    zinc_(Zpartinside);
+    trace4((qh ferr, "qh_partitionpoint: point p%d is inside all facets, closest to f%d dist %2.2g\n",
+	  qh_pointid(point), bestfacet->id, bestdist));
+    if (qh KEEPinside)
+      qh_partitioncoplanar (point, bestfacet, &bestdist);
+  }
+} /* partitionpoint */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="partitionvisible">-</a>
+  
+  qh_partitionvisible( allpoints, numoutside )
+    partitions points in visible facets to qh.newfacet_list
+    qh.visible_list= visible facets
+    for visible facets
+      1st neighbor (if any) points to a horizon facet or a new facet
+    if allpoints (not used),
+      repartitions coplanar points
+
+  returns:
+    updates outside sets and coplanar sets of qh.newfacet_list
+    updates qh.num_outside (count of outside points)
+  
+  notes:
+    qh.findbest_notsharp should be clear (extra work if set)
+
+  design:
+    for all visible facets with outside set or coplanar set
+      select a newfacet for visible facet
+      if outside set
+        partition outside set into new facets
+      if coplanar set and keeping coplanar/near-inside/inside points
+        if allpoints
+          partition coplanar set into new facets, may be assigned outside
+        else
+          partition coplanar set into coplanar sets of new facets
+    for each deleted vertex
+      if allpoints
+        partition vertex into new facets, may be assigned outside
+      else
+        partition vertex into coplanar sets of new facets
+*/
+void qh_partitionvisible(/*visible_list*/ boolT allpoints, int *numoutside) {
+  facetT *visible, *newfacet;
+  pointT *point, **pointp;
+  int coplanar=0, size;
+  unsigned count;
+  vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+  
+  if (qh ONLYmax)
+    maximize_(qh MINoutside, qh max_vertex);
+  *numoutside= 0;
+  FORALLvisible_facets {
+    if (!visible->outsideset && !visible->coplanarset)
+      continue;
+    newfacet= visible->f.replace;
+    count= 0;
+    while (newfacet && newfacet->visible) {
+      newfacet= newfacet->f.replace;
+      if (count++ > qh facet_id)
+	qh_infiniteloop (visible);
+    }
+    if (!newfacet)
+      newfacet= qh newfacet_list;
+    if (newfacet == qh facet_tail) {
+      fprintf (qh ferr, "qhull precision error (qh_partitionvisible): all new facets deleted as\n        degenerate facets. Can not continue.\n");
+      qh_errexit (qh_ERRprec, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+    if (visible->outsideset) {
+      size= qh_setsize (visible->outsideset);
+      *numoutside += size;
+      qh num_outside -= size;
+      FOREACHpoint_(visible->outsideset) 
+        qh_partitionpoint (point, newfacet);
+    }
+    if (visible->coplanarset && (qh KEEPcoplanar + qh KEEPinside + qh KEEPnearinside)) {
+      size= qh_setsize (visible->coplanarset);
+      coplanar += size;
+      FOREACHpoint_(visible->coplanarset) {
+        if (allpoints) /* not used */
+          qh_partitionpoint (point, newfacet);
+        else
+          qh_partitioncoplanar (point, newfacet, NULL);
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  FOREACHvertex_(qh del_vertices) {
+    if (vertex->point) {
+      if (allpoints) /* not used */
+        qh_partitionpoint (vertex->point, qh newfacet_list);
+      else
+        qh_partitioncoplanar (vertex->point, qh newfacet_list, NULL);
+    }
+  }
+  trace1((qh ferr,"qh_partitionvisible: partitioned %d points from outsidesets and %d points from coplanarsets\n", *numoutside, coplanar));
+} /* partitionvisible */
+
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="precision">-</a>
+  
+  qh_precision( reason )
+    restart on precision errors if not merging and if 'QJn'
+*/
+void qh_precision (char *reason) {
+
+  if (qh ALLOWrestart && !qh PREmerge && !qh MERGEexact) {
+    if (qh JOGGLEmax < REALmax/2) {
+      trace0((qh ferr, "qh_precision: qhull restart because of %s\n", reason));
+      longjmp(qh restartexit, qh_ERRprec);
+    }
+  }
+} /* qh_precision */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="printsummary">-</a>
+  
+  qh_printsummary( fp )
+    prints summary to fp
+
+  notes:
+    not in io.c so that user_eg.c can prevent io.c from loading
+    qh_printsummary and qh_countfacets must match counts
+
+  design:
+    determine number of points, vertices, and coplanar points
+    print summary
+*/
+void qh_printsummary(FILE *fp) {
+  realT ratio, outerplane, innerplane;
+  float cpu;
+  int size, id, nummerged, numvertices, numcoplanars= 0, nonsimplicial=0;
+  int goodused;
+  facetT *facet;
+  char *s;
+  int numdel= zzval_(Zdelvertextot);
+  int numtricoplanars= 0;
+
+  size= qh num_points + qh_setsize (qh other_points);
+  numvertices= qh num_vertices - qh_setsize (qh del_vertices);
+  id= qh_pointid (qh GOODpointp);
+  FORALLfacets {
+    if (facet->coplanarset)
+      numcoplanars += qh_setsize( facet->coplanarset);
+    if (facet->good) {
+      if (facet->simplicial) {
+	if (facet->keepcentrum && facet->tricoplanar)
+	  numtricoplanars++;
+      }else if (qh_setsize(facet->vertices) != qh hull_dim)
+	nonsimplicial++;
+    }
+  }
+  if (id >=0 && qh STOPcone-1 != id && -qh STOPpoint-1 != id)
+    size--;
+  if (qh STOPcone || qh STOPpoint)
+      fprintf (fp, "\nAt a premature exit due to 'TVn', 'TCn', 'TRn', or precision error.");
+  if (qh UPPERdelaunay)
+    goodused= qh GOODvertex + qh GOODpoint + qh SPLITthresholds;
+  else if (qh DELAUNAY)
+    goodused= qh GOODvertex + qh GOODpoint + qh GOODthreshold;
+  else
+    goodused= qh num_good;
+  nummerged= zzval_(Ztotmerge) - zzval_(Zcyclehorizon) + zzval_(Zcyclefacettot);
+  if (qh VORONOI) {
+    if (qh UPPERdelaunay)
+      fprintf (fp, "\n\
+Furthest-site Voronoi vertices by the convex hull of %d points in %d-d:\n\n", size, qh hull_dim);
+    else
+      fprintf (fp, "\n\
+Voronoi diagram by the convex hull of %d points in %d-d:\n\n", size, qh hull_dim);
+    fprintf(fp, "  Number of Voronoi regions%s: %d\n",
+              qh ATinfinity ? " and at-infinity" : "", numvertices);
+    if (numdel)
+      fprintf(fp, "  Total number of deleted points due to merging: %d\n", numdel); 
+    if (numcoplanars - numdel > 0) 
+      fprintf(fp, "  Number of nearly incident points: %d\n", numcoplanars - numdel); 
+    else if (size - numvertices - numdel > 0) 
+      fprintf(fp, "  Total number of nearly incident points: %d\n", size - numvertices - numdel); 
+    fprintf(fp, "  Number of%s Voronoi vertices: %d\n", 
+              goodused ? " 'good'" : "", qh num_good);
+    if (nonsimplicial) 
+      fprintf(fp, "  Number of%s non-simplicial Voronoi vertices: %d\n", 
+              goodused ? " 'good'" : "", nonsimplicial);
+  }else if (qh DELAUNAY) {
+    if (qh UPPERdelaunay)
+      fprintf (fp, "\n\
+Furthest-site Delaunay triangulation by the convex hull of %d points in %d-d:\n\n", size, qh hull_dim);
+    else
+      fprintf (fp, "\n\
+Delaunay triangulation by the convex hull of %d points in %d-d:\n\n", size, qh hull_dim);
+    fprintf(fp, "  Number of input sites%s: %d\n", 
+              qh ATinfinity ? " and at-infinity" : "", numvertices);
+    if (numdel)
+      fprintf(fp, "  Total number of deleted points due to merging: %d\n", numdel); 
+    if (numcoplanars - numdel > 0) 
+      fprintf(fp, "  Number of nearly incident points: %d\n", numcoplanars - numdel); 
+    else if (size - numvertices - numdel > 0)
+      fprintf(fp, "  Total number of nearly incident points: %d\n", size - numvertices - numdel); 
+    fprintf(fp, "  Number of%s Delaunay regions: %d\n", 
+              goodused ? " 'good'" : "", qh num_good);
+    if (nonsimplicial) 
+      fprintf(fp, "  Number of%s non-simplicial Delaunay regions: %d\n", 
+              goodused ? " 'good'" : "", nonsimplicial);
+  }else if (qh HALFspace) {
+    fprintf (fp, "\n\
+Halfspace intersection by the convex hull of %d points in %d-d:\n\n", size, qh hull_dim);
+    fprintf(fp, "  Number of halfspaces: %d\n", size);
+    fprintf(fp, "  Number of non-redundant halfspaces: %d\n", numvertices);
+    if (numcoplanars) {
+      if (qh KEEPinside && qh KEEPcoplanar)
+      	s= "similar and redundant";
+      else if (qh KEEPinside)
+        s= "redundant";
+      else
+        s= "similar"; 
+      fprintf(fp, "  Number of %s halfspaces: %d\n", s, numcoplanars);
+    } 
+    fprintf(fp, "  Number of intersection points: %d\n", qh num_facets - qh num_visible);
+    if (goodused)
+      fprintf(fp, "  Number of 'good' intersection points: %d\n", qh num_good);
+    if (nonsimplicial) 
+      fprintf(fp, "  Number of%s non-simplicial intersection points: %d\n", 
+              goodused ? " 'good'" : "", nonsimplicial);
+  }else {
+    fprintf (fp, "\n\
+Convex hull of %d points in %d-d:\n\n", size, qh hull_dim);
+    fprintf(fp, "  Number of vertices: %d\n", numvertices);
+    if (numcoplanars) {
+      if (qh KEEPinside && qh KEEPcoplanar)
+      	s= "coplanar and interior";
+      else if (qh KEEPinside)
+        s= "interior";
+      else
+        s= "coplanar"; 
+      fprintf(fp, "  Number of %s points: %d\n", s, numcoplanars);
+    } 
+    fprintf(fp, "  Number of facets: %d\n", qh num_facets - qh num_visible);
+    if (goodused)
+      fprintf(fp, "  Number of 'good' facets: %d\n", qh num_good);
+    if (nonsimplicial) 
+      fprintf(fp, "  Number of%s non-simplicial facets: %d\n", 
+              goodused ? " 'good'" : "", nonsimplicial);
+  }
+  if (numtricoplanars)
+      fprintf(fp, "  Number of triangulated facets: %d\n", numtricoplanars);
+  fprintf(fp, "\nStatistics for: %s | %s", 
+                      qh rbox_command, qh qhull_command);
+  if (qh ROTATErandom != INT_MIN)
+    fprintf(fp, " QR%d\n\n", qh ROTATErandom);
+  else
+    fprintf(fp, "\n\n");
+  fprintf(fp, "  Number of points processed: %d\n", zzval_(Zprocessed));
+  fprintf(fp, "  Number of hyperplanes created: %d\n", zzval_(Zsetplane));
+  if (qh DELAUNAY)
+    fprintf(fp, "  Number of facets in hull: %d\n", qh num_facets - qh num_visible);
+  fprintf(fp, "  Number of distance tests for qhull: %d\n", zzval_(Zpartition)+
+      zzval_(Zpartitionall)+zzval_(Znumvisibility)+zzval_(Zpartcoplanar));
+#if 0  /* NOTE: must print before printstatistics() */
+  {realT stddev, ave;
+  fprintf(fp, "  average new facet balance: %2.2g\n",
+	  wval_(Wnewbalance)/zval_(Zprocessed));
+  stddev= qh_stddev (zval_(Zprocessed), wval_(Wnewbalance), 
+                                 wval_(Wnewbalance2), &ave);
+  fprintf(fp, "  new facet standard deviation: %2.2g\n", stddev);
+  fprintf(fp, "  average partition balance: %2.2g\n",
+	  wval_(Wpbalance)/zval_(Zpbalance));
+  stddev= qh_stddev (zval_(Zpbalance), wval_(Wpbalance), 
+                                 wval_(Wpbalance2), &ave);
+  fprintf(fp, "  partition standard deviation: %2.2g\n", stddev);
+  }
+#endif
+  if (nummerged) {
+    fprintf(fp,"  Number of distance tests for merging: %d\n",zzval_(Zbestdist)+
+          zzval_(Zcentrumtests)+zzval_(Zdistconvex)+zzval_(Zdistcheck)+
+          zzval_(Zdistzero));
+    fprintf(fp,"  Number of distance tests for checking: %d\n",zzval_(Zcheckpart));
+    fprintf(fp,"  Number of merged facets: %d\n", nummerged);
+  }
+  if (!qh RANDOMoutside && qh QHULLfinished) {
+    cpu= qh hulltime;
+    cpu /= qh_SECticks;
+    wval_(Wcpu)= cpu;
+    fprintf (fp, "  CPU seconds to compute hull (after input): %2.4g\n", cpu);
+  }
+  if (qh RERUN) {
+    if (!qh PREmerge && !qh MERGEexact)
+      fprintf(fp, "  Percentage of runs with precision errors: %4.1f\n",
+	   zzval_(Zretry)*100.0/qh build_cnt);  /* careful of order */
+  }else if (qh JOGGLEmax < REALmax/2) {
+    if (zzval_(Zretry))
+      fprintf(fp, "  After %d retries, input joggled by: %2.2g\n",
+         zzval_(Zretry), qh JOGGLEmax);
+    else
+      fprintf(fp, "  Input joggled by: %2.2g\n", qh JOGGLEmax);
+  }
+  if (qh totarea != 0.0) 
+    fprintf(fp, "  %s facet area:   %2.8g\n", 
+	    zzval_(Ztotmerge) ? "Approximate" : "Total", qh totarea);
+  if (qh totvol != 0.0) 
+    fprintf(fp, "  %s volume:       %2.8g\n", 
+	    zzval_(Ztotmerge) ? "Approximate" : "Total", qh totvol);
+  if (qh MERGING) {
+    qh_outerinner (NULL, &outerplane, &innerplane);
+    if (outerplane > 2 * qh DISTround) {
+      fprintf(fp, "  Maximum distance of %spoint above facet: %2.2g", 
+	    (qh QHULLfinished ? "" : "merged "), outerplane);
+      ratio= outerplane/(qh ONEmerge + qh DISTround);
+      /* don't report ratio if MINoutside is large */
+      if (ratio > 0.05 && 2* qh ONEmerge > qh MINoutside && qh JOGGLEmax > REALmax/2)
+        fprintf (fp, " (%.1fx)\n", ratio);
+      else
+        fprintf (fp, "\n");
+    }
+    if (innerplane < -2 * qh DISTround) {
+      fprintf(fp, "  Maximum distance of %svertex below facet: %2.2g", 
+	    (qh QHULLfinished ? "" : "merged "), innerplane);
+      ratio= -innerplane/(qh ONEmerge+qh DISTround);
+      if (ratio > 0.05 && qh JOGGLEmax > REALmax/2)
+        fprintf (fp, " (%.1fx)\n", ratio);
+      else
+        fprintf (fp, "\n");
+    }
+  }
+  fprintf(fp, "\n");
+} /* printsummary */
+
+

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qhull.h
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qhull.h	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qhull.h	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,1030 @@
+/*<html><pre>  -<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="TOP">-</a>
+
+   qhull.h
+   user-level header file for using qhull.a library
+
+   see qh-qhull.htm, qhull_a.h
+
+   copyright (c) 1993-2003, The Geometry Center
+
+   NOTE: access to qh_qh is via the 'qh' macro.  This allows
+   qh_qh to be either a pointer or a structure.  An example
+   of using qh is "qh DROPdim" which accesses the DROPdim
+   field of qh_qh.  Similarly, access to qh_qhstat is via
+   the 'qhstat' macro.
+
+   includes function prototypes for qhull.c, geom.c, global.c, io.c, user.c
+
+   use mem.h for mem.c
+   use qset.h for qset.c
+
+   see unix.c for an example of using qhull.h
+
+   recompile qhull if you change this file
+*/
+
+#ifndef qhDEFqhull
+#define qhDEFqhull 1
+
+/*=========================== -included files ==============*/
+
+#include <setjmp.h>
+#include <float.h>
+#include <time.h>
+
+#if __MWERKS__ && __POWERPC__
+#include  <SIOUX.h>
+#include  <Files.h>
+#include	<Desk.h>
+#endif
+
+#ifndef __STDC__
+#ifndef __cplusplus
+#if     !_MSC_VER
+#error  Neither __STDC__ nor __cplusplus is defined.  Please use strict ANSI C or C++ to compile
+#error  Qhull.  You may need to turn off compiler extensions in your project configuration.  If
+#error  your compiler is a standard C compiler, you can delete this warning from qhull.h
+#endif
+#endif
+#endif
+
+#include "user.h"      /* user defineable constants */
+
+/*============ constants and basic types ====================*/
+
+extern char *qh_version; /* defined in global.c */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="coordT">-</a>
+
+  coordT
+    coordinates and coefficients are stored as realT (i.e., double)
+
+  notes:
+    could use 'float' for data and 'double' for calculations (realT vs. coordT)
+      This requires many type casts, and adjusted error bounds.
+      Also C compilers may do expressions in double anyway.
+*/
+#define coordT realT
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-geom.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="pointT">-</a>
+
+  pointT
+    a point is an array of DIM3 coordinates
+*/
+#define pointT coordT
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="flagT">-</a>
+
+  flagT
+    Boolean flag as a bit
+*/
+#define flagT unsigned int
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="boolT">-</a>
+
+  boolT
+    boolean value, either True or False
+
+  notes:
+    needed for portability
+*/
+#define boolT unsigned int
+#ifdef False
+#undef False
+#endif
+#ifdef True
+#undef True
+#endif
+#define False 0
+#define True 1
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="CENTERtype">-</a>
+
+  qh_CENTER
+    to distinguish facet->center
+*/
+typedef enum
+{
+    qh_ASnone = 0, qh_ASvoronoi, qh_AScentrum
+}
+qh_CENTER;
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="qh_PRINT">-</a>
+
+  qh_PRINT
+    output formats for printing (qh.PRINTout).
+    'Fa' 'FV' 'Fc' 'FC' 
+       
+
+   notes:
+   some of these names are similar to qh names.  The similar names are only
+   used in switch statements in qh_printbegin() etc.
+*/
+typedef enum {qh_PRINTnone= 0, 
+  qh_PRINTarea, qh_PRINTaverage,           /* 'Fa' 'FV' 'Fc' 'FC' */
+  qh_PRINTcoplanars, qh_PRINTcentrums, 
+  qh_PRINTfacets, qh_PRINTfacets_xridge,   /* 'f' 'FF' 'G' 'FI' 'Fi' 'Fn' */
+  qh_PRINTgeom, qh_PRINTids, qh_PRINTinner, qh_PRINTneighbors, 
+  qh_PRINTnormals, qh_PRINTouter, qh_PRINTmaple, /* 'n' 'Fo' 'i' 'm' 'Fm' 'FM', 'o' */
+  qh_PRINTincidences, qh_PRINTmathematica, qh_PRINTmerges, qh_PRINToff, 
+  qh_PRINToptions, qh_PRINTpointintersect, /* 'FO' 'Fp' 'FP' 'p' 'FQ' 'FS' */
+  qh_PRINTpointnearest, qh_PRINTpoints, qh_PRINTqhull, qh_PRINTsize, 
+  qh_PRINTsummary, qh_PRINTtriangles,      /* 'Fs' 'Ft' 'Fv' 'FN' 'Fx' */
+  qh_PRINTvertices, qh_PRINTvneighbors, qh_PRINTextremes,
+  qh_PRINTEND} qh_PRINT;
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="qh_ALL">-</a>
+
+  qh_ALL
+    argument flag for selecting everything
+*/
+#define qh_ALL      True
+#define qh_NOupper  True     /* argument for qh_findbest */
+#define qh_IScheckmax  True     /* argument for qh_findbesthorizon */
+#define qh_ISnewfacets  True     /* argument for qh_findbest */
+#define qh_RESETvisible  True     /* argument for qh_resetlists */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="qh_ERR">-</a>
+
+  qh_ERR
+    Qhull exit codes, for indicating errors
+*/
+#define qh_ERRnone  0    /* no error occurred during qhull */
+#define qh_ERRinput 1    /* input inconsistency */
+#define qh_ERRsingular 2 /* singular input data */
+#define qh_ERRprec  3    /* precision error */
+#define qh_ERRmem   4    /* insufficient memory, matches mem.h */
+#define qh_ERRqhull 5    /* internal error detected, matches mem.h */
+
+/* ============ -structures- ====================
+   each of the following structures is defined by a typedef
+   all realT and coordT fields occur at the beginning of a structure
+        (otherwise space may be wasted due to alignment)
+   define all flags together and pack into 32-bit number
+*/
+
+typedef struct vertexT vertexT;
+typedef struct ridgeT ridgeT;
+typedef struct facetT facetT;
+#ifndef DEFsetT
+#define DEFsetT 1
+typedef struct setT setT;          /* defined in qset.h */
+#endif
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="facetT">-</a>
+
+  facetT
+    defines a facet
+
+  notes:
+   qhull() generates the hull as a list of facets.
