# [SciPy-User] Avoiding lambda functions

Anil cr.anil@gmail....
Tue Oct 19 09:31:12 CDT 2010

```hi david,
There is actually a gaussian filter function available in SciPy's
ndimage module

Regards
Anil
On Mon, 2010-10-18 at 18:11 +0000, David MacQuigg wrote:
> I'm working on some Python examples to present to freshman students interested
> science and engineering.  One of the more powerful examples is image processing
> using FFTs and spatial filters.  The examples I have from a graduate class in
> astronomy use lambda functions in a way which freshmen will find confusing.
>
> Here is part of the example code:
> <pre>
> from numpy import exp, indices  # numpy package from scipy.org
> img0 = imread('Lena.pgm')    # a 200 by 200 greyscale image
> shape = img0.shape           # (200, 200)
>
> def gauss(i,j,sigma,shape):  # a 2D gaussian function
>     x = -1.0 + 2.0*i/shape[0]
>     y = -1.0 + 2.0*j/shape[1]
>     ans = exp(-(x*x+y*y)/(2*sigma*sigma))
>     return ans
>
> def gaussianfilter(sigma,shape):
>     iray, jray = indices(shape)     # indices for a 200 x 200 array
>     filter = (lambda i,j: gauss(i,j,sigma,shape))(iray, jray)
>     return filter
>
> filter = gaussianfilter(0.1,shape)
>
> This use of lambda is confusing.  The reason to use lambda syntax is that it
> saves having to provide a name for a simple one-line function.  Here, we are
> giving the lambda a name "filter", so there is no savings, just convoluted code,
> which is contrary to the spirit of Python.
>
> Let's try to "unconvolute" the gaussianfilter function.
>
> def gaussianfilter01(sigma, shape):
>     iray,jray  = indices(shape)
>     def filter(i, j):
>         return gauss(i,j,sigma,shape)(iray, jray)
>     return filter
> </pre>
> This doesn't work!! The problem is that the original function returns a numpy
> array, and here we get just an ordinary function.  It seems that numpy is doing
> something special with the lambda syntax.
>
> How can we do this and keep it simple.  I would really like to avoid lambda
> functions entirely, but not if it means we lose the elegance of numpy arrays.
>
>
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