[SciPy-User] Help With Scipy: Integration pack, returning an array for an array input

Vick vickram.l@gmail....
Wed Dec 15 00:14:47 CST 2010

I hope this is the right way to do this, and I apologize most sincerely 
if it's not:

Here is a step by step of what I'm trying to do and what I typed in, 
it's a simplified version that gets the same error message as what I'm 

In  [1]:  import  numpy  as  np
In  [2]:  import  scipy.integrate  as  inte

In  [3]:  C  =  lambda  u:  inte.quad(lambda  s:  np.exp(s),0,u)

This yields:

In  [4]:  C(5)

Out[4]:  (147.41315910257663,  1.6366148336841205e-12)

i.e. The integral of exp(s) from 0 to5, andgivestheerror, whichisgreat.

now define:

In [5]: D = lambda t: C(t)[0]

In  [6]:  D(5)

Out[6]:  147.41315910257663

Just the first element, which is all I really care about, the error 
isn't what I need right now.

Now try t = np.arange(0,5) to try and get it to work for a range of 
values from 0 to5.

In  [7]:  t  =  np.arange(0,5)

In  [8]:  D(t)


ValueError                                 Traceback  (most  recent  call  last)

/home/vick/<ipython  console>  in  <module>()

/home/vick/<ipython  console>  in  <lambda>(t)

/home/vick/<ipython  console>  in  <lambda>(u)

/usr/lib/python2.6/dist-packages/scipy/integrate/quadpack.pyc  in  quad(func,  a,  b,  args,  full_output,epsabs,  epsrel,  limit,  points,  weight,  wvar,  wopts,  maxp1,  limlst)

183      if  type(args)  !=  type(()):  args  =  (args,)

184      if  (weight  is  None):

-->  185          retval  =  _quad(func,a,b,args,full_output,epsabs,epsrel,limit,points)

186      else:

187          retval  =_quad_weight(func,a,b,args,full_output,epsabs,epsrel,limlst,limit,maxp1,weight,wvar,wopts)

/usr/lib/python2.6/dist-packages/scipy/integrate/quadpack.pyc  in  _quad(func,  a,  b,  args,  full_output,epsabs,  epsrel,  limit,  points)

231  def  _quad(func,a,b,args,full_output,epsabs,epsrel,limit,points):

232      infbounds  =  0

-->  233      if  (b  !=  Inf  and  a  !=  -Inf):

234          pass    # standard integration

235      elif  (b  ==  Inf  and  a  !=  -Inf):

ValueError:  The  truth  value  of  an  array  with  more  than  one  element  is  ambiguous.  Use  a.any()  or  a.all()

I'd like to get the value of this integral over a range of t's.
I don't really understand why it's doing this, and I'd like to avoid 
using a for loop.

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