+
+  topological information:
+    f.previous,next     doubly-linked list of facets
+    f.vertices          set of vertices
+    f.ridges            set of ridges
+    f.neighbors         set of neighbors
+    f.toporient         True if facet has top-orientation (else bottom)
+
+  geometric information:
+    f.offset,normal     hyperplane equation
+    f.maxoutside        offset to outer plane -- all points inside
+    f.center            centrum for testing convexity
+    f.simplicial        True if facet is simplicial
+    f.flipped           True if facet does not include qh.interior_point
+
+  for constructing hull:
+    f.visible           True if facet on list of visible facets (will be deleted)
+    f.newfacet          True if facet on list of newly created facets
+    f.coplanarset       set of points coplanar with this facet
+                        (includes near-inside points for later testing)
+    f.outsideset        set of points outside of this facet
+    f.furthestdist      distance to furthest point of outside set
+    f.visitid           marks visited facets during a loop
+    f.replace           replacement facet for to-be-deleted, visible facets
+    f.samecycle,newcycle cycle of facets for merging into horizon facet
+
+  see below for other flags and fields
+*/
+struct facetT {
+#if !qh_COMPUTEfurthest
+  coordT   furthestdist;/* distance to furthest point of outsideset */
+#endif
+#if qh_MAXoutside
+  coordT   maxoutside;  /* max computed distance of point to facet
+  			Before QHULLfinished this is an approximation
+  			since maxdist not always set for mergefacet
+			Actual outer plane is +DISTround and
+			computed outer plane is +2*DISTround */
+#endif
+  coordT   offset;      /* exact offset of hyperplane from origin */
+  coordT  *normal;      /* normal of hyperplane, hull_dim coefficients */
+			/*   if tricoplanar, shared with a neighbor */
+  union {               /* in order of testing */
+   realT   area;        /* area of facet, only in io.c if  ->isarea */
+   facetT *replace;	/*  replacement facet if ->visible and NEWfacets
+  			     is NULL only if qh_mergedegen_redundant or interior */
+   facetT *samecycle;   /*  cycle of facets from the same visible/horizon intersection,
+   			     if ->newfacet */
+   facetT *newcycle;    /*  in horizon facet, current samecycle of new facets */ 
+   facetT *trivisible;  /* visible facet for ->tricoplanar facets during qh_triangulate() */
+   facetT *triowner;    /* owner facet for ->tricoplanar, !isarea facets w/ ->keepcentrum */
+  }f;
+  coordT  *center;      /*  centrum for convexity, qh CENTERtype == qh_AScentrum */
+      			/*  Voronoi center, qh CENTERtype == qh_ASvoronoi */
+			/*   if tricoplanar, shared with a neighbor */
+  facetT  *previous;    /* previous facet in the facet_list */
+  facetT  *next;        /* next facet in the facet_list */
+  setT    *vertices;    /* vertices for this facet, inverse sorted by ID 
+                           if simplicial, 1st vertex was apex/furthest */
+  setT    *ridges;      /* explicit ridges for nonsimplicial facets.
+  			   for simplicial facets, neighbors defines ridge */
+  setT    *neighbors;   /* neighbors of the facet.  If simplicial, the kth
+			   neighbor is opposite the kth vertex, and the first
+			   neighbor is the horizon facet for the first vertex*/
+  setT    *outsideset;  /* set of points outside this facet
+		           if non-empty, last point is furthest
+			   if NARROWhull, includes coplanars for partitioning*/
+  setT    *coplanarset; /* set of points coplanar with this facet
+  			   > qh.min_vertex and <= facet->max_outside
+                           a point is assigned to the furthest facet
+		           if non-empty, last point is furthest away */
+  unsigned visitid;     /* visit_id, for visiting all neighbors,
+			   all uses are independent */
+  unsigned id;	        /* unique identifier from qh facet_id */
+  unsigned nummerge:9;  /* number of merges */
+#define qh_MAXnummerge 511 /*     2^9-1, 32 flags total, see "flags:" in io.c */
+  flagT    tricoplanar:1; /* True if TRIangulate and simplicial and coplanar with a neighbor */
+			  /*   all tricoplanars share the same ->center, ->normal, ->offset, ->maxoutside */
+			  /*   all tricoplanars share the same apex */
+                          /*   if ->degenerate, does not span facet (one logical ridge) */
+                          /*   one tricoplanar has ->keepcentrum and ->coplanarset */
+                          /*   during qh_triangulate, f.trivisible points to original facet */
+  flagT	   newfacet:1;  /* True if facet on qh newfacet_list (new or merged) */
+  flagT	   visible:1;   /* True if visible facet (will be deleted) */
+  flagT    toporient:1; /* True if created with top orientation
+			   after merging, use ridge orientation */
+  flagT    simplicial:1;/* True if simplicial facet, ->ridges may be implicit */
+  flagT    seen:1;      /* used to perform operations only once, like visitid */
+  flagT    seen2:1;     /* used to perform operations only once, like visitid */
+  flagT	   flipped:1;   /* True if facet is flipped */
+  flagT    upperdelaunay:1; /* True if facet is upper envelope of Delaunay triangulation */
+  flagT    notfurthest:1; /* True if last point of outsideset is not furthest*/
+
+/*-------- flags primarily for output ---------*/
+  flagT	   good:1;      /* True if a facet marked good for output */
+  flagT    isarea:1;    /* True if facet->f.area is defined */
+
+/*-------- flags for merging ------------------*/
+  flagT    dupridge:1;  /* True if duplicate ridge in facet */
+  flagT    mergeridge:1; /* True if facet or neighbor contains a qh_MERGEridge
+                            ->normal defined (also defined for mergeridge2) */
+  flagT    mergeridge2:1; /* True if neighbor contains a qh_MERGEridge (mark_dupridges */
+  flagT    coplanar:1;  /* True if horizon facet is coplanar at last use */
+  flagT     mergehorizon:1; /* True if will merge into horizon (->coplanar) */
+  flagT	    cycledone:1;/* True if mergecycle_all already done */
+  flagT    tested:1;    /* True if facet convexity has been tested (false after merge */
+  flagT    keepcentrum:1; /* True if keep old centrum after a merge, or marks owner for ->tricoplanar */
+  flagT	   newmerge:1;  /* True if facet is newly merged for reducevertices */
+  flagT	   degenerate:1; /* True if facet is degenerate (degen_mergeset or ->tricoplanar) */
+  flagT	   redundant:1;  /* True if facet is redundant (degen_mergeset) */
+};
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="ridgeT">-</a>
+
+  ridgeT
+    defines a ridge
+
+  notes:
+  a ridge is DIM3-1 simplex between two neighboring facets.  If the
+  facets are non-simplicial, there may be more than one ridge between
+  two facets.  E.G. a 4-d hypercube has two triangles between each pair
+  of neighboring facets.
+
+  topological information:
+    vertices            a set of vertices
+    top,bottom          neighboring facets with orientation
+
+  geometric information:
+    tested              True if ridge is clearly convex
+    nonconvex           True if ridge is non-convex
+*/
+struct ridgeT {
+  setT    *vertices;    /* vertices belonging to this ridge, inverse sorted by ID 
+                           NULL if a degen ridge (matchsame) */
+  facetT  *top;         /* top facet this ridge is part of */
+  facetT  *bottom;      /* bottom facet this ridge is part of */
+  unsigned id:24;       /* unique identifier, =>room for 8 flags */
+  flagT    seen:1;      /* used to perform operations only once */
+  flagT    tested:1;    /* True when ridge is tested for convexity */
+  flagT    nonconvex:1; /* True if getmergeset detected a non-convex neighbor
+			   only one ridge between neighbors may have nonconvex */
+};
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="vertexT">-</a>
+
+  vertexT
+     defines a vertex
+
+  topological information:
+    next,previous       doubly-linked list of all vertices
+    neighbors           set of adjacent facets (only if qh.VERTEXneighbors)
+
+  geometric information:
+    point               array of DIM3 coordinates
+*/
+struct vertexT {
+  vertexT *next;        /* next vertex in vertex_list */
+  vertexT *previous;    /* previous vertex in vertex_list */
+  pointT  *point;       /* hull_dim coordinates (coordT) */
+  setT    *neighbors;   /* neighboring facets of vertex, qh_vertexneighbors()
+			   inits in io.c or after first merge */
+  unsigned visitid; /* for use with qh vertex_visit */
+  unsigned id:24;   /* unique identifier, =>room for 8 flags */
+  flagT    seen:1;      /* used to perform operations only once */
+  flagT    seen2:1;     /* another seen flag */
+  flagT    delridge:1;  /* vertex was part of a deleted ridge */
+  flagT	   deleted:1;   /* true if vertex on qh del_vertices */
+  flagT    newlist:1;   /* true if vertex on qh newvertex_list */
+};
+
+/*======= -global variables -qh ============================*/
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="qh">-</a>
+
+  qh
+   all global variables for qhull are in qh, qhmem, and qhstat
+
+  notes:
+   qhmem is defined in mem.h and qhstat is defined in stat.h
+   Access to qh_qh is via the "qh" macro.  See qh_QHpointer in user.h
+*/
+typedef struct qhT qhT;
+#if qh_QHpointer
+#define qh qh_qh->
+extern qhT *qh_qh;     /* allocated in global.c */
+#else
+#define qh qh_qh.
+extern qhT qh_qh;
+#endif
+
+struct qhT {
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="qh-const">-</a>
+
+  qh constants
+    configuration flags and constants for Qhull
+
+  notes:
+    The user configures Qhull by defining flags.  They are
+    copied into qh by qh_setflags().  qh-quick.htm#options defines the flags.
+*/
+  boolT ALLpoints;        /* true 'Qs' if search all points for initial simplex */
+  boolT ANGLEmerge;	  /* true 'Qa' if sort potential merges by angle */
+  boolT APPROXhull;       /* true 'Wn' if MINoutside set */
+  realT MINoutside;       /*   'Wn' min. distance for an outside point */
+  boolT ATinfinity;       /* true 'Qz' if point num_points-1 is "at-infinity"
+                             for improving precision in Delaunay triangulations */
+  boolT AVOIDold;         /* true 'Q4' if avoid old->new merges */
+  boolT BESToutside;      /* true 'Qf' if partition points into best outsideset */
+  boolT CDDinput;         /* true 'Pc' if input uses CDD format (1.0/offset first) */
+  boolT CDDoutput;        /* true 'PC' if print normals in CDD format (offset first) */
+  boolT CHECKfrequently;  /* true 'Tc' if checking frequently */
+  realT premerge_cos;     /*   'A-n'   cos_max when pre merging */
+  realT postmerge_cos;    /*   'An'    cos_max when post merging */
+  boolT DELAUNAY;         /* true 'd' if computing DELAUNAY triangulation */
+  boolT DOintersections;  /* true 'Gh' if print hyperplane intersections */
+  int   DROPdim;          /* drops dim 'GDn' for 4-d -> 3-d output */
+  boolT FORCEoutput;      /* true 'Po' if forcing output despite degeneracies */
+  int   GOODpoint;        /* 1+n for 'QGn', good facet if visible/not(-) from point n*/
+  pointT *GOODpointp;     /*   the actual point */
+  boolT GOODthreshold;    /* true if qh lower_threshold/upper_threshold defined
+  			     false if qh SPLITthreshold */
+  int   GOODvertex;       /* 1+n, good facet if vertex for point n */
+  pointT *GOODvertexp;     /*   the actual point */
+  boolT HALFspace;        /* true 'Hn,n,n' if halfspace intersection */
+  int   IStracing;        /* trace execution, 0=none, 1=least, 4=most, -1=events */
+  int   KEEParea;         /* 'PAn' number of largest facets to keep */
+  boolT KEEPcoplanar;     /* true 'Qc' if keeping nearest facet for coplanar points */
+  boolT KEEPinside;       /* true 'Qi' if keeping nearest facet for inside points
+			      set automatically if 'd Qc' */
+  int   KEEPmerge;        /* 'PMn' number of facets to keep with most merges */
+  realT KEEPminArea;      /* 'PFn' minimum facet area to keep */
+  realT MAXcoplanar;      /* 'Un' max distance below a facet to be coplanar*/
+  boolT MERGEexact;	  /* true 'Qx' if exact merges (coplanar, degen, dupridge, flipped) */
+  boolT MERGEindependent; /* true 'Q2' if merging independent sets */
+  boolT MERGING;          /* true if exact-, pre- or post-merging, with angle and centrum tests */
+  realT   premerge_centrum;  /*   'C-n' centrum_radius when pre merging.  Default is round-off */
+  realT   postmerge_centrum; /*   'Cn' centrum_radius when post merging.  Default is round-off */
+  boolT MERGEvertices;	  /* true 'Q3' if merging redundant vertices */
+  realT MINvisible;       /* 'Vn' min. distance for a facet to be visible */
+  boolT NOnarrow;         /* true 'Q10' if no special processing for narrow distributions */
+  boolT NOnearinside;     /* true 'Q8' if ignore near-inside points when partitioning */
+  boolT NOpremerge;       /* true 'Q0' if no defaults for C-0 or Qx */
+  boolT ONLYgood; 	  /* true 'Qg' if process points with good visible or horizon facets */
+  boolT ONLYmax; 	  /* true 'Qm' if only process points that increase max_outside */
+  boolT PICKfurthest;     /* true 'Q9' if process furthest of furthest points*/
+  boolT POSTmerge;        /* true if merging after buildhull (Cn or An) */
+  boolT PREmerge;         /* true if merging during buildhull (C-n or A-n) */
+  			/* NOTE: some of these names are similar to qh_PRINT names */
+  boolT PRINTcentrums;	  /* true 'Gc' if printing centrums */
+  boolT PRINTcoplanar;    /* true 'Gp' if printing coplanar points */
+  int	PRINTdim;      	  /* print dimension for Geomview output */
+  boolT PRINTdots;        /* true 'Ga' if printing all points as dots */
+  boolT PRINTgood;        /* true 'Pg' if printing good facets */
+  boolT PRINTinner;	  /* true 'Gi' if printing inner planes */
+  boolT PRINTneighbors;	  /* true 'PG' if printing neighbors of good facets */
+  boolT PRINTnoplanes;	  /* true 'Gn' if printing no planes */
+  boolT PRINToptions1st;  /* true 'FO' if printing options to stderr */
+  boolT PRINTouter;	  /* true 'Go' if printing outer planes */
+  boolT PRINTprecision;   /* false 'Pp' if not reporting precision problems */
+  qh_PRINT PRINTout[qh_PRINTEND]; /* list of output formats to print */
+  boolT PRINTridges;      /* true 'Gr' if print ridges */
+  boolT PRINTspheres;     /* true 'Gv' if print vertices as spheres */
+  boolT PRINTstatistics;  /* true 'Ts' if printing statistics to stderr */
+  boolT PRINTsummary;     /* true 's' if printing summary to stderr */
+  boolT PRINTtransparent; /* true 'Gt' if print transparent outer ridges */
+  boolT PROJECTdelaunay;  /* true if DELAUNAY, no readpoints() and
+			     need projectinput() for Delaunay in qh_init_B */
+  int   PROJECTinput;     /* number of projected dimensions 'bn:0Bn:0' */
+  boolT QUICKhelp;	  /* true if quick help message for degen input */
+  boolT RANDOMdist;       /* true if randomly change distplane and setfacetplane */
+  realT RANDOMfactor;     /*    maximum random perturbation */
+  realT RANDOMa;         /*  qh_randomfactor is randr * RANDOMa + RANDOMb */
+  realT RANDOMb;
+  boolT RANDOMoutside;    /* true if select a random outside point */
+  int	REPORTfreq;       /* buildtracing reports every n facets */
+  int   REPORTfreq2;	  /* tracemerging reports every REPORTfreq/2 facets */
+  int	RERUN;            /* 'TRn' rerun qhull n times (qh.build_cnt) */
+  int	ROTATErandom;	  /* 'QRn' seed, 0 time, >= rotate input */
+  boolT SCALEinput;       /* true 'Qbk' if scaling input */
+  boolT SCALElast;        /* true 'Qbb' if scale last coord to max prev coord */
+  boolT SETroundoff;      /* true 'E' if qh DISTround is predefined */
+  boolT SKIPcheckmax;	  /* true 'Q5' if skip qh_check_maxout */
+  boolT SKIPconvex;       /* true 'Q6' if skip convexity testing during pre-merge */
+  boolT SPLITthresholds;  /* true if upper_/lower_threshold defines a region
+                               used only for printing (not for qh ONLYgood) */
+  int	STOPcone;         /* 'TCn' 1+n for stopping after cone for point n*/
+			  /*       also used by qh_build_withresart for err exit*/
+  int	STOPpoint;        /* 'TVn' 'TV-n' 1+n for stopping after/before(-)
+			                adding point n */
+  int	TESTpoints;	  /* 'QTn' num of test points after qh.num_points.  Test points always coplanar. */
+  boolT TESTvneighbors;   /*  true 'Qv' if test vertex neighbors at end */
+  int   TRACElevel;       /* 'Tn' conditional IStracing level */
+  int	TRACElastrun;	  /*  qh.TRACElevel applies to last qh.RERUN */
+  int   TRACEpoint;       /* 'TPn' start tracing when point n is a vertex */
+  realT TRACEdist;        /* 'TWn' start tracing when merge distance too big */
+  int   TRACEmerge;       /* 'TMn' start tracing before this merge */
+  boolT TRIangulate;	  /* true 'Qt' if triangulate non-simplicial facets */
+  boolT TRInormals;	  /* true 'Q11' if triangulate duplicates normals (sets Qt) */
+  boolT UPPERdelaunay;    /* true 'Qu' if computing furthest-site Delaunay */
+  boolT VERIFYoutput;     /* true 'Tv' if verify output at end of qhull */
+  boolT VIRTUALmemory;    /* true 'Q7' if depth-first processing in buildhull */
+  boolT VORONOI;	  /* true 'v' if computing Voronoi diagram */
+
+  /*--------input constants ---------*/
+  realT AREAfactor;       /* 1/(hull_dim-1)! for converting det's to area */
+  boolT DOcheckmax;       /* true if calling qh_check_maxout (qh_initqhull_globals) */
+  char	*feasible_string;  /* feasible point 'Hn,n,n' for halfspace intersection */
+  coordT *feasible_point;  /*    as coordinates, both malloc'd */
+  boolT GETarea;          /* true 'Fa', 'FA', 'FS', 'PAn', 'PFn' if compute facet area/Voronoi volume in io.c */
+  boolT KEEPnearinside;   /* true if near-inside points in coplanarset */
+  int 	hull_dim;         /* dimension of hull, set by initbuffers */
+  int 	input_dim;	  /* dimension of input, set by initbuffers */
+  int 	num_points;       /* number of input points */
+  pointT *first_point;    /* array of input points, see POINTSmalloc */
+  boolT POINTSmalloc;     /*   true if qh first_point/num_points allocated */
+  pointT *input_points;   /* copy of original qh.first_point for input points for qh_joggleinput */
+  boolT input_malloc;     /* true if qh input_points malloc'd */
+  char 	qhull_command[256];/* command line that invoked this program */
+  char 	rbox_command[256]; /* command line that produced the input points */
+  char  qhull_options[512];/* descriptive list of options */
+  int   qhull_optionlen;  /*    length of last line */
+  int   qhull_optionsiz;  /*     size of qhull_options before qh_initbuild */
+  boolT VERTEXneighbors;  /* true if maintaining vertex neighbors */
+  boolT ZEROcentrum;      /* true if 'C-0' or 'C-0 Qx'.  sets ZEROall_ok */
+  realT *upper_threshold; /* don't print if facet->normal[k]>=upper_threshold[k]
+                             must set either GOODthreshold or SPLITthreshold
+  			     if Delaunay, default is 0.0 for upper envelope */
+  realT *lower_threshold; /* don't print if facet->normal[k] <=lower_threshold[k] */
+  realT *upper_bound;     /* scale point[k] to new upper bound */
+  realT *lower_bound;     /* scale point[k] to new lower bound
+  			     project if both upper_ and lower_bound == 0 */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="qh-prec">-</a>
+
+  qh precision constants
+    precision constants for Qhull
+
+  notes:
+    qh_detroundoff() computes the maximum roundoff error for distance
+    and other computations.  It also sets default values for the
+    qh constants above.
+*/
+  realT ANGLEround;       /* max round off error for angles */
+  realT centrum_radius;   /* max centrum radius for convexity (roundoff added) */
+  realT cos_max;	  /* max cosine for convexity (roundoff added) */
+  realT DISTround;        /* max round off error for distances, 'E' overrides */
+  realT MAXabs_coord;     /* max absolute coordinate */
+  realT MAXlastcoord;     /* max last coordinate for qh_scalelast */
+  realT MAXsumcoord;      /* max sum of coordinates */
+  realT MAXwidth;         /* max rectilinear width of point coordinates */
+  realT MINdenom_1;       /* min. abs. value for 1/x */
+  realT MINdenom;         /*    use divzero if denominator < MINdenom */
+  realT MINdenom_1_2;     /* min. abs. val for 1/x that allows normalization */
+  realT MINdenom_2;       /*    use divzero if denominator < MINdenom_2 */
+  realT MINlastcoord;     /* min. last coordinate for qh_scalelast */
+  boolT NARROWhull;       /* set in qh_initialhull if angle < qh_MAXnarrow */
+  realT *NEARzero;        /* hull_dim array for near zero in gausselim */
+  realT NEARinside;       /* keep points for qh_check_maxout if close to facet */
+  realT ONEmerge;         /* max distance for merging simplicial facets */
+  realT outside_err;      /* application's epsilon for coplanar points
+                             qh_check_bestdist() qh_check_points() reports error if point outside */
+  realT WIDEfacet;        /* size of wide facet for skipping ridge in
+			     area computation and locking centrum */
+  
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="qh-intern">-</a>
+
+  qh internal constants
+    internal constants for Qhull
+*/
+  char qhull[sizeof("qhull")]; /* for checking ownership */
+  void *old_stat;         /* pointer to saved qh_qhstat, qh_save_qhull */
+  jmp_buf errexit;        /* exit label for qh_errexit, defined by setjmp() */
+  char jmpXtra[40];       /* extra bytes in case jmp_buf is defined wrong by compiler */
+  jmp_buf restartexit;    /* restart label for qh_errexit, defined by setjmp() */
+  char jmpXtra2[40];      /* extra bytes in case jmp_buf is defined wrong by compiler*/
+  FILE *fin;              /* pointer to input file, init by qh_meminit */
+  FILE *fout;             /* pointer to output file */
+  FILE *ferr;             /* pointer to error file */
+  pointT *interior_point; /* center point of the initial simplex*/
+  int   normal_size;      /* size in bytes for facet normals and point coords*/
+  int   center_size;      /* size in bytes for Voronoi centers */
+  int   TEMPsize;         /* size for small, temporary sets (in quick mem) */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="qh-lists">-</a>
+
+  qh facet and vertex lists
+    defines lists of facets, new facets, visible facets, vertices, and
+    new vertices.  Includes counts, next ids, and trace ids.
+  see:
+    qh_resetlists()
+*/
+  facetT *facet_list;     /* first facet */
+  facetT  *facet_tail;     /* end of facet_list (dummy facet) */
+  facetT *facet_next;     /* next facet for buildhull()
+    			     previous facets do not have outside sets
+                             NARROWhull: previous facets may have coplanar outside sets for qh_outcoplanar */
+  facetT *newfacet_list;  /* list of new facets to end of facet_list */
+  facetT *visible_list;   /* list of visible facets preceeding newfacet_list,
+                             facet->visible set */
+  int       num_visible;  /* current number of visible facets */
+  unsigned tracefacet_id;  /* set at init, then can print whenever */
+  facetT *tracefacet;     /*   set in newfacet/mergefacet, undone in delfacet*/
+  unsigned tracevertex_id;  /* set at buildtracing, can print whenever */
+  vertexT *tracevertex;     /*   set in newvertex, undone in delvertex*/
+  vertexT *vertex_list;     /* list of all vertices, to vertex_tail */
+  vertexT  *vertex_tail;    /*      end of vertex_list (dummy vertex) */
+  vertexT *newvertex_list; /* list of vertices in newfacet_list, to vertex_tail
+                             all vertices have 'newlist' set */
+  int 	num_facets;	  /* number of facets in facet_list
+			     includes visble faces (num_visible) */
+  int 	num_vertices;     /* number of vertices in facet_list */
+  int   num_outside;      /* number of points in outsidesets (for tracing and RANDOMoutside)
+                               includes coplanar outsideset points for NARROWhull/qh_outcoplanar() */
+  int   num_good;         /* number of good facets (after findgood_all) */
+  unsigned facet_id;      /* ID of next, new facet from newfacet() */
+  unsigned ridge_id;      /* ID of next, new ridge from newridge() */
+  unsigned vertex_id;     /* ID of next, new vertex from newvertex() */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="qh-var">-</a>
+
+  qh global variables
+    defines minimum and maximum distances, next visit ids, several flags,
+    and other global variables.
+    initialize in qh_initbuild or qh_maxmin if used in qh_buildhull
+*/
+  unsigned long hulltime; /* ignore time to set up input and randomize */
+                          /*   use unsigned to avoid wrap-around errors */
+  boolT ALLOWrestart;     /* true if qh_precision can use qh.restartexit */
+  int   build_cnt;        /* number of calls to qh_initbuild */
+  qh_CENTER CENTERtype;   /* current type of facet->center, qh_CENTER */
+  int 	furthest_id;      /* pointid of furthest point, for tracing */
+  facetT *GOODclosest;    /* closest facet to GOODthreshold in qh_findgood */
+  realT JOGGLEmax;        /* set 'QJn' if randomly joggle input */
+  boolT maxoutdone;       /* set qh_check_maxout(), cleared by qh_addpoint() */
+  realT max_outside;      /* maximum distance from a point to a facet,
+			       before roundoff, not simplicial vertices
+			       actual outer plane is +DISTround and
+			       computed outer plane is +2*DISTround */
+  realT max_vertex;       /* maximum distance (>0) from vertex to a facet,
+			       before roundoff, due to a merge */
+  realT min_vertex;       /* minimum distance (<0) from vertex to a facet,
+			       before roundoff, due to a merge
+			       if qh.JOGGLEmax, qh_makenewplanes sets it
+  			       recomputed if qh.DOcheckmax, default -qh.DISTround */
+  boolT NEWfacets;        /* true while visible facets invalid due to new or merge
+			      from makecone/attachnewfacets to deletevisible */
+  boolT findbestnew;	  /* true if partitioning calls qh_findbestnew */
+  boolT findbest_notsharp; /* true if new facets are at least 90 degrees */
+  boolT NOerrexit;        /* true if qh.errexit is not available */
+  realT PRINTcradius;     /* radius for printing centrums */
+  realT PRINTradius;      /* radius for printing vertex spheres and points */
+  boolT POSTmerging;      /* true when post merging */
+  int 	printoutvar;	  /* temporary variable for qh_printbegin, etc. */
+  int 	printoutnum;	  /* number of facets printed */
+  boolT QHULLfinished;    /* True after qhull() is finished */
+  realT totarea;          /* 'FA': total facet area computed by qh_getarea */
+  realT totvol;           /* 'FA': total volume computed by qh_getarea */
+  unsigned int visit_id;  /* unique ID for searching neighborhoods, */
+  unsigned int vertex_visit; /* unique ID for searching vertices */
+  boolT ZEROall_ok;       /* True if qh_checkzero always succeeds */
+  boolT WAScoplanar;      /* True if qh_partitioncoplanar (qh_check_maxout) */
+  
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="qh-set">-</a>
+
+  qh global sets
+    defines sets for merging, initial simplex, hashing, extra input points,
+    and deleted vertices
+*/
+  setT *facet_mergeset;   /* temporary set of merges to be done */
+  setT *degen_mergeset;   /* temporary set of degenerate and redundant merges */
+  setT *hash_table;	  /* hash table for matching ridges in qh_matchfacets
+                             size is setsize() */
+  setT *other_points;     /* additional points (first is qh interior_point) */
+  setT *del_vertices;     /* vertices to partition and delete with visible
+                             facets.  Have deleted set for checkfacet */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="qh-buf">-</a>
+
+  qh global buffers
+    defines buffers for maxtrix operations, input, and error messages
+*/
+  coordT *gm_matrix;      /* (dim+1)Xdim matrix for geom.c */
+  coordT **gm_row;        /* array of gm_matrix rows */
+  char* line;             /* malloc'd input line of maxline+1 chars */
+  int maxline;
+  coordT *half_space;     /* malloc'd input array for halfspace (qh normal_size+coordT) */
+  coordT *temp_malloc;    /* malloc'd input array for points */
+  
+/*-<a                             href="qh-globa.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="qh-static">-</a>
+
+  qh static variables
+    defines static variables for individual functions
+
+  notes:
+    do not use 'static' within a function.  Multiple instances of qhull
+    may exist.
+
+    do not assume zero initialization, 'QPn' may cause a restart
+*/
+  boolT ERREXITcalled;    /* true during errexit (prevents duplicate calls */
+  boolT firstcentrum; 	  /* for qh_printcentrum */
+  realT last_low;         /* qh_scalelast parameters for qh_setdelaunay */
+  realT last_high;
+  realT last_newhigh;
+  unsigned lastreport;    /* for qh_buildtracing */
+  int mergereport;        /* for qh_tracemerging */
+  boolT old_randomdist;   /* save RANDOMdist when io, tracing, or statistics */
+  int   ridgeoutnum;      /* number of ridges in 4OFF output */
+  void *old_qhstat;       /* for saving qh_qhstat in save_qhull() */
+  setT *old_tempstack;     /* for saving qhmem.tempstack in save_qhull */
+  setT *coplanarset;      /* set of coplanar facets for searching qh_findbesthorizon() */
+};
+
+/*=========== -macros- =========================*/
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="otherfacet_">-</a>
+
+  otherfacet_(ridge, facet)
+    return neighboring facet for a ridge in facet
+*/
+#define otherfacet_(ridge, facet) \
+                        (((ridge)->top == (facet)) ? (ridge)->bottom : (ridge)->top)
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="getid_">-</a>
+
+  getid_(p)
+    return ID for facet, ridge, or vertex
+    return MAXINT if NULL (-1 causes type conversion error )
+*/
+#define getid_(p)       ((p) ? (p)->id : -1)
+
+/*============== FORALL macros ===================*/
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="FORALLfacets">-</a>
+
+  FORALLfacets { ... }
+    assign 'facet' to each facet in qh.facet_list
+
+  notes:
+    uses 'facetT *facet;'
+    assumes last facet is a sentinel
+
+  see:
+    FORALLfacet_( facetlist )
+*/
+#define FORALLfacets for (facet=qh facet_list;facet && facet->next;facet=facet->next)
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="FORALLpoints">-</a>
+
+  FORALLpoints { ... }
+    assign 'point' to each point in qh.first_point, qh.num_points
+
+  declare:
+    coordT *point, *pointtemp;
+*/
+#define FORALLpoints FORALLpoint_(qh first_point, qh num_points)
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="FORALLpoint_">-</a>
+
+  FORALLpoint_( points, num) { ... }
+    assign 'point' to each point in points array of num points
+
+  declare:
+    coordT *point, *pointtemp;
+*/
+#define FORALLpoint_(points, num) for(point= (points), \
+      pointtemp= (points)+qh hull_dim*(num); point < pointtemp; point += qh hull_dim)
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="FORALLvertices">-</a>
+
+  FORALLvertices { ... }
+    assign 'vertex' to each vertex in qh.vertex_list
+
+  declare:
+    vertexT *vertex;
+
+  notes:
+    assumes qh.vertex_list terminated with a sentinel
+*/
+#define FORALLvertices for (vertex=qh vertex_list;vertex && vertex->next;vertex= vertex->next)
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="FOREACHfacet_">-</a>
+
+  FOREACHfacet_( facets ) { ... }
+    assign 'facet' to each facet in facets
+
+  declare:
+    facetT *facet, **facetp;
+
+  see:
+    <a href="qset.h#FOREACHsetelement_">FOREACHsetelement_</a>
+*/
+#define FOREACHfacet_(facets)    FOREACHsetelement_(facetT, facets, facet)
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="FOREACHneighbor_">-</a>
+
+  FOREACHneighbor_( facet ) { ... }
+    assign 'neighbor' to each neighbor in facet->neighbors
+
+  FOREACHneighbor_( vertex ) { ... }
+    assign 'neighbor' to each neighbor in vertex->neighbors
+
+  declare:
+    facetT *neighbor, **neighborp;
+
+  see:
+    <a href="qset.h#FOREACHsetelement_">FOREACHsetelement_</a>
+*/
+#define FOREACHneighbor_(facet)  FOREACHsetelement_(facetT, facet->neighbors, neighbor)
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="FOREACHpoint_">-</a>
+
+  FOREACHpoint_( points ) { ... }
+    assign 'point' to each point in points set
+
+  declare:
+    pointT *point, **pointp;
+
+  see:
+    <a href="qset.h#FOREACHsetelement_">FOREACHsetelement_</a>
+*/
+#define FOREACHpoint_(points)    FOREACHsetelement_(pointT, points, point)
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="FOREACHridge_">-</a>
+
+  FOREACHridge_( ridges ) { ... }
+    assign 'ridge' to each ridge in ridges set
+
+  declare:
+    ridgeT *ridge, **ridgep;
+
+  see:
+    <a href="qset.h#FOREACHsetelement_">FOREACHsetelement_</a>
+*/
+#define FOREACHridge_(ridges)    FOREACHsetelement_(ridgeT, ridges, ridge)
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="FOREACHvertex_">-</a>
+
+  FOREACHvertex_( vertices ) { ... }
+    assign 'vertex' to each vertex in vertices set
+
+  declare:
+    vertexT *vertex, **vertexp;
+
+  see:
+    <a href="qset.h#FOREACHsetelement_">FOREACHsetelement_</a>
+*/
+#define FOREACHvertex_(vertices) FOREACHsetelement_(vertexT, vertices,vertex)
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="FOREACHfacet_i_">-</a>
+
+  FOREACHfacet_i_( facets ) { ... }
+    assign 'facet' and 'facet_i' for each facet in facets set
+
+  declare:
+    facetT *facet;
+    int     facet_n, facet_i;
+
+  see:
+    <a href="qset.h#FOREACHsetelement_i_">FOREACHsetelement_i_</a>
+*/
+#define FOREACHfacet_i_(facets)    FOREACHsetelement_i_(facetT, facets, facet)
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="FOREACHneighbor_i_">-</a>
+
+  FOREACHneighbor_i_( facet ) { ... }
+    assign 'neighbor' and 'neighbor_i' for each neighbor in facet->neighbors
+
+  FOREACHneighbor_i_( vertex ) { ... }
+    assign 'neighbor' and 'neighbor_i' for each neighbor in vertex->neighbors
+
+  declare:
+    facetT *neighbor;
+    int     neighbor_n, neighbor_i;
+
+  see:
+    <a href="qset.h#FOREACHsetelement_i_">FOREACHsetelement_i_</a>
+*/
+#define FOREACHneighbor_i_(facet)  FOREACHsetelement_i_(facetT, facet->neighbors, neighbor)
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="FOREACHpoint_i_">-</a>
+
+  FOREACHpoint_i_( points ) { ... }
+    assign 'point' and 'point_i' for each point in points set
+
+  declare:
+    pointT *point;
+    int     point_n, point_i;
+
+  see:
+    <a href="qset.h#FOREACHsetelement_i_">FOREACHsetelement_i_</a>
+*/
+#define FOREACHpoint_i_(points)    FOREACHsetelement_i_(pointT, points, point)
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="FOREACHridge_i_">-</a>
+
+  FOREACHridge_i_( ridges ) { ... }
+    assign 'ridge' and 'ridge_i' for each ridge in ridges set
+
+  declare:
+    ridgeT *ridge;
+    int     ridge_n, ridge_i;
+
+  see:
+    <a href="qset.h#FOREACHsetelement_i_">FOREACHsetelement_i_</a>
+*/
+#define FOREACHridge_i_(ridges)    FOREACHsetelement_i_(ridgeT, ridges, ridge)
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-poly.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="FOREACHvertex_i_">-</a>
+
+  FOREACHvertex_i_( vertices ) { ... }
+    assign 'vertex' and 'vertex_i' for each vertex in vertices set
+
+  declare:
+    vertexT *vertex;
+    int     vertex_n, vertex_i;
+
+  see:
+    <a href="qset.h#FOREACHsetelement_i_">FOREACHsetelement_i_</a>
+ */
+#define FOREACHvertex_i_(vertices) FOREACHsetelement_i_(vertexT, vertices,vertex)
+
+/********* -qhull.c prototypes (duplicated from qhull_a.h) **********************/
+
+void    qh_qhull (void);
+boolT   qh_addpoint (pointT *furthest, facetT *facet, boolT checkdist);
+void	qh_printsummary(FILE *fp);
+
+/********* -user.c prototypes (alphabetical) **********************/
+
+void 	qh_errexit(int exitcode, facetT *facet, ridgeT *ridge);
+void 	qh_errprint(char* string, facetT *atfacet, facetT *otherfacet, ridgeT *atridge, vertexT *atvertex);
+int     qh_new_qhull (int dim, int numpoints, coordT *points, boolT ismalloc,
+		char *qhull_cmd, FILE *outfile, FILE *errfile);
+void    qh_printfacetlist(facetT *facetlist, setT *facets, boolT printall);
+void 	qh_user_memsizes (void);
+
+/***** -geom.c/geom2.c prototypes (duplicated from geom.h) ****************/
+
+facetT *qh_findbest (pointT *point, facetT *startfacet,
+		     boolT bestoutside, boolT newfacets, boolT noupper,
+		     realT *dist, boolT *isoutside, int *numpart);
+facetT *qh_findbestnew (pointT *point, facetT *startfacet,
+                     realT *dist, boolT bestoutside, boolT *isoutside, int *numpart);
+boolT   qh_gram_schmidt(int dim, realT **rows);
+void    qh_outerinner (facetT *facet, realT *outerplane, realT *innerplane);
+void	qh_printsummary(FILE *fp);
+void    qh_projectinput (void);
+void    qh_randommatrix (realT *buffer, int dim, realT **row);
+void    qh_rotateinput (realT **rows);
+void    qh_scaleinput (void);
+void    qh_setdelaunay (int dim, int count, pointT *points);
+coordT  *qh_sethalfspace_all (int dim, int count, coordT *halfspaces, pointT *feasible);
+
+/***** -global.c prototypes (alphabetical) ***********************/
+
+unsigned long qh_clock (void);
+void 	qh_checkflags (char *command, char *hiddenflags);
+void 	qh_freebuffers (void);
+void    qh_freeqhull (boolT allmem);
+void    qh_init_A (FILE *infile, FILE *outfile, FILE *errfile, int argc, char *argv[]);
+void    qh_init_B (coordT *points, int numpoints, int dim, boolT ismalloc);
+void 	qh_init_qhull_command (int argc, char *argv[]);
+void    qh_initbuffers (coordT *points, int numpoints, int dim, boolT ismalloc);
+void 	qh_initflags (char *command);
+void 	qh_initqhull_buffers (void);
+void 	qh_initqhull_globals (coordT *points, int numpoints, int dim, boolT ismalloc);
+void    qh_initqhull_mem (void);
+void 	qh_initqhull_start (FILE *infile, FILE *outfile, FILE *errfile);
+void 	qh_initthresholds (char *command);
+void    qh_option (char *option, int *i, realT *r);
+#if qh_QHpointer
+void 	qh_restore_qhull (qhT **oldqh);
+qhT    *qh_save_qhull (void);
+#endif
+
+/***** -io.c prototypes (duplicated from io.h) ***********************/
+
+void    dfacet( unsigned id);
+void    dvertex( unsigned id);
+void	qh_printneighborhood (FILE *fp, int format, facetT *facetA, facetT *facetB, boolT printall);
+void	qh_produce_output(void);
+coordT *qh_readpoints(int *numpoints, int *dimension, boolT *ismalloc);
+
+
+/********* -mem.c prototypes (duplicated from mem.h) **********************/
+
+void qh_meminit (FILE *ferr);
+void qh_memfreeshort (int *curlong, int *totlong);
+
+/********* -poly.c/poly2.c prototypes (duplicated from poly.h) **********************/
+
+void    qh_check_output (void);
+void    qh_check_points (void);
+setT   *qh_facetvertices (facetT *facetlist, setT *facets, boolT allfacets);
+facetT *qh_findbestfacet (pointT *point, boolT bestoutside,
+           realT *bestdist, boolT *isoutside);
+vertexT *qh_nearvertex (facetT *facet, pointT *point, realT *bestdistp);
+pointT *qh_point (int id);
+setT   *qh_pointfacet (void /*qh.facet_list*/);
+int     qh_pointid (pointT *point);
+setT   *qh_pointvertex (void /*qh.facet_list*/);
+void    qh_setvoronoi_all (void);
+void	qh_triangulate (void /*qh facet_list*/);
+
+/********* -stat.c prototypes (duplicated from stat.h) **********************/
+
+void    qh_collectstatistics (void);
+void    qh_printallstatistics (FILE *fp, char *string);
+
+#endif /* qhDEFqhull */

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qhull_a.h
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qhull_a.h	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qhull_a.h	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,127 @@
+/*<html><pre>  -<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="TOP">-</a>
+
+   qhull_a.h 
+   all header files for compiling qhull
+
+   see qh-qhull.htm
+
+   see qhull.h for user-level definitions
+   
+   see user.h for user-defineable constants
+   
+   defines internal functions for qhull.c global.c
+
+   copyright (c) 1993-2003, The Geometry Center
+
+   Notes:  grep for ((" and (" to catch fprintf("lkasdjf");
+           full parens around (x?y:z)
+	   use '#include qhull/qhull_a.h' to avoid name clashes
+*/
+
+#ifndef qhDEFqhulla
+#define qhDEFqhulla
+
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <setjmp.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <math.h>
+#include <float.h>    /* some compilers will not need float.h */
+#include <limits.h>
+#include <time.h>
+#include <ctype.h>
+/*** uncomment here and qset.c
+     if string.h does not define memcpy()
+#include <memory.h>
+*/
+#include "qhull.h"
+#include "mem.h"
+#include "qset.h"
+#include "geom.h"
+#include "merge.h"
+#include "poly.h"
+#include "io.h"
+#include "stat.h"
+
+#if qh_CLOCKtype == 2  /* defined in user.h from qhull.h */
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <sys/times.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#endif
+
+#ifdef _MSC_VER  /* Microsoft Visual C++ */
+#pragma warning( disable : 4056)  /* float constant expression.  Looks like a compiler bug */
+#pragma warning( disable : 4146)  /* unary minus applied to unsigned type */
+#pragma warning( disable : 4244)  /* conversion from 'unsigned long' to 'real' */
+#pragma warning( disable : 4305)  /* conversion from 'const double' to 'float' */
+#endif
+
+/* ======= -macros- =========== */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------</a><a name="traceN">-</a>
+  
+  traceN((fp.ferr, "format\n", vars));  
+    calls fprintf if qh.IStracing >= N
+  
+  notes:
+    removing tracing reduces code size but doesn't change execution speed
+*/
+#ifndef qh_NOtrace
+#define trace0(args) {if (qh IStracing) fprintf args;}
+#define trace1(args) {if (qh IStracing >= 1) fprintf args;}
+#define trace2(args) {if (qh IStracing >= 2) fprintf args;}
+#define trace3(args) {if (qh IStracing >= 3) fprintf args;}
+#define trace4(args) {if (qh IStracing >= 4) fprintf args;}
+#define trace5(args) {if (qh IStracing >= 5) fprintf args;}
+#else /* qh_NOtrace */
+#define trace0(args) {}
+#define trace1(args) {}
+#define trace2(args) {}
+#define trace3(args) {}
+#define trace4(args) {}
+#define trace5(args) {}
+#endif /* qh_NOtrace */
+
+/***** -qhull.c prototypes (alphabetical after qhull) ********************/
+
+void 	qh_qhull (void);
+boolT   qh_addpoint (pointT *furthest, facetT *facet, boolT checkdist);
+void 	qh_buildhull(void);
+void    qh_buildtracing (pointT *furthest, facetT *facet);
+void    qh_build_withrestart (void);
+void 	qh_errexit2(int exitcode, facetT *facet, facetT *otherfacet);
+void    qh_findhorizon(pointT *point, facetT *facet, int *goodvisible,int *goodhorizon);
+pointT *qh_nextfurthest (facetT **visible);
+void 	qh_partitionall(setT *vertices, pointT *points,int npoints);
+void    qh_partitioncoplanar (pointT *point, facetT *facet, realT *dist);
+void    qh_partitionpoint (pointT *point, facetT *facet);
+void 	qh_partitionvisible(boolT allpoints, int *numpoints);
+void    qh_precision (char *reason);
+void	qh_printsummary(FILE *fp);
+
+/***** -global.c internal prototypes (alphabetical) ***********************/
+
+void    qh_appendprint (qh_PRINT format);
+void 	qh_freebuild (boolT allmem);
+void 	qh_freebuffers (void);
+void    qh_initbuffers (coordT *points, int numpoints, int dim, boolT ismalloc);
+int     qh_strtol (const char *s, char **endp);
+double  qh_strtod (const char *s, char **endp);
+
+/***** -stat.c internal prototypes (alphabetical) ***********************/
+
+void	qh_allstatA (void);
+void	qh_allstatB (void);
+void	qh_allstatC (void);
+void	qh_allstatD (void);
+void	qh_allstatE (void);
+void	qh_allstatE2 (void);
+void	qh_allstatF (void);
+void	qh_allstatG (void);
+void	qh_allstatH (void);
+void 	qh_freebuffers (void);
+void    qh_initbuffers (coordT *points, int numpoints, int dim, boolT ismalloc);
+
+#endif /* qhDEFqhulla */

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qhull_interface.cpp
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qhull_interface.cpp	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qhull_interface.cpp	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,96 @@
+/*<html><pre>  -<a                             href="qh-user.htm"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="TOP">-</a>
+*/
+
+#include <iostream.h>
+#include <conio.h>
+
+//--- Include qhull, so it works from with in a C++ source file
+//---
+//--- In MVC one cannot just do:
+//---
+//---    extern "C"
+//---    {
+//---      #include "qhull_a.h"
+//---    }
+//---
+//--- Because qhull_a.h includes math.h, which can not appear
+//--- inside a extern "C" declaration.
+//---
+//--- Maybe that why Numerical recipes in C avoid this problem, by removing
+//--- standard include headers from its header files and add them in the
+//--- respective source files instead.
+//---
+//--- [K. Erleben]
+
+#if defined(__cplusplus)
+extern "C"
+{
+#endif
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <qhull/qhull.h>
+#include <qhull/mem.h>
+#include <qhull/qset.h>
+#include <qhull/geom.h>
+#include <qhull/merge.h>
+#include <qhull/poly.h>
+#include <qhull/io.h>
+#include <qhull/stat.h>
+#if defined(__cplusplus)
+}
+#endif
+
+/*********************************************************************/
+/*                                                                   */
+/*                                                                   */
+/*                                                                   */
+/*                                                                   */
+/*********************************************************************/
+
+void compute_convex_hull(void)
+{  
+	int dim;  	              /* dimension of points */
+	int numpoints;            /* number of points */
+	coordT *points;           /* array of coordinates for each point */ 
+	boolT ismalloc;           /* True if qhull should free points in qh_freeqhull() or reallocation */ 
+	char flags[]= "qhull Tv"; /* option flags for qhull, see qh_opt.htm */
+	FILE *outfile= stdout;    /* output from qh_produce_output()			
+	                             use NULL to skip qh_produce_output() */ 
+	FILE *errfile= stderr;    /* error messages from qhull code */ 
+	int exitcode;             /* 0 if no error from qhull */
+	facetT *facet;	          /* set by FORALLfacets */
+	int curlong, totlong;	  /* memory remaining after qh_memfreeshort */
+
+   	/* initialize dim, numpoints, points[], ismalloc here */
+	exitcode= qh_new_qhull (dim, numpoints, points, ismalloc,
+							flags, outfile, errfile);
+	if (!exitcode) { /* if no error */ 
+		/* 'qh facet_list' contains the convex hull */
+		FORALLfacets {
+			/* ... your code ... */ 
+		}
+	}
+	qh_freeqhull(!qh_ALL);  
+	qh_memfreeshort (&curlong, &totlong);
+	if (curlong || totlong)
+		fprintf (errfile, "qhull internal warning (main): did not free %d bytes of long memory (%d pieces)\n", 
+		             totlong, curlong);
+};
+
+/*********************************************************************/
+/*                                                                   */
+/*                                                                   */
+/*                                                                   */
+/*                                                                   */
+/*********************************************************************/
+
+void main() 
+{ 
+	cout << "Hello world" << endl;
+	
+	cout << "Press any key..." << endl;  
+	
+	while(!_kbhit());
+
+};

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qset.c
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qset.c	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qset.c	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,1301 @@
+/*<html><pre>  -<a                             href="qh-set.htm"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="TOP">-</a>
+
+   qset.c 
+   implements set manipulations needed for quickhull 
+
+   see qh-set.htm and qset.h
+
+   copyright (c) 1993-2003 The Geometry Center        
+*/
+
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <string.h>
+/*** uncomment here and qhull_a.h 
+     if string.h does not define memcpy()
+#include <memory.h>
+*/
+#include "qset.h"
+#include "mem.h"
+
+#ifndef qhDEFqhull
+typedef struct ridgeT ridgeT;
+typedef struct facetT facetT;
+void    qh_errexit(int exitcode, facetT *, ridgeT *);
+#endif
+
+/*=============== internal macros ===========================*/
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="SETsizeaddr_">-</a>
+   
+  SETsizeaddr_(set) 
+    return pointer to actual size+1 of set (set CANNOT be NULL!!)
+      
+  notes:
+    *SETsizeaddr==NULL or e[*SETsizeaddr-1].p==NULL
+*/
+#define SETsizeaddr_(set) (&((set)->e[(set)->maxsize].i))
+
+/*============ functions in alphabetical order ===================*/
+  
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------<a name="setaddnth">-</a>
+   
+  qh_setaddnth( setp, nth, newelem)
+    adds newelem as n'th element of sorted or unsorted *setp
+      
+  notes:
+    *setp and newelem must be defined
+    *setp may be a temp set
+    nth=0 is first element
+    errors if nth is out of bounds
+   
+  design:
+    expand *setp if empty or full
+    move tail of *setp up one
+    insert newelem
+*/
+void qh_setaddnth(setT **setp, int nth, void *newelem) {
+  int *sizep, oldsize, i;
+  void **oldp, **newp;
+
+  if (!*setp || !*(sizep= SETsizeaddr_(*setp))) {
+    qh_setlarger(setp);
+    sizep= SETsizeaddr_(*setp);
+  }
+  oldsize= *sizep - 1;
+  if (nth < 0 || nth > oldsize) {
+    fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_setaddnth): nth %d is out-of-bounds for set:\n", nth);
+    qh_setprint (qhmem.ferr, "", *setp);
+    qh_errexit (qhmem_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  (*sizep)++;
+  oldp= SETelemaddr_(*setp, oldsize, void);   /* NULL */
+  newp= oldp+1;
+  for (i= oldsize-nth+1; i--; )  /* move at least NULL  */
+    *(newp--)= *(oldp--);       /* may overwrite *sizep */
+  *newp= newelem;
+} /* setaddnth */
+
+
+/*-<a                              href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------<a name="setaddsorted">-</a>
+   
+  setaddsorted( setp, newelem )
+    adds an newelem into sorted *setp
+      
+  notes:
+    *setp and newelem must be defined
+    *setp may be a temp set
+    nop if newelem already in set
+  
+  design:
+    find newelem's position in *setp
+    insert newelem
+*/
+void qh_setaddsorted(setT **setp, void *newelem) {
+  int newindex=0;
+  void *elem, **elemp;
+
+  FOREACHelem_(*setp) {          /* could use binary search instead */
+    if (elem < newelem)
+      newindex++;
+    else if (elem == newelem)
+      return;
+    else
+      break;
+  }
+  qh_setaddnth(setp, newindex, newelem);
+} /* setaddsorted */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setappend">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setappend( setp, newelem)
+    append newelem to *setp
+
+  notes:
+    *setp may be a temp set
+    *setp and newelem may be NULL
+
+  design:
+    expand *setp if empty or full
+    append newelem to *setp
+    
+*/
+void qh_setappend(setT **setp, void *newelem) {
+  int *sizep;
+  void **endp;
+
+  if (!newelem)
+    return;
+  if (!*setp || !*(sizep= SETsizeaddr_(*setp))) {
+    qh_setlarger(setp);
+    sizep= SETsizeaddr_(*setp);
+  }
+  *(endp= &((*setp)->e[(*sizep)++ - 1].p))= newelem;
+  *(++endp)= NULL;
+} /* setappend */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setappend_set">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setappend_set( setp, setA) 
+    appends setA to *setp
+
+  notes:
+    *setp can not be a temp set
+    *setp and setA may be NULL
+
+  design:
+    setup for copy
+    expand *setp if it is too small
+    append all elements of setA to *setp 
+*/
+void qh_setappend_set(setT **setp, setT *setA) {
+  int *sizep, sizeA, size;
+  setT *oldset;
+
+  if (!setA)
+    return;
+  SETreturnsize_(setA, sizeA);
+  if (!*setp)
+    *setp= qh_setnew (sizeA);
+  sizep= SETsizeaddr_(*setp);
+  if (!(size= *sizep))
+    size= (*setp)->maxsize;
+  else
+    size--;
+  if (size + sizeA > (*setp)->maxsize) {
+    oldset= *setp;
+    *setp= qh_setcopy (oldset, sizeA);
+    qh_setfree (&oldset);
+    sizep= SETsizeaddr_(*setp);
+  }
+  *sizep= size+sizeA+1;   /* memcpy may overwrite */
+  if (sizeA > 0) 
+    memcpy((char *)&((*setp)->e[size].p), (char *)&(setA->e[0].p), SETelemsize *(sizeA+1));
+} /* setappend_set */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setappend2ndlast">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setappend2ndlast( setp, newelem )
+    makes newelem the next to the last element in *setp
+
+  notes:
+    *setp must have at least one element
+    newelem must be defined
+    *setp may be a temp set
+
+  design:
+    expand *setp if empty or full
+    move last element of *setp up one
+    insert newelem
+*/
+void qh_setappend2ndlast(setT **setp, void *newelem) {
+  int *sizep;
+  void **endp, **lastp;
+  
+  if (!*setp || !*(sizep= SETsizeaddr_(*setp))) {
+    qh_setlarger(setp);
+    sizep= SETsizeaddr_(*setp);
+  }
+  endp= SETelemaddr_(*setp, (*sizep)++ -1, void); /* NULL */
+  lastp= endp-1;
+  *(endp++)= *lastp;
+  *endp= NULL;    /* may overwrite *sizep */
+  *lastp= newelem;
+} /* setappend2ndlast */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setcheck">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setcheck( set, typename, id ) 
+    check set for validity
+    report errors with typename and id
+
+  design:
+    checks that maxsize, actual size, and NULL terminator agree
+*/
+void qh_setcheck(setT *set, char *tname, int id) {
+  int maxsize, size;
+  int waserr= 0;
+
+  if (!set)
+    return;
+  SETreturnsize_(set, size);
+  maxsize= set->maxsize;
+  if (size > maxsize || !maxsize) {
+    fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_setcheck): actual size %d of %s%d is greater than max size %d\n",
+	     size, tname, id, maxsize);
+    waserr= 1;
+  }else if (set->e[size].p) {
+    fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_setcheck): %s%d (size %d max %d) is not null terminated.\n",
+	     tname, id, maxsize, size-1);
+    waserr= 1;
+  }
+  if (waserr) {
+    qh_setprint (qhmem.ferr, "ERRONEOUS", set);
+    qh_errexit (qhmem_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+} /* setcheck */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setcompact">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setcompact( set )
+    remove internal NULLs from an unsorted set
+
+  returns:
+    updated set
+
+  notes:
+    set may be NULL
+    it would be faster to swap tail of set into holes, like qh_setdel
+
+  design:
+    setup pointers into set
+    skip NULLs while copying elements to start of set 
+    update the actual size
+*/
+void qh_setcompact(setT *set) {
+  int size;
+  void **destp, **elemp, **endp, **firstp;
+
+  if (!set)
+    return;
+  SETreturnsize_(set, size);
+  destp= elemp= firstp= SETaddr_(set, void);
+  endp= destp + size;
+  while (1) {
+    if (!(*destp++ = *elemp++)) {
+      destp--;
+      if (elemp > endp)
+	break;
+    }
+  }
+  qh_settruncate (set, destp-firstp);
+} /* setcompact */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setcopy">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setcopy( set, extra )
+    make a copy of a sorted or unsorted set with extra slots
+
+  returns:
+    new set
+
+  design:
+    create a newset with extra slots
+    copy the elements to the newset
+    
+*/
+setT *qh_setcopy(setT *set, int extra) {
+  setT *newset;
+  int size;
+
+  if (extra < 0)
+    extra= 0;
+  SETreturnsize_(set, size);
+  newset= qh_setnew(size+extra);
+  *SETsizeaddr_(newset)= size+1;    /* memcpy may overwrite */
+  memcpy((char *)&(newset->e[0].p), (char *)&(set->e[0].p), SETelemsize *(size+1));
+  return (newset);
+} /* setcopy */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setdel">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setdel( set, oldelem )
+    delete oldelem from an unsorted set
+
+  returns:
+    returns oldelem if found
+    returns NULL otherwise
+    
+  notes:
+    set may be NULL
+    oldelem must not be NULL;
+    only deletes one copy of oldelem in set
+     
+  design:
+    locate oldelem
+    update actual size if it was full
+    move the last element to the oldelem's location
+*/
+void *qh_setdel(setT *set, void *oldelem) {
+  void **elemp, **lastp;
+  int *sizep;
+
+  if (!set)
+    return NULL;
+  elemp= SETaddr_(set, void);
+  while (*elemp != oldelem && *elemp)
+    elemp++;
+  if (*elemp) {
+    sizep= SETsizeaddr_(set);
+    if (!(*sizep)--)         /*  if was a full set */
+      *sizep= set->maxsize;  /*     *sizep= (maxsize-1)+ 1 */
+    lastp= SETelemaddr_(set, *sizep-1, void);
+    *elemp= *lastp;      /* may overwrite itself */
+    *lastp= NULL;
+    return oldelem;
+  }
+  return NULL;
+} /* setdel */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setdellast">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setdellast( set) 
+    return last element of set or NULL
+
+  notes:
+    deletes element from set
+    set may be NULL
+
+  design:
+    return NULL if empty
+    if full set
+      delete last element and set actual size
+    else
+      delete last element and update actual size 
+*/
+void *qh_setdellast(setT *set) {
+  int setsize;  /* actually, actual_size + 1 */
+  int maxsize;
+  int *sizep;
+  void *returnvalue;
+  
+  if (!set || !(set->e[0].p))
+    return NULL;
+  sizep= SETsizeaddr_(set);
+  if ((setsize= *sizep)) {
+    returnvalue= set->e[setsize - 2].p;
+    set->e[setsize - 2].p= NULL;
+    (*sizep)--;
+  }else {
+    maxsize= set->maxsize;
+    returnvalue= set->e[maxsize - 1].p;
+    set->e[maxsize - 1].p= NULL;
+    *sizep= maxsize;
+  }
+  return returnvalue;
+} /* setdellast */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setdelnth">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setdelnth( set, nth )
+    deletes nth element from unsorted set 
+    0 is first element
+
+  returns:
+    returns the element (needs type conversion)
+
+  notes:
+    errors if nth invalid
+
+  design:
+    setup points and check nth
+    delete nth element and overwrite with last element
+*/
+void *qh_setdelnth(setT *set, int nth) {
+  void **elemp, **lastp, *elem;
+  int *sizep;
+
+
+  elemp= SETelemaddr_(set, nth, void);
+  sizep= SETsizeaddr_(set);
+  if (!(*sizep)--)         /*  if was a full set */
+    *sizep= set->maxsize;  /*     *sizep= (maxsize-1)+ 1 */
+  if (nth < 0 || nth >= *sizep) {
+    fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_setaddnth): nth %d is out-of-bounds for set:\n", nth);
+    qh_setprint (qhmem.ferr, "", set);
+    qh_errexit (qhmem_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  lastp= SETelemaddr_(set, *sizep-1, void);
+  elem= *elemp;
+  *elemp= *lastp;      /* may overwrite itself */
+  *lastp= NULL;
+  return elem;
+} /* setdelnth */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setdelnthsorted">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setdelnthsorted( set, nth )
+    deletes nth element from sorted set
+
+  returns:
+    returns the element (use type conversion)
+  
+  notes:
+    errors if nth invalid
+    
+  see also: 
+    setnew_delnthsorted
+
+  design:
+    setup points and check nth
+    copy remaining elements down one
+    update actual size  
+*/
+void *qh_setdelnthsorted(setT *set, int nth) {
+  void **newp, **oldp, *elem;
+  int *sizep;
+
+  sizep= SETsizeaddr_(set);
+  if (nth < 0 || (*sizep && nth >= *sizep-1) || nth >= set->maxsize) {
+    fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_setaddnth): nth %d is out-of-bounds for set:\n", nth);
+    qh_setprint (qhmem.ferr, "", set);
+    qh_errexit (qhmem_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  newp= SETelemaddr_(set, nth, void);
+  elem= *newp;
+  oldp= newp+1;
+  while ((*(newp++)= *(oldp++)))
+    ; /* copy remaining elements and NULL */
+  if (!(*sizep)--)         /*  if was a full set */
+    *sizep= set->maxsize;  /*     *sizep= (max size-1)+ 1 */
+  return elem;
+} /* setdelnthsorted */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setdelsorted">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setdelsorted( set, oldelem )
+    deletes oldelem from sorted set
+
+  returns:
+    returns oldelem if it was deleted
+  
+  notes:
+    set may be NULL
+
+  design:
+    locate oldelem in set
+    copy remaining elements down one
+    update actual size  
+*/
+void *qh_setdelsorted(setT *set, void *oldelem) {
+  void **newp, **oldp;
+  int *sizep;
+
+  if (!set)
+    return NULL;
+  newp= SETaddr_(set, void);
+  while(*newp != oldelem && *newp)
+    newp++;
+  if (*newp) {
+    oldp= newp+1;
+    while ((*(newp++)= *(oldp++)))
+      ; /* copy remaining elements */
+    sizep= SETsizeaddr_(set);
+    if (!(*sizep)--)    /*  if was a full set */
+      *sizep= set->maxsize;  /*     *sizep= (max size-1)+ 1 */
+    return oldelem;
+  }
+  return NULL;
+} /* setdelsorted */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setduplicate">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setduplicate( set, elemsize )
+    duplicate a set of elemsize elements
+
+  notes:
+    use setcopy if retaining old elements
+
+  design:
+    create a new set
+    for each elem of the old set
+      create a newelem
+      append newelem to newset
+*/
+setT *qh_setduplicate (setT *set, int elemsize) {
+  void		*elem, **elemp, *newElem;
+  setT		*newSet;
+  int		size;
+  
+  if (!(size= qh_setsize (set)))
+    return NULL;
+  newSet= qh_setnew (size);
+  FOREACHelem_(set) {
+    newElem= qh_memalloc (elemsize);
+    memcpy (newElem, elem, elemsize);
+    qh_setappend (&newSet, newElem);
+  }
+  return newSet;
+} /* setduplicate */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setequal">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setequal(  )
+    returns 1 if two sorted sets are equal, otherwise returns 0
+
+  notes:
+    either set may be NULL
+
+  design:
+    check size of each set
+    setup pointers
+    compare elements of each set
+*/
+int qh_setequal(setT *setA, setT *setB) {
+  void **elemAp, **elemBp;
+  int sizeA, sizeB;
+  
+  SETreturnsize_(setA, sizeA);
+  SETreturnsize_(setB, sizeB);
+  if (sizeA != sizeB)
+    return 0;
+  if (!sizeA)
+    return 1;
+  elemAp= SETaddr_(setA, void);
+  elemBp= SETaddr_(setB, void);
+  if (!memcmp((char *)elemAp, (char *)elemBp, sizeA*SETelemsize))
+    return 1;
+  return 0;
+} /* setequal */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setequal_except">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setequal_except( setA, skipelemA, setB, skipelemB )
+    returns 1 if sorted setA and setB are equal except for skipelemA & B
+
+  returns:
+    false if either skipelemA or skipelemB are missing
+  
+  notes:
+    neither set may be NULL
+
+    if skipelemB is NULL, 
+      can skip any one element of setB
+
+  design:
+    setup pointers
+    search for skipelemA, skipelemB, and mismatches
+    check results
+*/
+int qh_setequal_except (setT *setA, void *skipelemA, setT *setB, void *skipelemB) {
+  void **elemA, **elemB;
+  int skip=0;
+
+  elemA= SETaddr_(setA, void);
+  elemB= SETaddr_(setB, void);
+  while (1) {
+    if (*elemA == skipelemA) {
+      skip++;
+      elemA++;
+    }
+    if (skipelemB) {
+      if (*elemB == skipelemB) {
+        skip++;
+        elemB++;
+      }
+    }else if (*elemA != *elemB) {
+      skip++;
+      if (!(skipelemB= *elemB++))
+        return 0;
+    }
+    if (!*elemA)
+      break;
+    if (*elemA++ != *elemB++) 
+      return 0;
+  }
+  if (skip != 2 || *elemB)
+    return 0;
+  return 1;
+} /* setequal_except */
+  
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setequal_skip">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setequal_skip( setA, skipA, setB, skipB )
+    returns 1 if sorted setA and setB are equal except for elements skipA & B
+
+  returns:
+    false if different size
+
+  notes:
+    neither set may be NULL
+
+  design:
+    setup pointers
+    search for mismatches while skipping skipA and skipB
+*/
+int qh_setequal_skip (setT *setA, int skipA, setT *setB, int skipB) {
+  void **elemA, **elemB, **skipAp, **skipBp;
+
+  elemA= SETaddr_(setA, void);
+  elemB= SETaddr_(setB, void);
+  skipAp= SETelemaddr_(setA, skipA, void);
+  skipBp= SETelemaddr_(setB, skipB, void);
+  while (1) {
+    if (elemA == skipAp)
+      elemA++;
+    if (elemB == skipBp)
+      elemB++;
+    if (!*elemA)
+      break;
+    if (*elemA++ != *elemB++) 
+      return 0;
+  }
+  if (*elemB)
+    return 0;
+  return 1;
+} /* setequal_skip */
+  
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setfree">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setfree( setp )
+    frees the space occupied by a sorted or unsorted set
+
+  returns:
+    sets setp to NULL
+    
+  notes:
+    set may be NULL
+
+  design:
+    free array
+    free set
+*/
+void qh_setfree(setT **setp) {
+  int size;
+  void **freelistp;  /* used !qh_NOmem */
+  
+  if (*setp) {
+    size= sizeof(setT) + ((*setp)->maxsize)*SETelemsize; 
+    if (size <= qhmem.LASTsize) {
+      qh_memfree_(*setp, size, freelistp);
+    }else
+      qh_memfree (*setp, size);
+    *setp= NULL;
+  }
+} /* setfree */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setfree2">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setfree2( setp, elemsize )
+    frees the space occupied by a set and its elements
+
+  notes:
+    set may be NULL
+
+  design:
+    free each element
+    free set 
+*/
+void qh_setfree2 (setT **setp, int elemsize) {
+  void		*elem, **elemp;
+  
+  FOREACHelem_(*setp)
+    qh_memfree (elem, elemsize);
+  qh_setfree (setp);
+} /* setfree2 */
+
+
+      
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setfreelong">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setfreelong( setp )
+    frees a set only if it's in long memory
+
+  returns:
+    sets setp to NULL if it is freed
+    
+  notes:
+    set may be NULL
+
+  design:
+    if set is large
+      free it    
+*/
+void qh_setfreelong(setT **setp) {
+  int size;
+  
+  if (*setp) {
+    size= sizeof(setT) + ((*setp)->maxsize)*SETelemsize; 
+    if (size > qhmem.LASTsize) {
+      qh_memfree (*setp, size);
+      *setp= NULL;
+    }
+  }
+} /* setfreelong */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setin">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setin( set, setelem )
+    returns 1 if setelem is in a set, 0 otherwise
+
+  notes:
+    set may be NULL or unsorted
+
+  design:
+    scans set for setelem
+*/
+int qh_setin(setT *set, void *setelem) {
+  void *elem, **elemp;
+
+  FOREACHelem_(set) {
+    if (elem == setelem)
+      return 1;
+  }
+  return 0;
+} /* setin */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setindex">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setindex( set, atelem )
+    returns the index of atelem in set.   
+    returns -1, if not in set or maxsize wrong
+
+  notes:
+    set may be NULL and may contain nulls.
+
+  design:
+    checks maxsize
+    scans set for atelem
+*/
+int qh_setindex(setT *set, void *atelem) {
+  void **elem;
+  int size, i;
+
+  SETreturnsize_(set, size);
+  if (size > set->maxsize)
+    return -1;
+  elem= SETaddr_(set, void);
+  for (i=0; i < size; i++) {
+    if (*elem++ == atelem)
+      return i;
+  }
+  return -1;
+} /* setindex */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setlarger">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setlarger( oldsetp )
+    returns a larger set that contains all elements of *oldsetp
+
+  notes:
+    the set is at least twice as large
+    if temp set, updates qhmem.tempstack
+
+  design:
+    creates a new set
+    copies the old set to the new set
+    updates pointers in tempstack
+    deletes the old set
+*/
+void qh_setlarger(setT **oldsetp) {
+  int size= 1, *sizep;
+  setT *newset, *set, **setp, *oldset;
+  void **oldp, **newp;
+
+  if (*oldsetp) {
+    oldset= *oldsetp;
+    SETreturnsize_(oldset, size);
+    qhmem.cntlarger++;
+    qhmem.totlarger += size+1;
+    newset= qh_setnew(2 * size);
+    oldp= SETaddr_(oldset, void);
+    newp= SETaddr_(newset, void);
+    memcpy((char *)newp, (char *)oldp, (size+1) * SETelemsize);
+    sizep= SETsizeaddr_(newset);
+    *sizep= size+1;
+    FOREACHset_((setT *)qhmem.tempstack) {
+      if (set == oldset)
+	*(setp-1)= newset;
+    }
+    qh_setfree(oldsetp);
+  }else 
+    newset= qh_setnew(3);
+  *oldsetp= newset;
+} /* setlarger */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setlast">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setlast(  )
+    return last element of set or NULL (use type conversion)
+
+  notes:
+    set may be NULL
+
+  design:
+    return last element  
+*/
+void *qh_setlast(setT *set) {
+  int size;
+
+  if (set) {
+    size= *SETsizeaddr_(set);
+    if (!size) 
+      return SETelem_(set, set->maxsize - 1);
+    else if (size > 1)
+      return SETelem_(set, size - 2);
+  }
+  return NULL;
+} /* setlast */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setnew">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setnew( setsize )
+    creates and allocates space for a set
+
+  notes:
+    setsize means the number of elements (NOT including the NULL terminator)
+    use qh_settemp/qh_setfreetemp if set is temporary
+
+  design:
+    allocate memory for set
+    roundup memory if small set
+    initialize as empty set
+*/
+setT *qh_setnew(int setsize) {
+  setT *set;
+  int sizereceived; /* used !qh_NOmem */
+  int size;
+  void **freelistp; /* used !qh_NOmem */
+
+  if (!setsize)
+    setsize++;
+  size= sizeof(setT) + setsize * SETelemsize;
+  if ((unsigned) size <= (unsigned) qhmem.LASTsize) {
+    qh_memalloc_(size, freelistp, set, setT);
+#ifndef qh_NOmem
+    sizereceived= qhmem.sizetable[ qhmem.indextable[size]];
+    if (sizereceived > size) 
+      setsize += (sizereceived - size)/SETelemsize;
+#endif
+  }else
+    set= (setT*)qh_memalloc (size);
+  set->maxsize= setsize;
+  set->e[setsize].i= 1;
+  set->e[0].p= NULL;
+  return (set);
+} /* setnew */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setnew_delnthsorted">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setnew_delnthsorted( set, size, nth, prepend )
+    creates a sorted set not containing nth element
+    if prepend, the first prepend elements are undefined
+
+  notes:
+    set must be defined
+    checks nth
+    see also: setdelnthsorted
+
+  design:
+    create new set
+    setup pointers and allocate room for prepend'ed entries
+    append head of old set to new set
+    append tail of old set to new set
+*/
+setT *qh_setnew_delnthsorted(setT *set, int size, int nth, int prepend) {
+  setT *newset;
+  void **oldp, **newp;
+  int tailsize= size - nth -1, newsize;
+
+  if (tailsize < 0) {
+    fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_setaddnth): nth %d is out-of-bounds for set:\n", nth);
+    qh_setprint (qhmem.ferr, "", set);
+    qh_errexit (qhmem_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  newsize= size-1 + prepend;
+  newset= qh_setnew(newsize);
+  newset->e[newset->maxsize].i= newsize+1;  /* may be overwritten */
+  oldp= SETaddr_(set, void);
+  newp= SETaddr_(newset, void) + prepend;
+  switch (nth) {
+  case 0:
+    break;
+  case 1:
+    *(newp++)= *oldp++;
+    break;
+  case 2:
+    *(newp++)= *oldp++;
+    *(newp++)= *oldp++;
+    break;
+  case 3:
+    *(newp++)= *oldp++;
+    *(newp++)= *oldp++;
+    *(newp++)= *oldp++;
+    break;
+  case 4:
+    *(newp++)= *oldp++;
+    *(newp++)= *oldp++;
+    *(newp++)= *oldp++;
+    *(newp++)= *oldp++;
+    break;
+  default:
+    memcpy((char *)newp, (char *)oldp, nth * SETelemsize);
+    newp += nth;
+    oldp += nth;
+    break;
+  }
+  oldp++;
+  switch (tailsize) {
+  case 0:
+    break;
+  case 1:
+    *(newp++)= *oldp++;
+    break;
+  case 2:
+    *(newp++)= *oldp++;
+    *(newp++)= *oldp++;
+    break;
+  case 3:
+    *(newp++)= *oldp++;
+    *(newp++)= *oldp++;
+    *(newp++)= *oldp++;
+    break;
+  case 4:
+    *(newp++)= *oldp++;
+    *(newp++)= *oldp++;
+    *(newp++)= *oldp++;
+    *(newp++)= *oldp++;
+    break;
+  default:
+    memcpy((char *)newp, (char *)oldp, tailsize * SETelemsize);
+    newp += tailsize;
+  }
+  *newp= NULL;
+  return(newset);
+} /* setnew_delnthsorted */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setprint">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setprint( fp, string, set )
+    print set elements to fp with identifying string
+
+  notes:
+    never errors
+*/
+void qh_setprint(FILE *fp, char* string, setT *set) {
+  int size, k;
+
+  if (!set)
+    fprintf (fp, "%s set is null\n", string);
+  else {
+    SETreturnsize_(set, size);
+    fprintf (fp, "%s set=%p maxsize=%d size=%d elems=",
+	     string, set, set->maxsize, size);
+    if (size > set->maxsize)
+      size= set->maxsize+1;
+    for (k=0; k < size; k++)
+      fprintf(fp, " %p", set->e[k].p);
+    fprintf(fp, "\n");
+  }
+} /* setprint */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setreplace">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setreplace( set, oldelem, newelem )
+    replaces oldelem in set with newelem
+
+  notes:
+    errors if oldelem not in the set
+    newelem may be NULL, but it turns the set into an indexed set (no FOREACH)
+
+  design:
+    find oldelem
+    replace with newelem
+*/
+void qh_setreplace(setT *set, void *oldelem, void *newelem) {
+  void **elemp;
+  
+  elemp= SETaddr_(set, void);
+  while(*elemp != oldelem && *elemp)
+    elemp++;
+  if (*elemp)
+    *elemp= newelem;
+  else {
+    fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_setreplace): elem %p not found in set\n",
+       oldelem);
+    qh_setprint (qhmem.ferr, "", set);
+    qh_errexit (qhmem_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+} /* setreplace */
+
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setsize">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setsize( set )
+    returns the size of a set
+
+  notes:
+    errors if set's maxsize is incorrect
+    same as SETreturnsize_(set)
+
+  design:
+    determine actual size of set from maxsize
+*/
+int qh_setsize(setT *set) {
+  int size, *sizep;
+  
+  if (!set)
+    return (0);
+  sizep= SETsizeaddr_(set);
+  if ((size= *sizep)) {
+    size--;
+    if (size > set->maxsize) {
+      fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_setsize): current set size %d is greater than maximum size %d\n",
+	       size, set->maxsize);
+      qh_setprint (qhmem.ferr, "set: ", set);
+      qh_errexit (qhmem_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+    }
+  }else
+    size= set->maxsize;
+  return size;
+} /* setsize */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="settemp">-</a>
+  
+  qh_settemp( setsize )
+    return a stacked, temporary set of upto setsize elements
+
+  notes:
+    use settempfree or settempfree_all to release from qhmem.tempstack
+    see also qh_setnew
+
+  design:
+    allocate set
+    append to qhmem.tempstack
+    
+*/
+setT *qh_settemp(int setsize) {
+  setT *newset;
+  
+  newset= qh_setnew (setsize);
+  qh_setappend ((setT **)&qhmem.tempstack, newset);
+  if (qhmem.IStracing >= 5)
+    fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qh_settemp: temp set %p of %d elements, depth %d\n",
+       newset, newset->maxsize, qh_setsize ((setT*)qhmem.tempstack));
+  return newset;
+} /* settemp */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="settempfree">-</a>
+  
+  qh_settempfree( set )
+    free temporary set at top of qhmem.tempstack
+
+  notes:
+    nop if set is NULL
+    errors if set not from previous   qh_settemp
+  
+  to locate errors:
+    use 'T2' to find source and then find mis-matching qh_settemp
+
+  design:
+    check top of qhmem.tempstack
+    free it
+*/
+void qh_settempfree(setT **set) {
+  setT *stackedset;
+
+  if (!*set)
+    return;
+  stackedset= qh_settemppop ();
+  if (stackedset != *set) {
+    qh_settemppush(stackedset);
+    fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_settempfree): set %p (size %d) was not last temporary allocated (depth %d, set %p, size %d)\n",
+	     *set, qh_setsize(*set), qh_setsize((setT*)qhmem.tempstack)+1,
+	     stackedset, qh_setsize(stackedset));
+    qh_errexit (qhmem_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  qh_setfree (set);
+} /* settempfree */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="settempfree_all">-</a>
+  
+  qh_settempfree_all(  )
+    free all temporary sets in qhmem.tempstack
+
+  design:
+    for each set in tempstack
+      free set
+    free qhmem.tempstack
+*/
+void qh_settempfree_all(void) {
+  setT *set, **setp;
+
+  FOREACHset_((setT *)qhmem.tempstack) 
+    qh_setfree(&set);
+  qh_setfree((setT **)&qhmem.tempstack);
+} /* settempfree_all */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="settemppop">-</a>
+  
+  qh_settemppop(  )
+    pop and return temporary set from qhmem.tempstack 
+
+  notes:
+    the returned set is permanent
+    
+  design:
+    pop and check top of qhmem.tempstack
+*/
+setT *qh_settemppop(void) {
+  setT *stackedset;
+  
+  stackedset= (setT*)qh_setdellast((setT *)qhmem.tempstack);
+  if (!stackedset) {
+    fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_settemppop): pop from empty temporary stack\n");
+    qh_errexit (qhmem_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  if (qhmem.IStracing >= 5)
+    fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qh_settemppop: depth %d temp set %p of %d elements\n",
+       qh_setsize((setT*)qhmem.tempstack)+1, stackedset, qh_setsize(stackedset));
+  return stackedset;
+} /* settemppop */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="settemppush">-</a>
+  
+  qh_settemppush( set )
+    push temporary set unto qhmem.tempstack (makes it temporary)
+
+  notes:
+    duplicates settemp() for tracing
+
+  design:
+    append set to tempstack  
+*/
+void qh_settemppush(setT *set) {
+  
+  qh_setappend ((setT**)&qhmem.tempstack, set);
+  if (qhmem.IStracing >= 5)
+    fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qh_settemppush: depth %d temp set %p of %d elements\n",
+    qh_setsize((setT*)qhmem.tempstack), set, qh_setsize(set));
+} /* settemppush */
+
+ 
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="settruncate">-</a>
+  
+  qh_settruncate( set, size )
+    truncate set to size elements
+
+  notes:
+    set must be defined
+  
+  see:
+    SETtruncate_
+
+  design:
+    check size
+    update actual size of set
+*/
+void qh_settruncate (setT *set, int size) {
+
+  if (size < 0 || size > set->maxsize) {
+    fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_settruncate): size %d out of bounds for set:\n", size);
+    qh_setprint (qhmem.ferr, "", set);
+    qh_errexit (qhmem_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  set->e[set->maxsize].i= size+1;   /* maybe overwritten */
+  set->e[size].p= NULL;
+} /* settruncate */
+    
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setunique">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setunique( set, elem )
+    add elem to unsorted set unless it is already in set
+
+  notes:
+    returns 1 if it is appended
+
+  design:
+    if elem not in set
+      append elem to set
+*/
+int qh_setunique (setT **set, void *elem) {
+
+  if (!qh_setin (*set, elem)) {
+    qh_setappend (set, elem);
+    return 1;
+  }
+  return 0;
+} /* setunique */
+    
+/*-<a                             href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------<a name="setzero">-</a>
+  
+  qh_setzero( set, index, size )
+    zero elements from index on
+    set actual size of set to size
+
+  notes:
+    set must be defined
+    the set becomes an indexed set (can not use FOREACH...)
+  
+  see also:
+    qh_settruncate
+    
+  design:
+    check index and size
+    update actual size
+    zero elements starting at e[index]   
+*/
+void qh_setzero (setT *set, int index, int size) {
+  int count;
+
+  if (index < 0 || index >= size || size > set->maxsize) {
+    fprintf (qhmem.ferr, "qhull internal error (qh_setzero): index %d or size %d out of bounds for set:\n", index, size);
+    qh_setprint (qhmem.ferr, "", set);
+    qh_errexit (qhmem_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+  }
+  set->e[set->maxsize].i=  size+1;  /* may be overwritten */
+  count= size - index + 1;   /* +1 for NULL terminator */
+  memset ((char *)SETelemaddr_(set, index, void), 0, count * SETelemsize);
+} /* setzero */
+
+    

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qset.h
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qset.h	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qset.h	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,468 @@
+/*<html><pre>  -<a                             href="qh-set.htm"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="TOP">-</a>
+
+   qset.h
+     header file for qset.c that implements set
+
+   see qh-set.htm and qset.c
+   
+   only uses mem.c, malloc/free
+
+   for error handling, writes message and calls
+      qh_errexit (qhmem_ERRqhull, NULL, NULL);
+   
+   set operations satisfy the following properties:
+    - sets have a max size, the actual size (if different) is stored at the end
+    - every set is NULL terminated
+    - sets may be sorted or unsorted, the caller must distinguish this
+   
+   copyright (c) 1993-2003, The Geometry Center
+*/
+
+#ifndef qhDEFset
+#define qhDEFset 1
+
+/*================= -structures- ===============*/
+
+#ifndef DEFsetT
+#define DEFsetT 1
+typedef struct setT setT;   /* a set is a sorted or unsorted array of pointers */
+#endif
+
+/*-<a                                      href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+>----------------------------------------</a><a name="setT">-</a>
+   
+setT
+  a set or list of pointers with maximum size and actual size.
+
+variations:
+  unsorted, unique   -- a list of unique pointers with NULL terminator
+  			   user guarantees uniqueness
+  sorted	     -- a sorted list of unique pointers with NULL terminator
+  			   qset.c guarantees uniqueness
+  unsorted           -- a list of pointers terminated with NULL
+  indexed  	     -- an array of pointers with NULL elements 
+
+structure for set of n elements:
+
+	--------------
+	|  maxsize 
+	--------------
+	|  e[0] - a pointer, may be NULL for indexed sets
+	--------------
+	|  e[1]
+	
+	--------------
+	|  ...
+	--------------
+	|  e[n-1]
+	--------------
+	|  e[n] = NULL
+	--------------
+	|  ...
+	--------------
+	|  e[maxsize] - n+1 or NULL (determines actual size of set)
+	--------------
+
+*/
+
+/*-- setelemT -- internal type to allow both pointers and indices
+*/
+typedef union setelemT setelemT;
+union setelemT {
+  void    *p;
+  int      i;         /* integer used for e[maxSize] */
+};
+
+struct setT {
+  int maxsize;          /* maximum number of elements (except NULL) */
+  setelemT e[1];        /* array of pointers, tail is NULL */
+                        /* last slot (unless NULL) is actual size+1 
+                           e[maxsize]==NULL or e[e[maxsize]-1]==NULL */
+                        /* this may generate a warning since e[] contains
+			   maxsize elements */
+};
+
+/*=========== -constants- =========================*/
+
+/*-<a                                 href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-----------------------------------</a><a name="SETelemsize">-</a>
+   
+  SETelemsize
+    size of a set element in bytes
+*/
+#define SETelemsize sizeof(setelemT) 
+
+
+/*=========== -macros- =========================*/
+
+/*-<a                                 href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-----------------------------------</a><a name="FOREACHsetelement_">-</a>
+   
+   FOREACHsetelement_(type, set, variable)
+     define FOREACH iterator
+
+   declare:  
+     assumes *variable and **variablep are declared
+     no space in "variable)" [DEC Alpha cc compiler]
+
+   each iteration:
+     variable is set element
+     variablep is one beyond variable.  
+
+   to repeat an element:
+     variablep--; / *repeat* /
+
+   at exit:
+     variable is NULL at end of loop
+
+   example:  
+     #define FOREACHfacet_( facets ) FOREACHsetelement_( facetT, facets, facet )
+
+   notes:
+     use FOREACHsetelement_i_() if need index or include NULLs
+
+   WARNING: 
+     nested loops can't use the same variable (define another FOREACH)
+   
+     needs braces if nested inside another FOREACH
+     this includes intervening blocks, e.g. FOREACH...{ if () FOREACH...} )
+*/
+#define FOREACHsetelement_(type, set, variable) \
+        if (((variable= NULL), set)) for(\
+          variable##p= (type **)&((set)->e[0].p); \
+	  (variable= *variable##p++);)
+
+/*-<a                                      href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >----------------------------------------</a><a name="FOREACHsetelement_i_">-</a>
+
+   FOREACHsetelement_i_(type, set, variable)
+     define indexed FOREACH iterator
+
+   declare:  
+     type *variable, variable_n, variable_i;
+
+   each iteration:
+     variable is set element, may be NULL
+     variable_i is index, variable_n is qh_setsize()
+
+   to repeat an element:
+     variable_i--; variable_n-- repeats for deleted element
+
+   at exit:
+     variable==NULL and variable_i==variable_n
+
+   example:
+     #define FOREACHfacet_i_( facets ) FOREACHsetelement_i_( facetT, facets, facet )
+   
+   WARNING: 
+     nested loops can't use the same variable (define another FOREACH)
+   
+     needs braces if nested inside another FOREACH
+     this includes intervening blocks, e.g. FOREACH...{ if () FOREACH...} )
+*/
+#define FOREACHsetelement_i_(type, set, variable) \
+        if (((variable= NULL), set)) for (\
+          variable##_i= 0, variable= (type *)((set)->e[0].p), \
+                   variable##_n= qh_setsize(set);\
+          variable##_i < variable##_n;\
+          variable= (type *)((set)->e[++variable##_i].p) )
+
+/*-<a                                    href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >--------------------------------------</a><a name="FOREACHsetelementreverse_">-</a>
+
+   FOREACHsetelementreverse_(type, set, variable)- 
+     define FOREACH iterator in reverse order
+
+   declare:  
+     assumes *variable and **variablep are declared
+     also declare 'int variabletemp'
+
+   each iteration:
+     variable is set element
+
+   to repeat an element:
+     variabletemp++; / *repeat* /
+
+   at exit:
+     variable is NULL
+
+   example:
+     #define FOREACHvertexreverse_( vertices ) FOREACHsetelementreverse_( vertexT, vertices, vertex )
+  
+   notes:
+     use FOREACHsetelementreverse12_() to reverse first two elements
+     WARNING: needs braces if nested inside another FOREACH
+*/
+#define FOREACHsetelementreverse_(type, set, variable) \
+        if (((variable= NULL), set)) for(\
+	   variable##temp= qh_setsize(set)-1, variable= qh_setlast(set);\
+	   variable; variable= \
+	   ((--variable##temp >= 0) ? SETelemt_(set, variable##temp, type) : NULL))
+
+/*-<a                                 href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-----------------------------------</a><a name="FOREACHsetelementreverse12_">-</a>
+
+   FOREACHsetelementreverse12_(type, set, variable)- 
+     define FOREACH iterator with e[1] and e[0] reversed
+
+   declare:  
+     assumes *variable and **variablep are declared
+
+   each iteration:
+     variable is set element
+     variablep is one after variable.  
+
+   to repeat an element:
+     variablep--; / *repeat* /
+
+   at exit:
+     variable is NULL at end of loop
+  
+   example
+     #define FOREACHvertexreverse12_( vertices ) FOREACHsetelementreverse12_( vertexT, vertices, vertex )
+
+   notes:
+     WARNING: needs braces if nested inside another FOREACH
+*/
+#define FOREACHsetelementreverse12_(type, set, variable) \
+        if (((variable= NULL), set)) for(\
+          variable##p= (type **)&((set)->e[1].p); \
+	  (variable= *variable##p); \
+          variable##p == ((type **)&((set)->e[0].p))?variable##p += 2: \
+	      (variable##p == ((type **)&((set)->e[1].p))?variable##p--:variable##p++))
+
+/*-<a                                 href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-----------------------------------</a><a name="FOREACHelem_">-</a>
+
+   FOREACHelem_( set )- 
+     iterate elements in a set
+
+   declare:  
+     void *elem, *elemp;
+
+   each iteration:
+     elem is set element
+     elemp is one beyond
+
+   to repeat an element:
+     elemp--; / *repeat* /
+
+   at exit:
+     elem == NULL at end of loop
+  
+   example:
+     FOREACHelem_(set) {
+     
+   notes:
+     WARNING: needs braces if nested inside another FOREACH
+*/
+#define FOREACHelem_(set) FOREACHsetelement_(void, set, elem)
+
+/*-<a                                 href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-----------------------------------</a><a name="FOREACHset_">-</a>
+
+   FOREACHset_( set )- 
+     iterate a set of sets
+
+   declare:  
+     setT *set, **setp;
+
+   each iteration:
+     set is set element
+     setp is one beyond
+
+   to repeat an element:
+     setp--; / *repeat* /
+
+   at exit:
+     set == NULL at end of loop
+  
+   example
+     FOREACHset_(sets) {
+     
+   notes:
+     WARNING: needs braces if nested inside another FOREACH
+*/
+#define FOREACHset_(sets) FOREACHsetelement_(setT, sets, set)
+
+/*-<a                                       href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >-----------------------------------------</a><a name="SETindex_">-</a>
+
+   SETindex_( set, elem )
+     return index of elem in set
+
+   notes:   
+     for use with FOREACH iteration
+
+   example:
+     i= SETindex_(ridges, ridge)
+*/
+#define SETindex_(set, elem) ((void **)elem##p - (void **)&(set)->e[1].p)
+
+/*-<a                                     href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >---------------------------------------</a><a name="SETref_">-</a>
+
+   SETref_( elem )
+     l.h.s. for modifying the current element in a FOREACH iteration
+
+   example:
+     SETref_(ridge)= anotherridge;
+*/
+#define SETref_(elem) (elem##p[-1])
+
+/*-<a                                     href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >---------------------------------------</a><a name="SETelem_">-</a>
+
+   SETelem_(set, n)
+     return the n'th element of set
+   
+   notes:
+      assumes that n is valid [0..size] and that set is defined
+      use SETelemt_() for type cast
+*/
+#define SETelem_(set, n)           ((set)->e[n].p)
+
+/*-<a                                     href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >---------------------------------------</a><a name="SETelemt_">-</a>
+
+   SETelemt_(set, n, type)
+     return the n'th element of set as a type
+   
+   notes:
+      assumes that n is valid [0..size] and that set is defined
+*/
+#define SETelemt_(set, n, type)    ((type*)((set)->e[n].p))
+
+/*-<a                                     href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >---------------------------------------</a><a name="SETelemaddr_">-</a>
+
+   SETelemaddr_(set, n, type)
+     return address of the n'th element of a set
+   
+   notes:
+      assumes that n is valid [0..size] and set is defined 
+*/
+#define SETelemaddr_(set, n, type) ((type **)(&((set)->e[n].p)))
+
+/*-<a                                     href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >---------------------------------------</a><a name="SETfirst_">-</a>
+
+   SETfirst_(set)
+     return first element of set
+   
+*/
+#define SETfirst_(set)             ((set)->e[0].p)
+
+/*-<a                                     href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >---------------------------------------</a><a name="SETfirstt_">-</a>
+
+   SETfirstt_(set, type)
+     return first element of set as a type
+   
+*/
+#define SETfirstt_(set, type)      ((type*)((set)->e[0].p))
+
+/*-<a                                     href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >---------------------------------------</a><a name="SETsecond_">-</a>
+
+   SETsecond_(set)
+     return second element of set
+   
+*/
+#define SETsecond_(set)            ((set)->e[1].p)
+
+/*-<a                                     href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >---------------------------------------</a><a name="SETsecondt_">-</a>
+
+   SETsecondt_(set, type)
+     return second element of set as a type
+*/
+#define SETsecondt_(set, type)     ((type*)((set)->e[1].p))
+
+/*-<a                                     href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >---------------------------------------</a><a name="SETaddr_">-</a>
+
+   SETaddr_(set, type)
+       return address of set's elements
+*/
+#define SETaddr_(set,type)	   ((type **)(&((set)->e[0].p)))
+
+/*-<a                                     href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >---------------------------------------</a><a name="SETreturnsize_">-</a>
+
+   SETreturnsize_(set, size) 
+     return size of a set
+   
+   notes:
+      set must be defined
+      use qh_setsize(set) unless speed is critical
+*/
+#define SETreturnsize_(set, size) (((size)= ((set)->e[(set)->maxsize].i))?(--(size)):((size)= (set)->maxsize))
+
+/*-<a                                     href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >---------------------------------------</a><a name="SETempty_">-</a>
+
+   SETempty_(set) 
+     return true (1) if set is empty
+   
+   notes:
+      set may be NULL
+*/
+#define SETempty_(set) 	          (!set || (SETfirst_(set) ? 0:1))
+
+/*-<a                                     href="qh-set.htm#TOC"
+  >---------------------------------------</a><a name="SETtruncate_">-</a>
+
+   SETtruncate_(set)
+     return first element of set
+
+   see:
+     qh_settruncate()
+   
+*/
+#define SETtruncate_(set, size) {set->e[set->maxsize].i= size+1; /* maybe overwritten */ \
+      set->e[size].p= NULL;}
+
+/*======= prototypes in alphabetical order ============*/
+
+void  qh_setaddsorted(setT **setp, void *elem);
+void  qh_setaddnth(setT **setp, int nth, void *newelem);
+void  qh_setappend(setT **setp, void *elem);
+void  qh_setappend_set(setT **setp, setT *setA);
+void  qh_setappend2ndlast(setT **setp, void *elem);
+void  qh_setcheck(setT *set, char *tname, int id);
+void  qh_setcompact(setT *set);
+setT *qh_setcopy(setT *set, int extra);
+void *qh_setdel(setT *set, void *elem);
+void *qh_setdellast(setT *set);
+void *qh_setdelnth(setT *set, int nth);
+void *qh_setdelnthsorted(setT *set, int nth);
+void *qh_setdelsorted(setT *set, void *newelem);
+setT *qh_setduplicate( setT *set, int elemsize);
+int   qh_setequal(setT *setA, setT *setB);
+int   qh_setequal_except (setT *setA, void *skipelemA, setT *setB, void *skipelemB);
+int   qh_setequal_skip (setT *setA, int skipA, setT *setB, int skipB);
+void  qh_setfree(setT **set);
+void  qh_setfree2( setT **setp, int elemsize);
+void  qh_setfreelong(setT **set);
+int   qh_setin(setT *set, void *setelem);
+int   qh_setindex(setT *set, void *setelem);
+void  qh_setlarger(setT **setp);
+void *qh_setlast(setT *set);
+setT *qh_setnew(int size);
+setT *qh_setnew_delnthsorted(setT *set, int size, int nth, int prepend);
+void  qh_setprint(FILE *fp, char* string, setT *set);
+void  qh_setreplace(setT *set, void *oldelem, void *newelem);
+int   qh_setsize(setT *set);
+setT *qh_settemp(int setsize);
+void  qh_settempfree(setT **set);
+void  qh_settempfree_all(void);
+setT *qh_settemppop(void);
+void  qh_settemppush(setT *set);
+void  qh_settruncate (setT *set, int size);
+int   qh_setunique (setT **set, void *elem);
+void  qh_setzero (setT *set, int index, int size);
+
+
+#endif /* qhDEFset */

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qvoronoi.c
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qvoronoi.c	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qvoronoi.c	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,318 @@
+/*<html><pre>  -<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="TOP">-</a>
+
+   qvoronoi.c
+     compute Voronoi diagrams and furthest-point Voronoi
+     diagrams using qhull
+
+   see unix.c for full interface
+
+   copyright (c) 1993-2003, The Geometry Center
+*/
+
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <ctype.h>
+#include <math.h>
+#include "qhull.h"
+#include "mem.h"
+#include "qset.h"
+
+#if __MWERKS__ && __POWERPC__
+#include <SIOUX.h>
+#include <Files.h>
+#include <console.h>
+#include <Desk.h>
+
+#elif __cplusplus
+extern "C" {
+  int isatty (int);
+}
+
+#elif _MSC_VER
+#include <io.h>
+#define isatty _isatty
+
+#else
+int isatty (int);  /* returns 1 if stdin is a tty
+		   if "Undefined symbol" this can be deleted along with call in main() */
+#endif
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="prompt">-</a>
+
+  qh_prompt 
+    long prompt for qhull
+    
+  notes:
+    restricted version of qhull.c
+ 
+  see:
+    concise prompt below
+*/  
+
+/* duplicated in qvoron_f.htm and qvoronoi.htm */
+char hidden_options[]=" d n m v H U Qb QB Qc Qf Qg Qi Qm Qr QR Qv Qx TR E V Fa FA FC Fp FS Ft FV Pv Gt Q0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 ";
+
+char qh_prompta[]= "\n\
+qvoronoi- compute the Voronoi diagram\n\
+    http://www.qhull.org  %s\n\
+\n\
+input (stdin):\n\
+    first lines: dimension and number of points (or vice-versa).\n\
+    other lines: point coordinates, best if one point per line\n\
+    comments:    start with a non-numeric character\n\
+\n\
+options:\n\
+    Qu   - compute furthest-site Voronoi diagram\n\
+    Qt   - triangulated output\n\
+    QJ   - joggled input instead of merged facets\n\
+\n\
+Qhull control options:\n\
+    Qz   - add point-at-infinity to Voronoi diagram\n\
+    QJn  - randomly joggle input in range [-n,n]\n\
+%s%s%s%s";  /* split up qh_prompt for Visual C++ */
+char qh_promptb[]= "\
+    Qs   - search all points for the initial simplex\n\
+    QGn  - Voronoi vertices if visible from point n, -n if not\n\
+    QVn  - Voronoi vertices for input point n, -n if not\n\
+\n\
+";
+char qh_promptc[]= "\
+Trace options:\n\
+    T4   - trace at level n, 4=all, 5=mem/gauss, -1= events\n\
+    Tc   - check frequently during execution\n\
+    Ts   - statistics\n\
+    Tv   - verify result: structure, convexity, and in-circle test\n\
+    Tz   - send all output to stdout\n\
+    TFn  - report summary when n or more facets created\n\
+    TI file - input data from file, no spaces or single quotes\n\
+    TO file - output results to file, may be enclosed in single quotes\n\
+    TPn  - turn on tracing when point n added to hull\n\
+     TMn - turn on tracing at merge n\n\
+     TWn - trace merge facets when width > n\n\
+    TVn  - stop qhull after adding point n, -n for before (see TCn)\n\
+     TCn - stop qhull after building cone for point n (see TVn)\n\
+\n\
+Precision options:\n\
+    Cn   - radius of centrum (roundoff added).  Merge facets if non-convex\n\
+     An  - cosine of maximum angle.  Merge facets if cosine > n or non-convex\n\
+           C-0 roundoff, A-0.99/C-0.01 pre-merge, A0.99/C0.01 post-merge\n\
+    Rn   - randomly perturb computations by a factor of [1-n,1+n]\n\
+    Wn   - min facet width for non-coincident point (before roundoff)\n\
+\n\
+Output formats (may be combined; if none, produces a summary to stdout):\n\
+    s    - summary to stderr\n\
+    p    - Voronoi vertices\n\
+    o    - OFF format (dim, Voronoi vertices, and Voronoi regions)\n\
+    i    - Delaunay regions (use 'Pp' to avoid warning)\n\
+    f    - facet dump\n\
+\n\
+";
+char qh_promptd[]= "\
+More formats:\n\
+    Fc   - count plus coincident points (by Voronoi vertex)\n\
+    Fd   - use cdd format for input (homogeneous with offset first)\n\
+    FD   - use cdd format for output (offset first)\n\
+    FF   - facet dump without ridges\n\
+    Fi   - separating hyperplanes for bounded Voronoi regions\n\
+    FI   - ID for each Voronoi vertex\n\
+    Fm   - merge count for each Voronoi vertex (511 max)\n\
+    Fn   - count plus neighboring Voronoi vertices for each Voronoi vertex\n\
+    FN   - count and Voronoi vertices for each Voronoi region\n\
+    Fo   - separating hyperplanes for unbounded Voronoi regions\n\
+    FO   - options and precision constants\n\
+    FP   - nearest point and distance for each coincident point\n\
+    FQ   - command used for qvoronoi\n\
+    Fs   - summary: #int (8), dimension, #points, tot vertices, tot facets,\n\
+                    for output: #Voronoi regions, #Voronoi vertices,\n\
+                                #coincident points, #non-simplicial regions\n\
+                    #real (2), max outer plane and min vertex\n\
+    Fv   - Voronoi diagram as Voronoi vertices between adjacent input sites\n\
+    Fx   - extreme points of Delaunay triangulation (on convex hull)\n\
+\n\
+";
+char qh_prompte[]= "\
+Geomview options (2-d only)\n\
+    Ga   - all points as dots\n\
+     Gp  -  coplanar points and vertices as radii\n\
+     Gv  -  vertices as spheres\n\
+    Gi   - inner planes only\n\
+     Gn  -  no planes\n\
+     Go  -  outer planes only\n\
+    Gc	 - centrums\n\
+    Gh   - hyperplane intersections\n\
+    Gr   - ridges\n\
+    GDn  - drop dimension n in 3-d and 4-d output\n\
+\n\
+Print options:\n\
+    PAn  - keep n largest Voronoi vertices by 'area'\n\
+    Pdk:n - drop facet if normal[k] <= n (default 0.0)\n\
+    PDk:n - drop facet if normal[k] >= n\n\
+    Pg   - print good Voronoi vertices (needs 'QGn' or 'QVn')\n\
+    PFn  - keep Voronoi vertices whose 'area' is at least n\n\
+    PG   - print neighbors of good Voronoi vertices\n\
+    PMn  - keep n Voronoi vertices with most merges\n\
+    Po   - force output.  If error, output neighborhood of facet\n\
+    Pp   - do not report precision problems\n\
+\n\
+    .    - list of all options\n\
+    -    - one line descriptions of all options\n\
+";
+/* for opts, don't assign 'e' or 'E' to a flag (already used for exponent) */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="prompt2">-</a>
+
+  qh_prompt2
+    synopsis for qhull 
+*/  
+char qh_prompt2[]= "\n\
+qvoronoi- compute the Voronoi diagram.  Qhull %s\n\
+    input (stdin): dimension, number of points, point coordinates\n\
+    comments start with a non-numeric character\n\
+\n\
+options (qvoronoi.htm):\n\
+    Qu   - compute furthest-site Voronoi diagram\n\
+    Qt   - triangulated output\n\
+    QJ   - joggled input instead of merged facets\n\
+    Tv   - verify result: structure, convexity, and in-circle test\n\
+    .    - concise list of all options\n\
+    -    - one-line description of all options\n\
+\n\
+output options (subset):\n\
+    s    - summary of results (default)\n\
+    p    - Voronoi vertices\n\
+    o    - OFF file format (dim, Voronoi vertices, and Voronoi regions)\n\
+    FN   - count and Voronoi vertices for each Voronoi region\n\
+    Fv   - Voronoi diagram as Voronoi vertices between adjacent input sites\n\
+    Fi   - separating hyperplanes for bounded regions, 'Fo' for unbounded\n\
+    G    - Geomview output (2-d only)\n\
+    QVn  - Voronoi vertices for input point n, -n if not\n\
+    TO file- output results to file, may be enclosed in single quotes\n\
+\n\
+examples:\n\
+rbox c P0 D2 | qvoronoi s o         rbox c P0 D2 | qvoronoi Fi\n\
+rbox c P0 D2 | qvoronoi Fo          rbox c P0 D2 | qvoronoi Fv\n\
+rbox c P0 D2 | qvoronoi s Qu Fv     rbox c P0 D2 | qvoronoi Qu Fo\n\
+rbox c G1 d D2 | qvoronoi s p       rbox c G1 d D2 | qvoronoi QJ s p\n\
+rbox c P0 D2 | qvoronoi s Fv QV0\n\
+\n\
+";
+/* for opts, don't assign 'e' or 'E' to a flag (already used for exponent) */
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="prompt3">-</a>
+
+  qh_prompt3
+    concise prompt for qhull 
+*/  
+char qh_prompt3[]= "\n\
+Qhull %s.\n\
+Except for 'F.' and 'PG', upper-case options take an argument.\n\
+\n\
+ OFF_format     p_vertices     i_delaunay     summary        facet_dump\n\
+\n\
+ Fcoincident    Fd_cdd_in      FD_cdd_out     FF-dump-xridge Fi_bounded\n\
+ Fxtremes       Fmerges        Fneighbors     FNeigh_region  FOptions\n\
+ Fo_unbounded   FPoint_near    FQvoronoi      Fsummary       Fvoronoi\n\
+ FIDs\n\
+\n\
+ Gvertices      Gpoints        Gall_points    Gno_planes     Ginner\n\
+ Gcentrums      Ghyperplanes   Gridges        Gouter         GDrop_dim\n\
+\n\
+ PArea_keep     Pdrop d0:0D0   Pgood          PFacet_area_keep\n\
+ PGood_neighbors PMerge_keep   Poutput_forced Pprecision_not\n\
+\n\
+ QG_vertex_good QJoggle        Qsearch_1st    Qtriangulate   Qupper_voronoi\n\
+ QV_point_good  Qzinfinite\n\
+\n\
+ T4_trace       Tcheck_often   Tstatistics    Tverify        Tz_stdout\n\
+ TFacet_log     TInput_file    TPoint_trace   TMerge_trace   TOutput_file\n\
+ TWide_trace    TVertex_stop   TCone_stop\n\
+\n\
+ Angle_max      Centrum_size   Random_dist    Wide_outside\n\
+";
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-qhull.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="main">-</a>
+  
+  main( argc, argv )
+    processes the command line, calls qhull() to do the work, and exits
+  
+  design:
+    initializes data structures
+    reads points
+    finishes initialization
+    computes convex hull and other structures
+    checks the result
+    writes the output
+    frees memory
+*/
+int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
+  int curlong, totlong; /* used !qh_NOmem */
+  int exitcode, numpoints, dim;
+  coordT *points;
+  boolT ismalloc;
+
+#if __MWERKS__ && __POWERPC__
+  char inBuf[BUFSIZ], outBuf[BUFSIZ], errBuf[BUFSIZ];
+  SIOUXSettings.showstatusline= false;
+  SIOUXSettings.tabspaces= 1;
+  SIOUXSettings.rows= 40;
+  if (setvbuf (stdin, inBuf, _IOFBF, sizeof(inBuf)) < 0   /* w/o, SIOUX I/O is slow*/
+  || setvbuf (stdout, outBuf, _IOFBF, sizeof(outBuf)) < 0
+  || (stdout != stderr && setvbuf (stderr, errBuf, _IOFBF, sizeof(errBuf)) < 0)) 
+    fprintf (stderr, "qhull internal warning (main): could not change stdio to fully buffered.\n");
+  argc= ccommand(&argv);
+#endif
+
+  if ((argc == 1) && isatty( 0 /*stdin*/)) {      
+    fprintf(stdout, qh_prompt2, qh_version);
+    exit(qh_ERRnone);
+  }
+  if (argc > 1 && *argv[1] == '-' && !*(argv[1]+1)) {
+    fprintf(stdout, qh_prompta, qh_version,
+		qh_promptb, qh_promptc, qh_promptd, qh_prompte);
+    exit(qh_ERRnone);
+  }
+  if (argc >1 && *argv[1] == '.' && !*(argv[1]+1)) {
+    fprintf(stdout, qh_prompt3, qh_version);
+    exit(qh_ERRnone);
+  }
+  qh_init_A (stdin, stdout, stderr, argc, argv);  /* sets qh qhull_command */
+  exitcode= setjmp (qh errexit); /* simple statement for CRAY J916 */
+  if (!exitcode) {
+    qh_option ("voronoi  _bbound-last  _coplanar-keep", NULL, NULL);
+    qh DELAUNAY= True;     /* 'v'   */
+    qh VORONOI= True; 
+    qh SCALElast= True;    /* 'Qbb' */
+    qh_checkflags (qh qhull_command, hidden_options);
+    qh_initflags (qh qhull_command);
+    points= qh_readpoints (&numpoints, &dim, &ismalloc);
+    if (dim >= 5) {
+      qh_option ("_merge-exact", NULL, NULL);
+      qh MERGEexact= True; /* 'Qx' always */
+    }
+    qh_init_B (points, numpoints, dim, ismalloc);
+    qh_qhull();
+    qh_check_output();
+    qh_produce_output();
+    if (qh VERIFYoutput && !qh FORCEoutput && !qh STOPpoint && !qh STOPcone)
+      qh_check_points();
+    exitcode= qh_ERRnone;
+  }
+  qh NOerrexit= True;  /* no more setjmp */
+#ifdef qh_NOmem
+  qh_freeqhull( True);
+#else
+  qh_freeqhull( False);
+  qh_memfreeshort (&curlong, &totlong);
+  if (curlong || totlong) 
+    fprintf (stderr, "qhull internal warning (main): did not free %d bytes of long memory (%d pieces)\n",
+       totlong, curlong);
+#endif
+  return exitcode;
+} /* main */
+

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/rbox.c
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/rbox.c	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/rbox.c	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,788 @@
+/*<html><pre>  -<a                             href="index.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="TOP">-</a>
+
+   rbox.c
+     Generate input points for qhull.
+   
+   notes:
+     50 points generated for 'rbox D4'
+
+     This code needs a full rewrite.  It needs separate procedures for each 
+     distribution with common, helper procedures.
+   
+   WARNING: 
+     incorrect range if qh_RANDOMmax is defined wrong (user.h)
+*/
+
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <ctype.h>
+#include <math.h>
+#include <limits.h>
+#include <time.h>
+
+#include "user.h"
+#if __MWERKS__ && __POWERPC__
+#include <SIOUX.h>
+#include <Files.h>
+#include <console.h>
+#include <Desk.h>
+#endif
+
+#ifdef _MSC_VER  /* Microsoft Visual C++ */
+#pragma warning( disable : 4244)  /* conversion from double to int */
+#endif
+
+#define MINVALUE 0.8
+#define MAXdim 200
+#define PI 3.1415926535897932384
+#define DEFAULTzbox 1e6
+
+char prompt[]= "\n\
+-rbox- generate various point distributions.  Default is random in cube.\n\
+\n\
+args (any order, space separated):                    Version: 2001/06/24\n\
+  3000    number of random points in cube, lens, spiral, sphere or grid\n\
+  D3      dimension 3-d\n\
+  c       add a unit cube to the output ('c G2.0' sets size)\n\
+  d       add a unit diamond to the output ('d G2.0' sets size)\n\
+  l       generate a regular 3-d spiral\n\
+  r       generate a regular polygon, ('r s Z1 G0.1' makes a cone)\n\
+  s       generate cospherical points\n\
+  x       generate random points in simplex, may use 'r' or 'Wn'\n\
+  y       same as 'x', plus simplex\n\
+  Pn,m,r  add point [n,m,r] first, pads with 0\n\
+\n\
+  Ln      lens distribution of radius n.  Also 's', 'r', 'G', 'W'.\n\
+  Mn,m,r  lattice (Mesh) rotated by [n,-m,0], [m,n,0], [0,0,r], ...\n\
+          '27 M1,0,1' is {0,1,2} x {0,1,2} x {0,1,2}.  Try 'M3,4 z'.\n\
+  W0.1    random distribution within 0.1 of the cube's or sphere's surface\n\
+  Z0.5 s  random points in a 0.5 disk projected to a sphere\n\
+  Z0.5 s G0.6 same as Z0.5 within a 0.6 gap\n\
+\n\
+  Bn      bounding box coordinates, default %2.2g\n\
+  h       output as homogeneous coordinates for cdd\n\
+  n       remove command line from the first line of output\n\
+  On      offset coordinates by n\n\
+  t       use time as the random number seed (default is command line)\n\
+  tn      use n as the random number seed\n\
+  z       print integer coordinates, default 'Bn' is %2.2g\n\
+";
+
+/* ------------------------------ prototypes ----------------*/
+int roundi( double a);
+void out1( double a);
+void out2n( double a, double b);
+void out3n( double a, double b, double c);
+int     qh_rand( void);
+void    qh_srand( int seed);
+
+
+/* ------------------------------ globals -------------------*/
+
+    FILE *fp;
+    int isinteger= 0;
+    double out_offset= 0.0;
+
+
+/*--------------------------------------------
+-rbox-  main procedure of rbox application
+*/
+int main(int argc, char **argv) {
+    int i,j,k;
+    int gendim;
+    int cubesize, diamondsize, seed=0, count, apex;
+    int dim=3 , numpoints= 0, totpoints, addpoints=0;
+    int issphere=0, isaxis=0,  iscdd= 0, islens= 0, isregular=0, iswidth=0, addcube=0;
+    int isgap=0, isspiral=0, NOcommand= 0, adddiamond=0, istime=0;
+    int isbox=0, issimplex=0, issimplex2=0, ismesh=0;
+    double width=0.0, gap=0.0, radius= 0.0;
+    double coord[MAXdim], offset, meshm=3.0, meshn=4.0, meshr=5.0;
+    double *simplex, *simplexp;
+    int nthroot, mult[MAXdim];
+    double norm, factor, randr, rangap, lensangle= 0, lensbase= 1;
+    double anglediff, angle, x, y, cube= 0.0, diamond= 0.0;
+    double box= qh_DEFAULTbox; /* scale all numbers before output */
+    double randmax= qh_RANDOMmax;
+    char command[200], *s, seedbuf[200];    
+    time_t timedata;
+
+#if __MWERKS__ && __POWERPC__
+    char inBuf[BUFSIZ], outBuf[BUFSIZ], errBuf[BUFSIZ];
+    SIOUXSettings.showstatusline= False;
+    SIOUXSettings.tabspaces= 1;
+    SIOUXSettings.rows= 40;
+    if (setvbuf (stdin, inBuf, _IOFBF, sizeof(inBuf)) < 0   /* w/o, SIOUX I/O is slow*/
+    || setvbuf (stdout, outBuf, _IOFBF, sizeof(outBuf)) < 0
+    || (stdout != stderr && setvbuf (stderr, errBuf, _IOFBF, sizeof(errBuf)) < 0)) 
+      	fprintf ( stderr, "qhull internal warning (main): could not change stdio to fully buffered.\n");
+    argc= ccommand(&argv);
+#endif
+    if (argc == 1) {
+ 	printf (prompt, box, DEFAULTzbox);
+    	exit(1);
+    }
+    if ((s = strrchr( argv[0], '\\'))) /* Borland gives full path */
+      strcpy (command, s+1);
+    else
+      strcpy (command, argv[0]);
+    if ((s= strstr (command, ".EXE"))
+    ||  (s= strstr (command, ".exe")))
+      *s= '\0';
+    /* ============= read flags =============== */
+    for (i=1; i < argc; i++) {
+  	if (strlen (command) + strlen(argv[i]) + 1 < sizeof(command) ) {
+	    strcat (command, " ");
+	    strcat (command, argv[i]);
+	}
+        if (isdigit (argv[i][0])) {
+      	    numpoints= atoi (argv[i]);
+      	    continue;
+	}
+	if (argv[i][0] == '-')
+	  (argv[i])++;
+        switch (argv[i][0]) {
+	  case 'c':
+	    addcube= 1;
+	    if (i+1 < argc && argv[i+1][0] == 'G')
+	      cube= (double) atof (&argv[++i][1]);
+	    break;
+	  case 'd':
+	    adddiamond= 1;
+	    if (i+1 < argc && argv[i+1][0] == 'G')
+	      diamond= (double) atof (&argv[++i][1]);
+	    break;
+	  case 'h':
+	    iscdd= 1;
+            break;
+	  case 'l':
+	    isspiral= 1;
+            break;
+	  case 'n':
+	    NOcommand= 1;
+	    break;
+	  case 'r':
+	    isregular= 1;
+	    break;
+	  case 's':
+	    issphere= 1;
+            break;
+	  case 't':
+	    istime= 1;
+	    if (isdigit (argv[i][1]))
+	      seed= atoi (&argv[i][1]);
+	    else {
+	      seed= time (&timedata);
+	      sprintf (seedbuf, "%d", seed);
+	      strcat (command, seedbuf);
+	    }
+            break;
+	  case 'x':
+	    issimplex= 1;
+	    break;
+	  case 'y':
+	    issimplex2= 1;
+	    break;
+	  case 'z':
+	    isinteger= 1;
+	    break;
+	  case 'B':
+	    box= (double) atof (&argv[i][1]);
+	    isbox= 1;
+	    break;
+	  case 'D':
+	    dim= atoi (&argv[i][1]);
+	    if (dim < 1
+	    || dim > MAXdim) {
+		fprintf (stderr, "rbox error: dim %d too large or too small\n", dim);
+		exit (1);
+	    }
+            break;
+	  case 'G':
+	    if (argv[i][1])
+	      gap= (double) atof (&argv[i][1]);
+	    else
+	      gap= 0.5;
+	    isgap= 1;
+	    break;
+	  case 'L':
+	    if (argv[i][1])
+	      radius= (double) atof (&argv[i][1]);
+	    else
+	      radius= 10;
+	    islens= 1;
+	    break;
+	  case 'M':
+	    ismesh= 1;
+    	    s= argv[i]+1;
+	    if (*s)
+	      meshn= strtod (s, &s);
+	    if (*s == ',')
+	      meshm= strtod (++s, &s);
+	    else
+	      meshm= 0.0;
+	    if (*s == ',')
+	      meshr= strtod (++s, &s);
+	    else
+	      meshr= sqrt (meshn*meshn + meshm*meshm);
+	    if (*s) {
+	      fprintf (stderr, "rbox warning: assuming 'M3,4,5' since mesh args are not integers or reals\n");
+	      meshn= 3.0, meshm=4.0, meshr=5.0;
+	    }
+	    break;
+	  case 'O':
+	    out_offset= (double) atof (&argv[i][1]);
+	    break;
+	  case 'P':
+	    addpoints++;
+	    break;
+	  case 'W':
+	    width= (double) atof (&argv[i][1]);
+	    iswidth= 1;
+	    break;
+	  case 'Z':
+	    if (argv[i][1])
+	      radius= (double) atof (&argv[i][1]);
+	    else
+	      radius= 1.0;
+	    isaxis= 1;
+	    break;
+	  default:
+            fprintf (stderr, "rbox warning: unknown flag %s.\nExecute 'rbox' without arguments for documentation.\n", argv[i]);
+	}
+    }
+    /* ============= defaults, constants, and sizes =============== */
+    if (isinteger && !isbox)
+      box= DEFAULTzbox;
+    if (addcube) {
+      cubesize= floor(ldexp(1.0,dim)+0.5);
+      if (cube == 0.0)
+        cube= box;
+    }else
+      cubesize= 0;
+    if (adddiamond) {
+      diamondsize= 2*dim;
+      if (diamond == 0.0)
+        diamond= box;
+    }else
+      diamondsize= 0;
+    if (islens) {
+      if (isaxis) {
+  	fprintf (stderr, "rbox error: can not combine 'Ln' with 'Zn'\n");
+  	exit(1);
+      }
+      if (radius <= 1.0) {
+  	fprintf (stderr, "rbox error: lens radius %.2g should be greater than 1.0\n",
+  	       radius);
+  	exit(1);
+      }
+      lensangle= asin (1.0/radius);
+      lensbase= radius * cos (lensangle);
+    }
+    if (!numpoints) {
+      if (issimplex2)
+	; /* ok */
+      else if (isregular + issimplex + islens + issphere + isaxis + isspiral + iswidth + ismesh) {
+	fprintf (stderr, "rbox error: missing count\n");
+	exit(1);
+      }else if (adddiamond + addcube + addpoints)
+	; /* ok */
+      else { 
+	numpoints= 50;  /* ./rbox D4 is the test case */
+	issphere= 1;
+      }
+    }
+    if ((issimplex + islens + isspiral + ismesh > 1) 
+    || (issimplex + issphere + isspiral + ismesh > 1)) {
+      fprintf (stderr, "rbox error: can only specify one of 'l', 's', 'x', 'Ln', or 'Mn,m,r' ('Ln s' is ok).\n");
+      exit(1);
+    }
+    fp= stdout;
+    /* ============= print header with total points =============== */
+    if (issimplex || ismesh)
+      totpoints= numpoints;
+    else if (issimplex2)
+      totpoints= numpoints+dim+1;
+    else if (isregular) {
+      totpoints= numpoints;
+      if (dim == 2) {
+      	if (islens)
+      	  totpoints += numpoints - 2;
+      }else if (dim == 3) {
+      	if (islens)
+      	  totpoints += 2 * numpoints;
+        else if (isgap)
+          totpoints += 1 + numpoints;
+        else
+          totpoints += 2;
+      }
+    }else
+      totpoints= numpoints + isaxis;
+    totpoints += cubesize + diamondsize + addpoints;
+    if (iscdd) 
+      fprintf(fp, "%s\nbegin\n        %d %d %s\n", 
+            NOcommand ? "" : command, 
+            totpoints, dim+1,
+            isinteger ? "integer" : "real");
+    else if (NOcommand)
+      fprintf(fp,  "%d\n%d\n", dim, totpoints);
+    else
+      fprintf(fp,  "%d %s\n%d\n", dim, command, totpoints);
+    /* ============= seed randoms =============== */
+    if (istime == 0) {
+      for (s=command; *s; s++) {
+	if (issimplex2 && *s == 'y') /* make 'y' same seed as 'x' */
+	  i= 'x';
+	else
+	  i= *s;
+	seed= 11*seed + i;
+      }
+    } /* else, seed explicitly set to n or to time */
+    qh_RANDOMseed_(seed);
+    /* ============= explicit points =============== */
+    for (i=1; i < argc; i++) {
+      if (argv[i][0] == 'P') {
+	s= argv[i]+1;
+	count= 0;
+	if (iscdd)
+	  out1( 1.0);
+	while (*s) {
+	  out1( strtod (s, &s));
+	  count++;
+	  if (*s) { 
+	    if (*s++ != ',') {
+	      fprintf (stderr, "rbox error: missing comma after coordinate in %s\n\n", argv[i]);
+	      exit (1);
+	    }
+          }
+	}
+	if (count < dim) {
+	  for (k= dim-count; k--; )
+	    out1( 0.0);
+	}else if (count > dim) {
+	  fprintf (stderr, "rbox error: %d coordinates instead of %d coordinates in %s\n\n", 
+                 count, dim, argv[i]);
+	  exit (1);
+	}
+	fprintf (fp, "\n");
+      }
+    }
+    /* ============= simplex distribution =============== */
+    if (issimplex+issimplex2) {
+      if (!(simplex= malloc( dim * (dim+1) * sizeof(double)))) {
+	fprintf (stderr, "insufficient memory for simplex\n");
+	exit(0);
+      }
+      simplexp= simplex;
+      if (isregular) {
+        for (i= 0; i<dim; i++) {
+          for (k= 0; k<dim; k++)
+	    *(simplexp++)= i==k ? 1.0 : 0.0;
+        }
+        for (k= 0; k<dim; k++)
+	  *(simplexp++)= -1.0;
+      }else {
+        for (i= 0; i<dim+1; i++) {
+          for (k= 0; k<dim; k++) {
+    	    randr= qh_RANDOMint;
+            *(simplexp++)= 2.0 * randr/randmax - 1.0;
+          }
+        }
+      }
+      if (issimplex2) { 
+	simplexp= simplex;
+        for (i= 0; i<dim+1; i++) {
+          if (iscdd)
+            out1( 1.0);
+          for (k= 0; k<dim; k++)
+ 	    out1( *(simplexp++) * box);
+          fprintf (fp, "\n");
+	}
+      }
+      for (j= 0; j<numpoints; j++) {
+        if (iswidth) 
+          apex= qh_RANDOMint % (dim+1);
+        else
+          apex= -1;
+        for (k= 0; k<dim; k++)
+	  coord[k]= 0.0;
+	norm= 0.0;
+        for (i= 0; i<dim+1; i++) {
+    	  randr= qh_RANDOMint;
+          factor= randr/randmax;
+          if (i == apex)
+            factor *= width;
+          norm += factor;
+          for (k= 0; k<dim; k++) {
+	    simplexp= simplex + i*dim + k;
+            coord[k] += factor * (*simplexp);
+          }
+        }
+        for (k= 0; k<dim; k++)
+          coord[k] /= norm;
+        if (iscdd)
+          out1( 1.0);
+        for (k=0; k < dim; k++) 
+	  out1( coord[k] * box);
+        fprintf (fp, "\n");
+      }
+      isregular= 0; /* continue with isbox */
+      numpoints= 0;
+    }
+    /* ============= mesh distribution =============== */
+    if (ismesh) {
+      nthroot= pow (numpoints, 1.0/dim) + 0.99999;
+      for (k= dim; k--; )
+	mult[k]= 0;
+      for (i= 0; i < numpoints; i++) {
+	for (k= 0; k < dim; k++) {
+	  if (k == 0)
+	    out1( mult[0] * meshn + mult[1] * (-meshm));
+	  else if (k == 1)
+	    out1( mult[0] * meshm + mult[1] * meshn);
+	  else
+	    out1( mult[k] * meshr );
+	}
+        fprintf (fp, "\n");
+	for (k= 0; k < dim; k++) {
+	  if (++mult[k] < nthroot)
+	    break;
+	  mult[k]= 0;
+	}
+      }
+    }
+
+    /* ============= regular points for 's' =============== */
+    else if (isregular && !islens) {
+      if (dim != 2 && dim != 3) {
+	fprintf(stderr, "rbox error: regular points can be used only in 2-d and 3-d\n\n");
+	exit(1);
+      }
+      if (!isaxis || radius == 0.0) {
+	isaxis= 1;
+	radius= 1.0;
+      }
+      if (dim == 3) {
+        if (iscdd)
+          out1( 1.0);
+	out3n( 0.0, 0.0, -box);
+	if (!isgap) {
+          if (iscdd)
+            out1( 1.0);
+  	  out3n( 0.0, 0.0, box);
+  	}
+      }
+      angle= 0.0;
+      anglediff= 2.0 * PI/numpoints;
+      for (i=0; i < numpoints; i++) {
+	angle += anglediff;
+	x= radius * cos (angle);
+	y= radius * sin (angle);
+	if (dim == 2) {
+          if (iscdd)
+            out1( 1.0);
+	  out2n( x*box, y*box);
+	}else {
+	  norm= sqrt (1.0 + x*x + y*y);
+          if (iscdd)
+            out1( 1.0);
+	  out3n( box*x/norm, box*y/norm, box/norm);
+	  if (isgap) {
+	    x *= 1-gap;
+	    y *= 1-gap;
+	    norm= sqrt (1.0 + x*x + y*y);
+            if (iscdd)
+              out1( 1.0);
+	    out3n( box*x/norm, box*y/norm, box/norm);
+	  }
+	}
+      }
+    }
+    /* ============= regular points for 'r Ln D2' =============== */
+    else if (isregular && islens && dim == 2) {
+      double cos_0;
+      
+      angle= lensangle;
+      anglediff= 2 * lensangle/(numpoints - 1);
+      cos_0= cos (lensangle);
+      for (i=0; i < numpoints; i++, angle -= anglediff) {
+	x= radius * sin (angle);
+  	y= radius * (cos (angle) - cos_0);
+        if (iscdd)
+          out1( 1.0);
+	out2n( x*box, y*box);
+	if (i != 0 && i != numpoints - 1) {
+          if (iscdd)
+            out1( 1.0);
+	  out2n( x*box, -y*box);
+	}
+      }
+    }
+    /* ============= regular points for 'r Ln D3' =============== */
+    else if (isregular && islens && dim != 2) {
+      if (dim != 3) {
+	fprintf(stderr, "rbox error: regular points can be used only in 2-d and 3-d\n\n");
+	exit(1);
+      }
+      angle= 0.0;
+      anglediff= 2* PI/numpoints;
+      if (!isgap) {
+	isgap= 1;
+        gap= 0.5;
+      }
+      offset= sqrt (radius * radius - (1-gap)*(1-gap)) - lensbase;
+      for (i=0; i < numpoints; i++, angle += anglediff) {
+  	x= cos (angle);
+	y= sin (angle);
+        if (iscdd)
+          out1( 1.0);
+	out3n( box*x, box*y, 0);
+	x *= 1-gap;
+	y *= 1-gap;
+        if (iscdd)
+          out1( 1.0);
+	out3n( box*x, box*y, box * offset);
+        if (iscdd)
+          out1( 1.0);
+	out3n( box*x, box*y, -box * offset);
+      }
+    }
+    /* ============= apex of 'Zn' distribution + gendim =============== */
+    else {
+      if (isaxis) {
+	gendim= dim-1;
+	if (iscdd)
+	  out1( 1.0);
+	for (j=0; j < gendim; j++)
+	  out1( 0.0);
+	out1( -box);
+	fprintf (fp, "\n");
+      }else if (islens) 
+	gendim= dim-1;
+      else
+	gendim= dim;
+      /* ============= generate random point in unit cube =============== */
+      for (i=0; i < numpoints; i++) {
+	norm= 0.0;
+	for (j=0; j < gendim; j++) {
+	  randr= qh_RANDOMint;
+	  coord[j]= 2.0 * randr/randmax - 1.0;
+	  norm += coord[j] * coord[j];
+	}
+	norm= sqrt (norm);
+	/* ============= dim-1 point of 'Zn' distribution ========== */
+	if (isaxis) {
+	  if (!isgap) {
+	    isgap= 1;
+	    gap= 1.0;
+	  }
+	  randr= qh_RANDOMint;
+	  rangap= 1.0 - gap * randr/randmax;
+	  factor= radius * rangap / norm;
+	  for (j=0; j<gendim; j++)
+	    coord[j]= factor * coord[j];
+	/* ============= dim-1 point of 'Ln s' distribution =========== */
+	}else if (islens && issphere) {
+	  if (!isgap) {
+	    isgap= 1;
+	    gap= 1.0;
+	  }
+	  randr= qh_RANDOMint;
+	  rangap= 1.0 - gap * randr/randmax;
+	  factor= rangap / norm;
+	  for (j=0; j<gendim; j++)
+	    coord[j]= factor * coord[j];
+	/* ============= dim-1 point of 'Ln' distribution ========== */
+	}else if (islens && !issphere) {
+	  if (!isgap) {
+	    isgap= 1;
+	    gap= 1.0;
+	  }
+	  j= qh_RANDOMint % gendim;
+	  if (coord[j] < 0)
+	    coord[j]= -1.0 - coord[j] * gap;
+	  else
+	    coord[j]= 1.0 - coord[j] * gap;
+	/* ============= point of 'l' distribution =============== */
+	}else if (isspiral) {
+	  if (dim != 3) {
+	    fprintf(stderr, "rbox error: spiral distribution is available only in 3d\n\n");
+	    exit(1);
+	  }
+	  coord[0]= cos(2*PI*i/(numpoints - 1));
+	  coord[1]= sin(2*PI*i/(numpoints - 1));
+	  coord[2]= 2.0*(double)i/(double)(numpoints-1) - 1.0;
+	/* ============= point of 's' distribution =============== */
+	}else if (issphere) {
+	  factor= 1.0/norm;
+	  if (iswidth) {
+  	    randr= qh_RANDOMint;
+	    factor *= 1.0 - width * randr/randmax;
+	  }
+	  for (j=0; j<dim; j++)
+	    coord[j]= factor * coord[j];
+	}
+	/* ============= project 'Zn s' point in to sphere =============== */
+	if (isaxis && issphere) {
+	  coord[dim-1]= 1.0;
+	  norm= 1.0;
+	  for (j=0; j<gendim; j++)
+	    norm += coord[j] * coord[j];
+	  norm= sqrt (norm);
+	  for (j=0; j<dim; j++)
+	    coord[j]= coord[j] / norm;
+	  if (iswidth) {
+  	    randr= qh_RANDOMint;
+	    coord[dim-1] *= 1 - width * randr/randmax;
+	  }
+	/* ============= project 'Zn' point onto cube =============== */
+	}else if (isaxis && !issphere) {  /* not very interesting */
+	  randr= qh_RANDOMint;
+	  coord[dim-1]= 2.0 * randr/randmax - 1.0;
+	/* ============= project 'Ln' point out to sphere =============== */
+	}else if (islens) {
+	  coord[dim-1]= lensbase;
+	  for (j=0, norm= 0; j<dim; j++)
+	    norm += coord[j] * coord[j];
+	  norm= sqrt (norm);
+	  for (j=0; j<dim; j++)
+	    coord[j]= coord[j] * radius/ norm;
+	  coord[dim-1] -= lensbase;
+	  if (iswidth) {
+  	    randr= qh_RANDOMint;
+	    coord[dim-1] *= 1 - width * randr/randmax;
+	  }
+	  if (qh_RANDOMint > randmax/2)
+	    coord[dim-1]= -coord[dim-1];
+	/* ============= project 'Wn' point toward boundary =============== */
+	}else if (iswidth && !issphere) {
+	  j= qh_RANDOMint % gendim;
+	  if (coord[j] < 0)
+	    coord[j]= -1.0 - coord[j] * width;
+	  else
+	    coord[j]= 1.0 - coord[j] * width;
+	}
+	/* ============= write point =============== */
+	if (iscdd)
+	  out1( 1.0);
+	for (k=0; k < dim; k++) 
+	  out1( coord[k] * box);
+	fprintf (fp, "\n");
+      }
+    }
+    /* ============= write cube vertices =============== */
+    if (addcube) {
+      for (j=0; j<cubesize; j++) {
+        if (iscdd)
+          out1( 1.0);
+	for (k=dim-1; k>=0; k--) {
+	  if (j & ( 1 << k))
+	    out1( cube);
+	  else
+	    out1( -cube);
+	}
+	fprintf (fp, "\n");
+      }
+    }
+    /* ============= write diamond vertices =============== */
+    if (adddiamond) {
+      for (j=0; j<diamondsize; j++) {
+        if (iscdd)
+          out1( 1.0);
+	for (k=dim-1; k>=0; k--) {
+	  if (j/2 != k)
+	    out1( 0.0);
+	  else if (j & 0x1)
+	    out1( diamond);
+	  else
+	    out1( -diamond);
+	}
+	fprintf (fp, "\n");
+      }
+    }
+    if (iscdd)
+      fprintf (fp, "end\nhull\n");
+    return 0;
+  } /* rbox */
+
+/*------------------------------------------------
+-outxxx - output functions
+*/
+int roundi( double a) {
+  if (a < 0.0) {
+    if (a - 0.5 < INT_MIN) {
+      fprintf(stderr, "rbox input error: coordinate %2.2g is too large.  Reduce 'Bn'\n", a);
+      exit (1);
+    }
+    return a - 0.5;
+  }else {
+    if (a + 0.5 > INT_MAX) {
+      fprintf(stderr, "rbox input error: coordinate %2.2g is too large.  Reduce 'Bn'\n", a);
+      exit (1);
+    }
+    return a + 0.5;
+  }
+} /* roundi */
+
+void out1(double a) {
+
+  if (isinteger) 
+    fprintf(fp, "%d ", roundi( a+out_offset));
+  else
+    fprintf(fp, qh_REAL_1, a+out_offset);
+} /* out1 */
+
+void out2n( double a, double b) {
+
+  if (isinteger)
+    fprintf(fp, "%d %d\n", roundi(a+out_offset), roundi(b+out_offset));
+  else
+    fprintf(fp, qh_REAL_2n, a+out_offset, b+out_offset);
+} /* out2n */
+
+void out3n( double a, double b, double c) { 
+
+  if (isinteger)
+    fprintf(fp, "%d %d %d\n", roundi(a+out_offset), roundi(b+out_offset), roundi(c+out_offset));
+  else
+    fprintf(fp, qh_REAL_3n, a+out_offset, b+out_offset, c+out_offset);
+} /* out3n */
+
+/*-------------------------------------------------
+-rand & srand- generate pseudo-random number between 1 and 2^31 -2
+  from Park & Miller's minimimal standard random number generator
+  Communications of the ACM, 31:1192-1201, 1988.
+notes:
+  does not use 0 or 2^31 -1
+  this is silently enforced by qh_srand()
+  copied from geom2.c
+*/
+static int seed = 1;  /* global static */
+
+int qh_rand( void) {
+#define qh_rand_a 16807
+#define qh_rand_m 2147483647
+#define qh_rand_q 127773  /* m div a */
+#define qh_rand_r 2836    /* m mod a */
+  int lo, hi, test;
+
+  hi = seed / qh_rand_q;  /* seed div q */
+  lo = seed % qh_rand_q;  /* seed mod q */
+  test = qh_rand_a * lo - qh_rand_r * hi;
+  if (test > 0)
+    seed= test;
+  else
+    seed= test + qh_rand_m;
+  return seed;
+} /* rand */
+
+void qh_srand( int newseed) {
+  if (newseed < 1)
+    seed= 1;
+  else if (newseed >= qh_rand_m)
+    seed= qh_rand_m - 1;
+  else
+    seed= newseed;
+} /* qh_srand */
+

Added: trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/stat.c
===================================================================
--- trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/stat.c	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/stat.c	2010-08-31 21:54:55 UTC (rev 6652)
@@ -0,0 +1,702 @@
+/*<html><pre>  -<a                             href="qh-stat.htm"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="TOP">-</a>
+
+   stat.c 
+   contains all statistics that are collected for qhull
+
+   see qh-stat.htm and stat.h
+
+   copyright (c) 1993-2003, The Geometry Center
+*/
+
+#include "qhull_a.h"
+
+/*============ global data structure ==========*/
+
+#if qh_QHpointer
+qhstatT *qh_qhstat=NULL;  /* global data structure */
+#else
+qhstatT qh_qhstat;   /* add "={0}" if this causes a compiler error */
+#endif
+
+/*========== functions in alphabetic order ================*/
+
+/*-<a                             href="qh-stat.htm#TOC"
+  >-------------------------------</a><a name="allstatA">-</a>
+  
+  qh_allstatA()
+    define statistics in groups of 20
+
+  notes:
+    (otherwise, 'gcc -O2' uses too much memory)
+    uses qhstat.next
+*/
+void qh_allstatA (void) {
+  
+   /* zdef_(type,name,doc,average) */
+  zzdef_(zdoc, Zdoc2, "precision statistics", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Znewvertex, NULL, -1);
+  zdef_(wadd, Wnewvertex, "ave. distance of a new vertex to a facet (not 0s)", Znewvertex);
+  zzdef_(wmax, Wnewvertexmax, "max. distance of a new vertex to a facet", -1);
+  zdef_(wmax, Wvertexmax, "max. distance of an output vertex to a facet", -1);
+  zdef_(wmin, Wvertexmin, "min. distance of an output vertex to a facet", -1);
+  zdef_(wmin, Wmindenom, "min. denominator in hyperplane computation", -1);
+
+  qhstat precision= qhstat next;  /* call qh_precision for each of these */
+  zzdef_(zdoc, Zdoc3, "precision problems (corrected unless 'Q0' or an error)", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Zcoplanarridges, "coplanar half ridges in output", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Zconcaveridges, "concave half ridges in output", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Zflippedfacets, "flipped facets", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Zcoplanarhorizon, "coplanar horizon facets for new vertices", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Zcoplanarpart, "coplanar points during partitioning", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Zminnorm, "degenerate hyperplanes recomputed with gaussian elimination", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Znearlysingular, "nearly singular or axis-parallel hyperplanes", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Zback0, "zero divisors during back substitute", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Zgauss0, "zero divisors during gaussian elimination", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Zmultiridge, "ridges with multiple neighbors", -1);
+}
+void qh_allstatB (void) {
+  zzdef_(zdoc, Zdoc1, "summary information", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zvertices, "number of vertices in output", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Znumfacets, "number of facets in output", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Znonsimplicial, "number of non-simplicial facets in output", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Znowsimplicial, "number of simplicial facets that were merged", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Znumridges, "number of ridges in output", -1);
+  zdef_(zadd, Znumridges, "average number of ridges per facet", Znumfacets);
+  zdef_(zmax, Zmaxridges, "maximum number of ridges", -1);
+  zdef_(zadd, Znumneighbors, "average number of neighbors per facet", Znumfacets);
+  zdef_(zmax, Zmaxneighbors, "maximum number of neighbors", -1);
+  zdef_(zadd, Znumvertices, "average number of vertices per facet", Znumfacets);
+  zdef_(zmax, Zmaxvertices, "maximum number of vertices", -1);
+  zdef_(zadd, Znumvneighbors, "average number of neighbors per vertex", Zvertices);
+  zdef_(zmax, Zmaxvneighbors, "maximum number of neighbors", -1);
+  zdef_(wadd, Wcpu, "cpu seconds for qhull after input", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Ztotvertices, "vertices created altogether", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Zsetplane, "facets created altogether", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Ztotridges, "ridges created altogether", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zpostfacets, "facets before post merge", -1);
+  zdef_(zadd, Znummergetot, "average merges per facet (at most 511)", Znumfacets);
+  zdef_(zmax, Znummergemax, "  maximum merges for a facet (at most 511)", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zangle, NULL, -1);
+  zdef_(wadd, Wangle, "average angle (cosine) of facet normals for all ridges", Zangle);
+  zdef_(wmax, Wanglemax, "  maximum angle (cosine) of facet normals across a ridge", -1);
+  zdef_(wmin, Wanglemin, "  minimum angle (cosine) of facet normals across a ridge", -1);
+  zdef_(wadd, Wareatot, "total area of facets", -1);
+  zdef_(wmax, Wareamax, "  maximum facet area", -1);
+  zdef_(wmin, Wareamin, "  minimum facet area", -1);
+}  
+void qh_allstatC (void) {
+  zdef_(zdoc, Zdoc9, "build hull statistics", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Zprocessed, "points processed", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Zretry, "retries due to precision problems", -1);
+  zdef_(wmax, Wretrymax, "  max. random joggle", -1);
+  zdef_(zmax, Zmaxvertex, "max. vertices at any one time", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Ztotvisible, "ave. visible facets per iteration", Zprocessed);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zinsidevisible, "  ave. visible facets without an horizon neighbor", Zprocessed);
+  zdef_(zadd, Zvisfacettot,  "  ave. facets deleted per iteration", Zprocessed);
+  zdef_(zmax, Zvisfacetmax,  "    maximum", -1);
+  zdef_(zadd, Zvisvertextot, "ave. visible vertices per iteration", Zprocessed);
+  zdef_(zmax, Zvisvertexmax, "    maximum", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Ztothorizon, "ave. horizon facets per iteration", Zprocessed);
+  zdef_(zadd, Znewfacettot,  "ave. new or merged facets per iteration", Zprocessed);
+  zdef_(zmax, Znewfacetmax,  "    maximum (includes initial simplex)", -1);
+  zdef_(wadd, Wnewbalance, "average new facet balance", Zprocessed);
+  zdef_(wadd, Wnewbalance2, "  standard deviation", -1);
+  zdef_(wadd, Wpbalance, "average partition balance", Zpbalance);
+  zdef_(wadd, Wpbalance2, "  standard deviation", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zpbalance, "  number of trials", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zsearchpoints, "searches of all points for initial simplex", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zdetsimplex, "determinants computed (area & initial hull)", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Znoarea, "determinants not computed because vertex too low", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Znotmax, "points ignored (not above max_outside)", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Znotgood, "points ignored (not above a good facet)", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Znotgoodnew, "points ignored (didn't create a good new facet)", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zgoodfacet, "good facets found", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Znumvisibility, "distance tests for facet visibility", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zdistvertex, "distance tests to report minimum vertex", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Ztotcheck, "points checked for facets' outer planes", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Zcheckpart, "  ave. distance tests per check", Ztotcheck);
+}
+void qh_allstatD(void) {
+  zdef_(zdoc, Zdoc4, "partitioning statistics (see previous for outer planes)", -1);
+  zzdef_(zadd, Zdelvertextot, "total vertices deleted", -1);
+  zdef_(zmax, Zdelvertexmax, "    maximum vertices deleted per iteration", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zfindbest, "calls to findbest", -1);
+  zdef_(zadd, Zfindbesttot, " ave. facets tested", Zfindbest);
+  zdef_(zmax, Zfindbestmax, " max. facets tested", -1);
+  zdef_(zadd, Zfindcoplanar, " ave. coplanar search", Zfindbest);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zfindnew, "calls to findbestnew", -1);
+  zdef_(zadd, Zfindnewtot, " ave. facets tested", Zfindnew);
+  zdef_(zmax, Zfindnewmax, " max. facets tested", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zfindnewjump, " ave. clearly better", Zfindnew);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zfindnewsharp, " calls due to qh_sharpnewfacets", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zfindhorizon, "calls to findhorizon", -1);
+  zdef_(zadd, Zfindhorizontot, " ave. facets tested", Zfindhorizon);
+  zdef_(zmax, Zfindhorizonmax, " max. facets tested", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zfindjump,       " ave. clearly better", Zfindhorizon);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zparthorizon, " horizon facets better than bestfacet", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zpartangle, "angle tests for repartitioned coplanar points", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zpartflip, "  repartitioned coplanar points for flipped orientation", -1);
+}
+void qh_allstatE(void) {
+  zdef_(zinc, Zpartinside, "inside points", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zpartnear, "  inside points kept with a facet", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zcoplanarinside, "  inside points that were coplanar with a facet", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zbestlower, "calls to findbestlower", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zbestlowerv, "  with search of vertex neighbors", -1);
+  zdef_(wadd, Wmaxout, "difference in max_outside at final check", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Zpartitionall, "distance tests for initial partition", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Ztotpartition, "partitions of a point", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Zpartition, "distance tests for partitioning", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Zdistcheck, "distance tests for checking flipped facets", -1); 
+  zzdef_(zinc, Zdistconvex, "distance tests for checking convexity", -1); 
+  zdef_(zinc, Zdistgood, "distance tests for checking good point", -1); 
+  zdef_(zinc, Zdistio, "distance tests for output", -1); 
+  zdef_(zinc, Zdiststat, "distance tests for statistics", -1); 
+  zdef_(zinc, Zdistplane, "total number of distance tests", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Ztotpartcoplanar, "partitions of coplanar points or deleted vertices", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Zpartcoplanar, "   distance tests for these partitions", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zcomputefurthest, "distance tests for computing furthest", -1);
+}
+void qh_allstatE2(void) {
+  zdef_(zdoc, Zdoc5, "statistics for matching ridges", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zhashlookup, "total lookups for matching ridges of new facets", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zhashtests, "average number of tests to match a ridge", Zhashlookup);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zhashridge, "total lookups of subridges (duplicates and boundary)", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zhashridgetest, "average number of tests per subridge", Zhashridge);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zdupsame, "duplicated ridges in same merge cycle", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zdupflip, "duplicated ridges with flipped facets", -1);
+
+  zdef_(zdoc, Zdoc6, "statistics for determining merges", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zangletests, "angles computed for ridge convexity", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zbestcentrum, "best merges used centrum instead of vertices",-1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Zbestdist, "distance tests for best merge", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Zcentrumtests, "distance tests for centrum convexity", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Zdistzero, "distance tests for checking simplicial convexity", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zcoplanarangle, "coplanar angles in getmergeset", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zcoplanarcentrum, "coplanar centrums in getmergeset", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zconcaveridge, "concave ridges in getmergeset", -1);
+}
+void qh_allstatF(void) {
+  zdef_(zdoc, Zdoc7, "statistics for merging", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zpremergetot, "merge iterations", -1);
+  zdef_(zadd, Zmergeinittot, "ave. initial non-convex ridges per iteration", Zpremergetot);
+  zdef_(zadd, Zmergeinitmax, "  maximum", -1);
+  zdef_(zadd, Zmergesettot, "  ave. additional non-convex ridges per iteration", Zpremergetot);
+  zdef_(zadd, Zmergesetmax, "  maximum additional in one pass", -1);
+  zdef_(zadd, Zmergeinittot2, "initial non-convex ridges for post merging", -1);
+  zdef_(zadd, Zmergesettot2, "  additional non-convex ridges", -1);
+  zdef_(wmax, Wmaxoutside, "max distance of vertex or coplanar point above facet (w/roundoff)", -1);
+  zdef_(wmin, Wminvertex, "max distance of merged vertex below facet (or roundoff)", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zwidefacet, "centrums frozen due to a wide merge", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zwidevertices, "centrums frozen due to extra vertices", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Ztotmerge, "total number of facets or cycles of facets merged", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zmergesimplex, "merged a simplex", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zonehorizon, "simplices merged into coplanar horizon", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Zcyclehorizon, "cycles of facets merged into coplanar horizon", -1);
+  zzdef_(zadd, Zcyclefacettot, "  ave. facets per cycle", Zcyclehorizon);
+  zdef_(zmax, Zcyclefacetmax, "  max. facets", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zmergeintohorizon, "new facets merged into horizon", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zmergenew, "new facets merged", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zmergehorizon, "horizon facets merged into new facets", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zmergevertex, "vertices deleted by merging", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zcyclevertex, "vertices deleted by merging into coplanar horizon", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zdegenvertex, "vertices deleted by degenerate facet", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zmergeflipdup, "merges due to flipped facets in duplicated ridge", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zneighbor, "merges due to redundant neighbors", -1);
+  zdef_(zadd, Ztestvneighbor, "non-convex vertex neighbors", -1); 
+}
+void qh_allstatG(void) {
+  zdef_(zinc, Zacoplanar, "merges due to angle coplanar facets", -1);
+  zdef_(wadd, Wacoplanartot, "  average merge distance", Zacoplanar);
+  zdef_(wmax, Wacoplanarmax, "  maximum merge distance", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zcoplanar, "merges due to coplanar facets", -1);
+  zdef_(wadd, Wcoplanartot, "  average merge distance", Zcoplanar);
+  zdef_(wmax, Wcoplanarmax, "  maximum merge distance", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zconcave, "merges due to concave facets", -1);
+  zdef_(wadd, Wconcavetot, "  average merge distance", Zconcave);
+  zdef_(wmax, Wconcavemax, "  maximum merge distance", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zavoidold, "coplanar/concave merges due to avoiding old merge", -1);
+  zdef_(wadd, Wavoidoldtot, "  average merge distance", Zavoidold);
+  zdef_(wmax, Wavoidoldmax, "  maximum merge distance", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zdegen, "merges due to degenerate facets", -1);
+  zdef_(wadd, Wdegentot, "  average merge distance", Zdegen);
+  zdef_(wmax, Wdegenmax, "  maximum merge distance", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zflipped, "merges due to removing flipped facets", -1);
+  zdef_(wadd, Wflippedtot, "  average merge distance", Zflipped);
+  zdef_(wmax, Wflippedmax, "  maximum merge distance", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zduplicate, "merges due to duplicated ridges", -1);
+  zdef_(wadd, Wduplicatetot, "  average merge distance", Zduplicate);
+  zdef_(wmax, Wduplicatemax, "  maximum merge distance", -1);
+}
+void qh_allstatH(void) {
+  zdef_(zdoc, Zdoc8, "renamed vertex statistics", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zrenameshare, "renamed vertices shared by two facets", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zrenamepinch, "renamed vertices in a pinched facet", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zrenameall, "renamed vertices shared by multiple facets", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zfindfail, "rename failures due to duplicated ridges", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zdupridge, "  duplicate ridges detected", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zdelridge, "deleted ridges due to renamed vertices", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zdropneighbor, "dropped neighbors due to renamed vertices", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zdropdegen, "degenerate facets due to dropped neighbors", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zdelfacetdup, "  facets deleted because of no neighbors", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zremvertex, "vertices removed from facets due to no ridges", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zremvertexdel, "  deleted", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zintersectnum, "vertex intersections for locating redundant vertices", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zintersectfail, "intersections failed to find a redundant vertex", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zintersect, "intersections found redundant vertices", -1);
+  zdef_(zadd, Zintersecttot, "   ave. number found per vertex", Zintersect);
+  zdef_(zmax, Zintersectmax, "   max. found for a vertex", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Zvertexridge, NULL, -1);
+  zdef_(zadd, Zvertexridgetot, "  ave. number of ridges per tested vertex", Zvertexridge);
+  zdef_(zmax, Zvertexridgemax, "  max. number of ridges per tested vertex", -1);
+
+  zdef_(zdoc, Zdoc10, "memory usage statistics (in bytes)", -1);
+  zdef_(zadd, Zmemfacets, "for facets and their normals, neighbor and vertex sets", -1);
+  zdef_(zadd, Zmemvertices, "for vertices and their neighbor sets", -1);
+  zdef_(zadd, Zmempoints, "for input points and outside and coplanar sets",-1);
+  zdef_(zadd, Zmemridges, "for ridges and their vertex sets", -1);
+} /* allstat */
+
+void qh_allstatI(void) {
+  qhstat vridges= qhstat next;
+  zzdef_(zdoc, Zdoc11, "Voronoi ridge statistics", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Zridge, "non-simplicial Voronoi vertices for all ridges", -1);
+  zzdef_(wadd, Wridge, "  ave. distance to ridge", Zridge);
+  zzdef_(wmax, Wridgemax, "  max. distance to ridge", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Zridgemid, "bounded ridges", -1);
+  zzdef_(wadd, Wridgemid, "  ave. distance of midpoint to ridge", Zridgemid);
+  zzdef_(wmax, Wridgemidmax, "  max. distance of midpoint to ridge", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Zridgeok, "bounded ridges with ok normal", -1);
+  zzdef_(wadd, Wridgeok, "  ave. angle to ridge", Zridgeok);
+  zzdef_(wmax, Wridgeokmax, "  max. angle to ridge", -1);
+  zzdef_(zinc, Zridge0, "bounded ridges with near-zero normal", -1);
+  zzdef_(wadd, Wridge0, "  ave. angle to ridge", Zridge0);
+  zzdef_(wmax, Wridge0max, "  max. angle to ridge", -1);
+
+  zdef_(zdoc, Zdoc12, "Triangulation statistics (Qt)", -1);
+  zdef_(zinc, Ztricoplanar, "non-simplicial facets tr